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System analyst and design

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RU-MSIT5 Comprehensive Tutorial

RU-MSIT5 Comprehensive Tutorial

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  • 1. SYSTEM ANALYST AND DESIGN A Comprehensive Tutorial For RU MSIT5
  • 2. SDLC • System Development Life Cycle o o
  • 3. SDLC • 4 Phase o Planning ( ) o Analysis ( ) o Design ( ) o Implementation ( ) phase (deliverable) input phase
  • 4. SDLC • Planning 1. o System Request o (Feasibility Analysis) - Technical Feasibility ( ?) - Economic Feasibility ( ?) - Organizational Feasibility ( ?)
  • 5. SDLC • Planning 2. - (work plan) - (staffing plan) - - SDLC Project Plan
  • 6. SDLC • Analysis o ? o ? o o ?
  • 7. SDLC • Analysis 1. Analysis Strategy (as is) (to be) 2. Requirement Gathering 3. System Proposal
  • 8. SDLC • Design 4 o Design Strategy o Architecture Design o Database and File Specification o Program Design
  • 9. SDLC • Design o Architecture Design ( ) o Interface Design ( ) o Database Design ( ) o Program Design ( ) System Specification
  • 10. SDLC • Implementation 1. 2. 3. Support Plan ( )
  • 11. SDLC • System Development Methodologies ( SDLC) SDLC o Structured Design - Waterfall Development - Parallel Development o Rapid Application Development (RAD) - Phased Development - Prototyping - Throwaway Prototyping o Agile Development - Extreme Programming
  • 12. SDLC • Structured Design 1. Waterfall Development 2. Parallel Development
  • 13. SDLC • Structured Design o Waterfall Development
  • 14. SDLC • Structured Design o Waterfall Development - - -
  • 15. SDLC • Structured Design o Parallel Development ( ) - -
  • 16. SDLC • Structured Design o Parallel Development ( )
  • 17. SDLC • Rapid Application Development (RAD) - Structured Design - SDLC -
  • 18. SDLC • Rapid Application Development (RAD) 3 1. Phased Development 2. Prototyping 3. Throwing Prototyping
  • 19. SDLC • Phased Development version version
  • 20. SDLC • Phased Development version
  • 21. SDLC • Prototyping system prototype
  • 22. SDLC • Prototyping
  • 23. SDLC • Throwaway Prototyping - Prototyping - - -
  • 24. SDLC • Throwaway Prototyping
  • 25. SDLC • Agile Development - SDLC - - Extreme Programming (XP) - Scrum - Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM)
  • 26. SDLC • Extreme Programming (XP) - Communication ( ) - Simplicity ( ) - Feedback ( ) - Courage ( )
  • 27. SDLC • Extreme Programming (XP) - -
  • 28. SDLC • o RAD (Phased , Prototyping and Throwaway Prototyping) o Throwaway Prototyping o Throwaway Prototyping
  • 29. SDLC • o Throwaway Prototyping o Phased Development and Prototyping o Phased Development
  • 30. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) OOSAD Phased Development RAD 1. Use-Case Driven 2. Architecture-Centric 3. Iterative And Incremental
  • 31. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • Use Case Driven - Use Case - Use Case - Use Case
  • 32. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • Architecture Centric 3 - Functional View - Structural View
  • 33. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • Iterative and Incremental SDLC
  • 34. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis And Design (OOSAD) • OOSAD - - - user object
  • 35. THE UNIFIED PROCESS • UML Object- Oriented Analysis and Design (OOSAD) • - Phases - Workflow
  • 36. THE UNIFIED PROCESS
  • 37. THE UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML) • OOSAD • Diagram
  • 38. PLANNING
  • 39. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION • System Request - Project Sponsor ( ) - Business Need ( ) - Business Requirement ( ) - Business Value ( ) - Special Issues or Constraints (
  • 40. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION • Feasibility Analysis - Technical Feasibility ( ?) - Economic Feasibility ( ?) - Organization Feasibility ( ?)
