Report on railway accidents in mumbai with case study


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Report on railway accidents in mumbai with case study

  2. 2. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 2 Acknowledgement It is indeed a matter of great pleasure and proud privilege to be able to present this report on “Mumbai Locals: Life Line or Life Stealing”. The completion of this report work is a millstone in student life and its execution is inevitable in the hands of guide. We are highly indebted guides Ms. RUPA DESHMUKHYA for her invaluable guidance and appreciation for giving form and substance to this report. It is due to her enduring effort, patience and enthusiasm, which has given a sense of direction and purposefulness to this report and ultimately made it a success. We would wish to thanks our friends family & society who have helped us all the time one way or other.
  3. 3. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 3 Abstract Mumbai is the financial and commercial capital of India. Mumbai wouldn’t have achieved this without the lifeline of the city –its local trains. For any large densely populated urban area, the local trains are essential for a speedy cross-over of a large population over long distances. Lakhs of people travel regularly and commute by local trains over varying distances ranging from 10 to 60 kilometer a day. Keyword: Mumbai, Suburban Local Trains, Lifeline, Life Stealing, Key Findings, Accidents & Causes, Field Survey, Case Study, Conclusion, Recommendation, Bibliography
  4. 4. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 4 Introduction When a true to the core Mumbaikar utters “Aamchi Mumbai”, the local trains will always be an inseparable element of the true spirits reflected in these. The locals have become a hallmark of Mumbai and one is not surprised to know that the daily commuters call the locals as their first homes; this is not surprising considering the fact that some of them spend more than six hours travelling in these trains day in and day out. The Great Indian Peninsular Railway, which later formed the nucleus of the present day Central Railway, came into existence on April 16, 1853, when the first train on the Indian Sub-continent steamed off from Mumbai to Thane, a modest stretch of only 34 kms. MMUUMMBBAAII LLOOCCAALLSS ““LLIIFFEE LLIINNEE OORR LLIIFFEE SSTTEEAALLIINNGG”” Central Railway has since grown manifold. The geographical spread of the population and location of business areas, the rail network is the principal mode of mass transport in Mumbai. The populace suburbs depend on the local trains for their daily bread and butter. Banks, mills, software firms, government offices and others services and businesses heavily rely on the railways for its sustenance. Also schools and colleges have many students and staff relying on railways for commuting. Even a single day’s stoppage will amount to huge losses, on an individual basis to the commuters and on a collective basic to the commercial sector. Industries like steel Plants, Cement factories, fertilizer factories, refineries, food grains, salt, fertilizers, and petroleum agricultural products and agro industries are relying on railways for freight purposes.The system operates 2342 train services and carries more than 7.42 million passengers every day. Thus it is Mumbai‟s lifeline. The major problem with these trains is overcrowding due to extensive population. Over 4,500 passengers are packed into a 9-car rake during peak hours, as against the rated carrying capacity of 1,700. Also, many fatalities have been reported due to excessive crowding. Over the past 10 years (2002–2012), more than 36,152 lives have been lost on tracks and 36,688 people have been injured. The women’s safety while travelling in train is also being issue. Train accidents on suburban Mumbai local routes have claimed 23,473 lives in the past 11 years, information sought under an RTI had revealed. Over- crowding, illegally crossing the railway tracks, and standing on the foot boards of the doors of the compartments, leads to a lot of accidents during the crowded hours. Which is somewhat being in coming year life stealing.
  5. 5. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 5 Key Findings 1. Accidents & Deaths on Mumbai‟s Local Suburban Trains Railway accidents can be dramatic, causing serious damage and disruption, and sometimes killing and injuring crew, passengers and other people at the scene. However, compared with road deaths and injuries, far fewer people are killed or hurt each year on the railways. This has been the case since road toll statistics were first collected in 1921 10 people die every day in railway accidents in Mumbai.36, 152 people have died and 36,688 injured on Mumbai’s Suburban (Local) Trains, from 2002 to 2012. Of the 36,152 deaths, 15,053 occurred on Mumbai’s Western Railway line and 21,099 occurred on Mumbai’s Central Railway. Mumbai’s Suburban Railway Train Services are among the busiest in the world. 7 to 7.5 million people use Mumbai’s Local Rail network daily. This is impressive when compared to other large cities, such as New York (5.25 million), London (3.75 million), Tokyo (6.3 million), Shanghai (5.6 million), Singapore (2.4 million), Paris (4.5 million), etc. Unfortunately, Mumbai’s Suburban Trains have among the Highest Number of Accidental Deaths among suburban railway networks in the world. 2. Historic statistics Rail deaths and injuries are caused by train crashes and derailments, but also by shunting mistakes, level crossing collisions, and trespass and vandalism. The number of people killed or injured in railway accidents was higher in the years when more people were travelling by train. The 1920s to 1940s were the peak years for rail travel – and for deaths and injuries.
