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urban planning standards

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  • 1. P.G. STUDIES SEM- 2 Graduate Report Urban Planning Techniques & Practices(CE-632) UDPFI Standards for Urban Area Guided By : Prepared by : Dr. J.E.M.MACWAN CHEITALI SHROFF P11 UP023 POST GRADUATE SECTION IN URBAN PLANNING C.E.D,SVNIT 2011 (January-May)
  • 2. CONTENTS CONTENTS 1. Int1.uction 1. Introduction 2. Need for Guidelines 3. Urban Development Planning System 4. Norms & Standards Land Use Infrastructure- Physical & Social Commercial facilities Recreational facilities Miscellaneous facilities Traffic & transportation 5. Conclusion References
  • 3. Introduction • Planning is a continuous process & planning system should be such that it ensures continuity. • Earlier town planning was a piecemeal process but after Independence the city planning experienced tremendous growth & challenges for resettlement due to political changes. • Several resettlement, new Industrial base towns & urban centers were under process of planning & masters & town planners conclude that land use plans are needed to guide development of urban centers to promote orderly development & healthy living environment. • For this purpose the ministry of Urban affairs & employment, governing of India organized a national workshop on master plan approach during February 24-25, 1995. The research study of this workshop awarded as UDPFI – Urban development plans formulation and implementation guidelines.
  • 4. The Need of guidelines: The study of UDPFI norms and standards is needed to evolve: System that is dynamic, flexible and efficient. Process that is less time consuming. Innovative ideas of land assembly and fiscal resource mobilization Simple & effective form of laws, rules and regulations.
  • 5. Urban Development Planning system It consist of a. Perspective plan: 20-25 years duration . Includes Maps & Diagrams . State government’s goal, policies, strategies of urban local authority regarding spatio-economic development. b. Development plan : Conceived within Frame work of approved Perspective plan. Medium Duration for 5 years. Proposals for socio-economic & spatial development of urban centers Including land use.
  • 6. c. Annual plan: Conceived within the frame work of Development plan.  Details of new & ongoing projects for local authority to implement in financial year Necessary fiscal resources mobilization. d. Plan of Projects/schemes: •Conceived within the frame work of approved development Plan. •Includes detailed working layouts with cost of development, source of Finance & recovery instruments for Execution by a public or private agency.
  • 7. Norms and standards Distribution of land use Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure Commercial facilities Recreational facilities • Developed area average densities • Work force • Proposed land use structure of urban centers in plain area
  • 8. Urban center classification Settlement type Population Plain areas Hill areas Small town Less than 50,000 Less than 20,000 Medium town 50,000- 5lakh 20,000 less than 80,000 Large cities More than 5 lakh 80,000 and more Population based
  • 9. Distribution of Land Use Settlement type Persons per Hectare(pph) in Plain areas Hill areas Small town 75-125 45-75 Medium town 100-150 60-90 Large cities 100-150 60-90 Metro cities 125-175 - Developed area average densities:- • The Densities of medium town & large cities are considered similar for sustainability. • The density of 125 pph is max. factor for small town & average for medium town & large cities & minimum for Metro cities for their identification & survival. . Comment -
  • 10. Work force participation 33% of total population Industrial workers (%) of total work force Small and medium town 20 % Large cities 25 % Worker’s Density 100 to 125 pph Work Force:- • Due to more population in Large cities the Industrial worker Population is 25% • In current scenario The industrial worker population Is more than 30% due to set back in agricultural production. Comment -
  • 11. Proposed Land use structure of Urban Centers Land use category Percentage of developed area Small Medium Large cities Metro cities Residential 45-50 40-45 35-40 35-40 commercial 2-3 3-4 4-5 4-5 Industrial 8-10 8-10 10-12 12-14 Pub& Semi-Public 6-8 10-12 12-14 14-16 Recreational 12-14 18-20 18-20 20-25 Transport & Communication 10-12 12-14 12-14 15-18 Agriculture & Water bodies balance balance balance balance • Land use structure of urban center depends upon its function and size. Due to higher density in metros the land use for residential purpose is less compared to smaller areas with less density. • Land use distribution for industrial, commercial and recreational purpose increases as we move from small town to metro cities. Comment -
  • 12. Physical infrastructure •Water Supply •Water Requirements for institutional buildings •Sewage •Drainage •Electricity •Solid waste Disposal • Educational facilities • Health care facilities • Socio- Cultural facilities • Distribution services • Police • Fire Social infrastructure Traffic and Transportation Commercial facilities Recreational facilities InfrastructureDistribution of land use Norms and standards
  • 13. Infrastructure • Basic requirement of urban life. • Innovative efforts to ensure wide coverage & equitable distribution. Physical Infrastructure:- Water Supply: Size of town Aspect Small Medium Large and Metro Domestic 1. Absolute Min. 2. desirable 70 lpcd 100 lpcd 70-100 lpcd 135-150 lpcd 135 lpcd 135-150 lpcd Non- Domestic Fire fighting Public purpose 1% of total demand 10-15 lpcd 20-25 lpcd 30-35 lpcd Comment - • The 135 lpcd of water consumption Includes the need for fire fighting.