  • 41. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Identifying Project Size ( ) o Function Point Approach - Estimate system size ( ) - Estimate required effort ( / ) - Estimate time required ( )
  • 42. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Creating and Managing The Work Plan - work plan - Project Manager - Work Plan Gantt chart
  • 43. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Identifying Tasks ( ) - - Structured, top-down approach Work breakdown structure (WBS)
  • 44. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) - network analysis technique - PERT 3 1. (optimistic) 2. (most likely) 3. (pressimistic)
  • 45. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) - - (critical path method) ( ) - (critical task)
  • 46. PROJECT MANAGEMENT • Staffing Plan ( ) - - -
  • 47. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirement - Functional Requirement ( ) - Nonfunctional Requirement ( )
  • 48. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirement Analysis Strategies requirement analysis 3 1. as-is system 2. 3. requirement to-be system
  • 49. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirement Analysis Strategies Strategy ( ) requierment 3 1. Business process automation 2. Business process improvement 3. Business process reengineering
  • 50. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS • Requirements - Interviews ( ) - Joint Application Development (JAD) - Questionnaires ( ) - Observation ( )
  • 51. ANALYSIS
  • 52. Analysis Modeling • Functional Models - Activity Diagrams - Use Case Diagrams • Structural Models - CRC cards - Class Diagrams - Object Diagrams • Behavioral Models - Sequence Diagrams - Communication Diagrams - Behavioral State Machines - CRUD matrix
  • 53. Use Case Diagrams • Functional Model • Business Function ( ) (as is system) (to be system) • Use Case • (External View) • Logical Models Use Case • Use Case Verb-Noun ( )
  • 54. Object-Oriented Technology Use Case Modeling : Core Elements Construct Description Syntax use case A sequence of actions, including variants, that a system (or other entity) can perform, interacting with actors of the system. actor A coherent set of roles that users of use cases play when interacting with these use cases. system boundary Represents the boundary between the physical system and the actors who interact with the physical system. UseCaseName ActorName
  • 55. Object-Oriented Technology Construct Description Syntax association The participation of an actor in a use case. i.e., instance of an actor and instances of a use case communicate with each other. generalization A taxonomic relationship between a more general use case and a more specific use case. extend A relationship from an extension use case to a base use case, specifying how the behavior for the extension use case can be inserted into the behavior defined for the base use case. Use Case Modeling : Core Relationships <<extend>>
  • 56. Object-Oriented Technology Construct Description Syntax include An relationship from a base use case to an inclusion use case, specifying how the behavior for the inclusion use case is inserted into the behavior defined for the base use case. Use Case Modeling : Core Relationships (cont’d) <<include>>
  • 57. Use Case Diagrams • Use Case 4 1. Association - Use Case Actor - 2. Extend - Use Case (optional)
  • 58. Use Case Diagrams • Use Case 4 3. Include - Use Case - Use Case - Use Case Use Case Use Case
  • 59. Use Case Diagrams
  • 60. Object-Oriented Technology Actors • Actors Specialization Relationship • Actors UML relationships specialization relationship Customer ATM Customer Cashier Customer
  • 61. Use Case Descriptions • Use Case Diagram • • SVPDI form ( ) • 1. Overview Information 2. Relationship 3. Flow of events
  • 62. Use Case Descriptions • Overview Information Use Case • Relationships Use Case • Flow of Events Use Case - Normal Flows - Subflows - Exceptional Flows
  • 63. Use Case Descriptions
  • 64. Activity Diagrams • Use Case • Functional Model ( ) • Logical Model ( )
  • 65. Activity Diagrams
  • 66. Class Diagrams • • Structural Models • - Attributes ( ) - Operations ( ) • - Concrete ( Object) - Abstract ( Class ) • Class Noun ( )
  • 67. Class Diagrams • Class 1. Generalization A-kind-of ( ) 2. Aggregation A-part-of ( ) 3. Association
  • 68. Class Diagrams • Generalization (a-kind-of)
  • 69. Class Diagrams • Aggregation (a-part-of)
  • 70. Class Diagrams • Association ( )