  6. 6. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 6 Causes of Accidents- Mumbai‟s Trains The main causes for the high number of accidents on Mumbai’s Rail network are as follows: 1) Crossing Tracks and Trespassing: 2/3 of all fatal accidents (approx 24,000) are because of people crossing the tracks rather than using the Foot-Over-Bridge (FOB). Also large parts of Railway land near the tracks have been encroached and people live in close proximity to the rail tracks, which leads to accidents. 2) Falling Off Trains: This occurs due to overcrowding. 3) Electrocution: It is a common sight to see commuters sitting on the roof of trains. After the conversion of Mumbai local railway lines from Direct Current (DC) to Alternating Current (AC), it has become even more dangerous to sit on the roof. 4) Impact with Railway Electric Poles: Travelers leaning out of local trains are at a risk of being hit by electric poles that are all along the tracks. 5) Mechanical problems: Faults with modern locomotives pulling trains are uncommon, but parts can become worn or broken. Overheated axle bearings have caused derailments, and brake failure has led to some accidents 6) Weather and geology: The combination can lead to floods and subsidence that destroy sections of track or make them treacherous. When curves block the driver’s view ahead, collisions with slips are hard to avoid. 7) Carelessness at level crossings: Level crossings, where roads intersect with railway tracks, are a common accident site. Accidents happen when drivers fail to look, or underestimate the speed of the oncoming train. Accidents often occur when the driver, shunting or station crew makes errors of judgment. Speeding, not following procedures, missing or ignoring signals, falling asleep and drunkenness are some examples. 8) Terrorist attacks: The Mumbai Suburban Railway has suffered 8 blasts and around 368 people are believed to have died as a result. 12 March 1993 – bomb blast at Reay Road station 13 March 2003 – A bombing in a train in Mulund killed 20 26 July 2006 – A series of seven bombs in trains killed 209 26 November 2008 – Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was attacked during the 2008 Mumbai -Attacks killing at least 60 people.
  7. 7. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 7 Picture 1 “Factors That Increase Risk of Accidents on Mumbai‟s Local Train Service” 1) No escalators at any of Mumbai Railway stations. This makes it cumbersome to cross railway bridges. Hence many people prefer to take the easy way out by crossing railway tracks. 2) Mumbai’s Local Railway System has only 89 Foot over Bridges (FOB) and 7 Subways. Considering that Mumbai’s Railway Network has 136 Suburban stations (36 Western Railway, 62 Central Railway, 38 Harbor Line), it is clear that the number of FOB is inadequate. 3) The problem with many Mumbai railway stations is that they have narrow and too few Railway Bridges (FOB).As a result; it takes a long time for passengers to either get out of the station of arrive on the platforms. Many passengers prefer to cross the railway tracks to save time. This leads to rail accidents. It is a miracle that stampedes do not occur often on Mumbai’s suburban stations. 4) Inadequate number of train services on Mumbai Rail network. This leads to overcrowding and increased risk of accidents due to pushing or attempting to catch the train. Anyone who has traveled in a Fast train during peak hour from Churchgate to Virar or VT to Dombivali will be able to empathize.