  • 14. Water requirements for institutional buildings Institutions Litres per head per day Hospital a. No. of beds exceeding 100 b. No. of beds not exceeding 100 450 per bed 340 per bed Hotels 180 per bed Hostels 135 Boarding schools/ colleges 135 Restaurants 70 per seat Airports & Sea ports 70 Junctions stations & intermediate stations 70 Terminal Stations & Intermediate stations 45 Day schools/ colleges 45 Offices & factories 45 Cinema, concert halls and theatres 15 Water is an important Resource Hence Rain water harvesting should be encouraged in Institutional buildings as well as residential zones especially in medium towns & cities.   Comment -
  • 15. Sewerage & Drainage • The drainage system for any city/town is governed mainly by natural course and topography. The discharge is calculated that guides the requirements for provision of additional drain as well as up gradation of existing drains. • The treatment of sewerage is essential to provide hygienic conditions. • The sewerage is estimated at the rate of 80% of the water supply demand. • The large & metro cities shall be provided with regular sewerage treatment facilities at zonal/city level. • The newly developed areas shall have community level septic tanks based on economic & environmental considerations. • The squatter settlements may be provided with a facility of 1 toilet for 4 to 5 families based on the concept of low cost and low water consumption. Comment - In case of developing cities the Treatment plant shall be planned with possible future expansion including biogas plant ,energy conservation &environment considerations .
  • 16. Solid waste Disposal • The garbage is removed and dumped at the sanitary landfill or in some cases it is converted to compost especially in small towns. • The generation of waste varies from a quarter of Kg in small towns to about half a kg per capita in large and metro cities.      Comment - • Garbage separation of Dry , wet garbage & recyclable material to achieve efficient method of disposal shall be encouraged by educating people. Electricity • Power supply consumption works out to be about 2 KW per household at the city level including domestic, commercial, industrial and other requirements. • 1 electric substation of 11 KV for a population of 15,000 is recommended for towns/ cities. Comment - • Solar power System Shall be emphasized in residential as well as Institutional Areas. • Bio-gas Plants Shall be Initiated in small & medium Towns.
  • 17. Social Infrastructure Educational facilities:- Pre-primary to Secondary Education • Pre primary, nursery school 1 for 2500 population •Senior secondary school 1 for 7500 population Technical Education centre •1 such centre provided for every 10 lakh pop. Include 1 industrial training institute and 1 polytechnic institute. College •1 for 1.25 lacs population •No of student 1000 to 1500 •Area 1.80 Ha. University Campus with Area of 10 ha.shall be provided. Comment – These are found to be sufficient but location of these facilities are mor eimporatnt for development. • These facilities shall be provided with 25% additional population. • Incase of metro cities, these facilities serves the regional demand • Incase of small & medium towns ,the villages & surrounding areas depends on them
  • 18. Health care Facilities : a) General hospital Hospital for 2.5 lakh population capacity Initially the provision may be for 300 beds Area for hospital Area for residential accommodation Total area 500 beds 4 ha 2 ha 6 ha b) Intermediate hospital 1 hospital for 1 lakh population capacity Area for hospital Area for residential accommodation Total area 2.70 ha 1 ha 3.70 ha c) Nursing home, child welfare and maternity center 1 for 0.45 to 1 lakh population Capacity Area 25 to 30 beds 0.20 to 0.30 ha d) Dispensary 1 for 0.15 lakh population Area 0.08 to 0.12 ha Comment - •The ratio of Dispensary is very less as due to polluted environment & life style of urban areas & accidents occurring everyday these needs to be improved/modified for metro cities. 