  • 71. Class Diagrams • Responsibilities and Collaborations Responsibilities ( ) - Knowing (Attributes) - Doing (Operations) Collaboration ( ) - Client-Server-Contract ( )
  • 72. Class Diagrams • CRC Card (Class Responsibility and Collaboration) o Responsibility - Attributes ( ) - Operations ( ) o Collaboration - Clients ( ) - Servers ( )
  • 73. Class Diagrams • CRC Card (Class Responsibility and Collaboration)
  • 74. Class Diagrams • Class - Class Name - Attributes - Operations
  • 75. Class Diagrams • Class - Class Name - Attributes - Operations • Class Visibility ( Class) + Public ( Class ) - Private ( Class ) # Protected ( Subclass)
  • 76. Class Diagrams • Class - Composition - Aggregation
  • 77. Class Diagrams • Class Multiplicity ( ) 1 0..* 1..* 0..1 2..4 1..3,5
  • 78. Class Diagrams
  • 79. Interaction Diagrams • • Behavioral Models • Diagram - Sequence Diagram - Communication Diagram
  • 80. Interaction Diagrams • Sequence Diagram - Object Use Case - Message ( ) Object - Use Case Scenario ( )
  • 81. Interaction Diagrams • Sequence Diagram - Actor - Object - Lifeline - Execution Occurrence - Message - Guard Condition
  • 82. Interaction Diagrams • Communication Diagrams - message object sequence diagram
  • 83. Interaction Diagrams • Communication Diagrams - Actor - Object - Association - Message - Guard Condition
  • 84. Behavioral Sate Machine Diagrams • Model Object Object • State ( ) Attribute Object
  • 85. Behavioral Sate Machine Diagrams • State Machine Diagrams - State - Initial State - Final State - Event - Transition
  • 86. CRUD Analysis • Object • Object C : Create R : Read U : Update D : Delete Receptionist PatientList Patient Receptionist RU CRUD PatientList R Patient
  • 87. DESIGN
  • 88. System Design • Class and Method Design class method • Database Design • User Interface Design • Architecture
  • 89. System Design Class and Method Design class method method specification - General Information - Events method - Message Passing method - Algorithm Specification method
  • 90. System Design Database Design Mapping Problem-Domain Objects To Object- Persistence Formats object 1. Mapping Problem-Domain Objects to an OODBMS Format object 2. Mapping Problem Domain Objects to and ORDBMS Format (RDBMS)
  • 91. System Design User Interface Design User Interface Design Process - Use Scenario Development - Interface Structure Design - Interface Standard Design - Interface Design Prototyping - Navigation Design - Input Design
  • 92. System Design Architecture Design - Server-Based Architecture mainframe - Client-Server-Architecture LAN - Client-Server-Tiers web application
  • 93. System Design Infrastructure Design - Deployment Diagram Deployment diagrams Hardware
  • 94. IMPLEMENTATION
  • 95. Managing Programming - Assigning Programmers programmers - Coordinating Activities - Managing the Schedule
  • 96. Testing Unit Tests : classes methods - black-box testing : class specification CRC cards - white-box texting : method class method specification Integration Tests : classes System Tests : classes Acceptance Tests : user - alpha testing :
  • 97. Development Documentation Three Types of Documentation - Reference Documents user function function field record - Procedures Manuals - Tutorials
  • 98. Conversion Conversion - Install Hardware - Install Software - Convert Data
  • 99. Conversion Conversion Style Conversion style user - Direct Conversion - Parallel Conversion
  • 100. Conversion Conversion Style Direct Conversion direct conversion ( cold turkey, big bang abrupt cutover)
  • 101. Conversion Conversion Styles Parallel Conversion parallel conversion user
  • 102. Conversion Conversion Location Conversion location conversion Location - Pilot Conversion - Phased Conversion - Simultaneous Conversion
  • 103. Conversion Conversion Location Pilot Conversion pilot conversion (workgroup) converted (pilot test) direct parallel
  • 104. Conversion Conversion Location Phased Conversion phased conversion pilot conversion conversion conversion
  • 105. Conversion Conversion Location Simultaneous Conversion Simultaneous conversion converted user direct conversion parallel conversion
  • 106. Conversion Conversion Modules Modules - Whole-System Conversion user conversion - Modular Conversion module module
  • 107. Conversion Selecting the Appropriate Conversion Strategy conversion - Risk ( ) direct conversion simultaneous conversion - Cost ( ) conversion - Time ( ) conversion

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