  8. 8. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 8 5) Squatters and slums along Mumbai’s railway tracks lead to increased accidents. It’s a shame that Indian Railways has allowed so much of their land around tracks to be encroached. This land could have been used to increase Mumbai’s Rail infrastructure. 6) Poor design of Railway rakes. Most cities are opting for Metro services which are comfortable (climate controlled) and safe (doors close when train starts). On the other hand, Mumbai’s local trains have had more or less the same design for the last 50 years, with minor design tweaks. The number of people who hang out of the large open wagon doors is alarming. Commuters are forced to hang out because of overcrowding and poor ventilation inside the train rake. Mumbai’s Rail authorities are still living in an older, more backward age. 7) Many Mumbai stations have narrow railway platforms which get overcrowded during peak hours. These narrow platforms can be potentially dangerous with as light nudge sending a commuter on the tracks. Observe the crowded Dadar railway station during peak hours. On top of this, callous railway officials have allowed stalls to be put, which further reduce the space available to commuters. 8) Lack of Railway police to prevent passenger’s from sitting on the roof of trains. When was the last time you saw a Railway police official on the railway platform? 9) Most of Mumbai’s Local train stations have poor medical facilities. Lack of immediate treatment of accident victims, increases fatalities. 10) Narrow and crowded lanes near many stations; this delays the arrival of Ambulances in case of accidents. 11) Large Gap between railway platform and railway track. At times people have fallen through these gaps. 12) The Railway electric poles are too close to the tracks; as a result many accidents occur when commuters are hit by these poles. Railway authorities should have designed these at a distance. 13) excess of passengers over the capacity is the root cause of the extra rush during boarding and alighting leading to risky behavior such as fighting, pushing and jostling to get into the trains and some forms of risky travel practices such as hanging outside the compartment or travelling over the roof of the coaches, etc
  9. 9. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 9 Based on the reports of Commission of Railway Safety and Departmental Enquiry Committees, out of 93 consequential train accidents during 2010-11, 59 were attributable to failure of Railway staff, 10 due to failure of other than Railway staff, 2 due to failure of equipment, 16 due to sabotage, 2 due to combination of factors, 4 due to incidental factors. Loss to Railway property in the above 93 consequential train accidents has been estimated to be approximately Rs. 71.93 crore. As shown in graph, year by year the no. of death in train accident goes on increasing. Fig.1 0 50 100 150 200 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 YEARS A C C I D E N T S
  10. 10. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 10 Field Survey Q.1- According to you, which is the main reason of accidents?? A] crossing tracks B] overcrowding C] electrocution D] electric poles E] agree to all Answer: Fig.2 Q.2- Is following factors responsible for rail accidents & injuries..??? A] mechanical problems B] weather & geology C] level crossing D] terrorist attacks Answer: Fig.3 23% 35% 13% 19% 10% Opinion of people travelling by trains Crossing Tracks overcrowding. Electrocution Electric Poles Average 77% 18% 5% Yes No Neutral Response of passengers
  11. 11. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 11 Q.3- What are the most significant problem faced by Indian rail service? Answer: 1) Old Track and Poor State of Rolling Stock 2) Lack of Modern Management 3) Problem of Laying Double Lines 4) Attack on Railways Q.4-Is accidents in Answer: The incidence of railway accidents in our country is greater as compared to other countries of the world. Accidents occur due to the errors and negligence of the employees. Q.4- How do you prevent rail accident? Answer: self-vigilance, adherence to the rules/regulations and following safe practices that means no crossing of rail-tracks by the passengers, no hanging outside trains, no sitting on train roof-tops and no jostling while boarding/alighting from the trains, especially moving trains Case study „Improve rescue, relief monitoring for local train accidents‟ While stretchers are provided in long distance trains, due to lack of space in EMU motor cab, none is kept in the suburban train. Stretchers inside local trains, live rescue and relief monitoring system, mobilization of local police and affixing responsibility on officials who failed to perform their duty were some of the suggestions submitted Wednesday to the Bombay High Court-appointed accident monitoring committee, by friends and relatives of Dhaval Lodaya (18). The meeting was conducted inside the station manager’s office at Dadar station. Dhaval died in the accident on March 20, after the last five coaches of a CST-bound Kasara local derailed between Titwala and Ambivli railway stations in Thane district. Dhaval‟s relatives: He was alive for an hour after the accident, but succumbed to injuries due to lack of timely medical help. Dr.Sarosh N Mehta: in 2001, the Bombay High Court in 2004 appointed an accident monitoring committee to look into accident-related passenger grievances. The committee, comprising representatives from the railway and other stakeholders, is required to meet once in 60 days. The committee, which has to meet aggrieved passengers from both Central Railway and Western Railway, has to submit a report every six months to the general manager. While stretchers are provided in long distance trains, due to lack of space in electric multiple unit (EMU) motor cab, none is kept in the suburban train.
  12. 12. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 12 The committee members: they would suggest the railways to create a rack inside the motor cab where a foldable stretcher can be kept. Dharshak Rupani, Dhaval‟s uncle: “Railways should train station staff, railway police and Railway Protection Force (RPF) to help accident victims and priorities relief and rescue work. A report from every official who was at the accident spot should be submitted to identify the lacunae and reward officers who did their duty. There should be a live rescue and relief monitoring system.” Jai Lodariya (20), a friend :( travelling with Dhaval) the alleged negligence of the police, ambulance authorities and bystanders, to the committee Wednesday.“Within two minutes of the accident, over 150 people were at the spot. They were busy taking pictures and videos. I kept begging for help but no one came forward. One RPF official started asking us for details like residential address. I told him we would give all of it but we must first shift Dhaval to the hospital. There were other police officials who were busy barricading the area but refused to help us.” According to Jai, he was abused by the ambulance drivers when he tried to take the stretcher to lift Dhaval. The accident took place at 2.50 pm and Dhaval, who was flung out of the train due to the derailment, was alive till 3.30 pm. Dhaval’s relatives were unhappy with the lack of proper conduct in the meeting due to passenger representatives and NGOs, who allegedly did not allow the family to put forward their grievances. No one is even aware that a committee exists to look into accident-related problems. From the proceedings of the committee, it only looks like they are a suggestion box and nothing will change in the system.
  13. 13. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 13 Conclusion A gigantic city, such as Mumbai has its gigantic travel problems. Some sound planning, efficient management and a fairly disciplined citizen population have helped to control the accident rate in spite of a very heavy travel count, the highest in the country. There is sufficient room to reduce it drastically with the co-operation of the travelers themselves. Most of the accidents are attributable to ignorance, negligence, carelessness, flouting of set norms/rules, drunken driving, over-speeding etc. A loss of an able bodied young and/or learned person is not just a loss to his/her family; it is a loss to the nation. We need to undertake a vigorous awareness campaign to instill discipline in the people at young age itself. Right from school days the children must be taught travel safety and the proper rules of travel and the reasons why they need to be implicitly obeyed. Adult awareness programmes must also be undertaken in the public places. E.g. on the railway platforms, on TV channels and by distribution of brochures/booklets to instill these values in the grown up people too. The educated children can be made to take part in the adult awareness programmes and will prove to be a great motivating force even for their elders. Past experience shows that a concerted effort in such a constructive direction always achieves immediate results. Well, then let us do it and earn a pride of place for 'AAMCHI MUMBAI' among mega-cities as a safe and a disciplined metropolis.
  14. 14. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 14 Recommendation The trend of the accidents is seen to be on the decline and the credit must go the efforts of the police (GRP), the volunteer passenger organizations, such as the Mumbai Suburban Railway Passengers' Association and the railway authorities in the measures taken to reduce the accidents and increase safety awareness among passengers. A lot more needs to be done 1) The railways have taken many steps for improving the rail-safety, such as: Improvement and updating of the signal system, Increasing the number of rakes to increase capacity, Adding more tracks to increase capacity and speed up traffic, Removal of some of the vertical poles close to the tracks, Reduction of the distance between compartments and platforms. 2) A suitable technical solution can always be found and implemented. There are standards given such as the maintenance of a minimum horizontal distance of 7ft from the centre of the tracks to the vertical poles, 5ft 6inches (plus/minus 6inches) from the centre of the tracks to the face of the platform and 2ft 6inches (plus/minus 3inches) height of the platform from the top of the rail to maintain a safe vertical clearance between the compartment and the platform. 3) Make Rail-Travel Safe i. The major works by the railways apart, it is quite possible to make rail-travel safer by adhering to the set norms of railway safety, high quality of maintenance and vigilant supervision by the railway authorities, observance of rules and regulations by all without exception, avoiding risky behavior/practices while travelling and by adopting humane values of tolerance and universal brotherhood by the passengers. ii. The railways must build sufficiently broad and strong foot-bridges/subways for crossing the tracks and also close the crossing points, frequented by the pedestrians for crossing the tracks with fencing, etc. iii. Effective ways to avoid accidents for the citizens are: self-vigilance, adherence to the rules/regulations and following safe practices, that means no crossing of rail-tracks by the passengers, no hanging outside trains, no sitting on train roof-tops and no jostling while boarding/alighting from the trains, especially moving trains. 4) Railways take Safety Measures to Prevent Accidents: Safety is accorded the highest priority by Indian Railways and all possible steps are undertaken on a continuing basis to prevent accidents and to enhance safety.
  15. 15. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 15 i. Include progressively achieving reduction in accidents attributable to human failure by way of introduction of modern technologies and devices and mechanization of maintenance. ii. Take Safety measures by timely replacement of over-aged assets, adoption of suitable technologies for up gradation and maintenance of track, rolling stock, signaling and interlocking systems, safety drives, greater emphasis on training of officials and inspections at regular intervals to monitor and educate staff for observance of safe practices. iii. Safety devices/systems being introduced to prevent accidents include provision of Block Proving Axle Counters (BPAC), auxiliary Warning System (AWS), Fog Safe Device, Vigilance Control Device (VCD), Train Protection and Warning System (TPWS), Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)/Anti Collision Device (ACD) etc. iv. Inquire each and every consequential train accident into either by Commission of Railway Safety under the Ministry of Civil Aviation or by a Departmental Enquiry Committee depending upon severity of the accidents. 5) Communication by the SM/Incharge of the section receiving advice of an accident: The SM on receiving an information of any accident should immediately take action for: i. Not allowing any movement in the affected block section; ii. Informing SM of the other end to ensure the same. iii. Informing local or nearest RPF and GRP officials to provide protection to the site of accident and render assistance to the injured and stranded passengers. iv. Advising the section controller on controlled section, regarding the accident, the nature of the medical assistance and Mechanical rescue equipment required and assistance being arranged locally. v. In case of non- controlled section or if the control is inoperative, the SM shall contact the Divisional Control Office or Sr. DOM, DOM, Sr. DSO /DSO, ADSO, AOM, or DRM / ADRM or any other divisional officer or the nearest Area Officer on telephone using PCO/STD booth or by booking an urgent trunk call even from private premises when STD facility is not available. vi. In case any telephonic communication is not available the SM or official concerned may also hire a vehicle to send the message to the nearest place from where information can be conveyed to Control office / Railway Officers.
  16. 16. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 16 vii. Alerting the local/railway doctors and hospitals as per the list available in his office for providing immediate medical aid to the injured passengers. In case of fire, fire brigade should be requisitioned. viii. Informing the railway rescue volunteers registered at the station ix. Giving preference to doctors and other medical staff. 6) General instructions: The objectives to be achieved in the case of an accident are: i. Protection of adjacent running lines &the site of accident; ii. Save life and alleviate suffering; iii. Protect property including mails; iv. Provide succor and help to the passengers at the site of the accident; v. Transportation of stranded passengers; vi. Preservation of clue & ascertain the cause of the accident; and vii. Restoration of through communication. viii. All Railway men whether on duty or otherwise, to involve in rescue and relief Operations. ix. Utmost speed in rushing medical and other relief to the site of accident. x. Utmost care, consideration and courtesy towards the passengers involved in the accident. xi. Adequate and swift arrangements for supply of food, drinking water etc. to the affected passengers. xii. Quick transmission of information, particularly details of dead and injured to their relatives & others. xiii. Security of passenger’s luggage and Railway property.
  17. 17. V.J.T.I. Mumbai Locals “Life Line or Life Stealing” Page 17 Bibliography 1] Newspaper- Lokmat & Maharashtra times 2] NDTV news channel 3] 4] 5] train-accidents/ 6] s&sa=X&ei=NQVDU8zdDMWnlQWN0oGoBw&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1600&bih=7 98&dpr=1 7] A Survey on Mumbai Suburban Local Train Travelers by review of integrative business & economic research paper 8]Personal visit and survey at the accidental area.