  • 19. a) Community room 1 for 5,000 population area 660 Sq..m b) Community hall and library 1 for 15,000 population area 2000 sq.m c) Recreational club 1 for 1 lakh population area 10,000 sq.m d) Music, dance and drama centre 1 for 1 lakh population - area 1,000 sq.m e) Meditation and spiritual centre 1 for 1 lakh population area 5000 sq.m f) Socio-cultural centre 1 for 10 lakh population area 15 ha Socio-Cultural facilities Comment – •These need to be improved in Metro cities as Music, dance & drama Centers are Not only Cultural Oriented but it’s a part Of Industry. •These facilities can be clubbed with Commercial Activity.
  • 20. Distribution services a) Petrol pump • One petrol pump for 150 ha of gross residential areas in residential zone • One petrol pump for 40 ha of gross industrial area • Two petrol pumps in each district centre • One petrol pump in each community centre Comment – • These are sufficient & adequate. b) Milk distribution •One milk booth for 5,000 population. Comment •These are sufficient & adequate. c) LPG Godown •One gas Godown for 40-50 thousand population is sufficient for any size of town. •The major concern for its storage and distribution is the location which shall be away from the residential areas. Comment •These are sufficient & adequate.
  • 21. Police Police station 1 for 90,000 population Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation 1.5 ha Police post 1 for 0.4 to 0.5 lakh population Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation 0.16 ha District office and battalion 1for 10 lakh population Area for district office area for battalion Total area 0.80 ha 4 ha 4.80 ha Police line 1 for 20 lakh population 4 to 6 ha District jail 1 for 10 lakh population - area 10 ha Comment – •The Police line is less in case of metro cities.
  • 22. • 1 fire station or sub fire station within 1 to 3 km to be provided for 2 lakh population • Area for fire station with essential residential accommodation • Area for sub- fire-station with essential residential accommodation 1 ha 0.60 ha Fire Comment – •The disaster Management centers & rehabilitation shelters shall be encouraged in Social Infrastructure.
  • 23. Area of commercial centers Distribution of shops Traffic and Transportation Commercial facilities Recreational facilities InfrastructureDistribution of land use Norms and standards Hierarchy of commercial centers
  • 24. Commercial Activity Hierarchy of commercial centers is a function of the hierarchy of planning units in an urban center Planning unit Population Served Hierarchy of commercial centre Housing cluster 1000-4000 Cluster centre Sector 5000-20000 Sector centre Community 25000-100000 Community centre district 125000-500000 District centre Sub-city 25 lakh- 50 lakh Sub- city centre city 50 lakh + City centre Comment – •These distribution is found to be sufficient.
  • 25. Type of shops district community sector cluster Formal shops(total) 1250 365 55 24 General retail 1200 295 35 16 Fruit & vegetables Not specified 40 6 3 Service & Repairs 50 30 13 5 Informal shops 370 110 22 13 General retail 355 88 14 8 Distribution of shops Comment – •Fruits & Vegetables Markets locations shall be planned to avoid road encroachment by local Hawkers.
  • 26.   Area Per 1000  Persons   Sq.Mt. No. of Shops Cluster Centre 220 1 for 110 Persons Sector  Centre 300 1 for 200 Persons Community Centre 500 1 for 200 Persons District Centre 880 1 for 300 Persons Area of Commercial Centers Comment – •These are found to be sufficient.
  • 27. Recreational Facilities Planning unit Housing cluster 3-4 local parks and playgrounds sector 3-4 local park and playgrounds community 2-3 community level park and open space district 1 district level park and sports centre, maidan Sub city centre 1 city level park, sports complex, botanical /zoological garden , maidan Overall town/ city level 10 sq.m- 12 sq.m per person Type Area in sq.mt. Small Town 1 - 1.2 ha. / 1000 persons Medium Town 1.4 - 1.6 ha. / 1000 persons Large cities 1.2- 1.4 ha. /1000 persons • Comment - • Local parks ,Playgrounds & Open Spaces shall be distributed evenly in case of metro cities. • The Proportion for large cities is average of small & medium town as the land is costlier in case of large cities.
  • 28. Miscellaneous Facilities • Cremation/ burial ground: Provision of at least 2 sites for 5 lakh population and to provide one electric crematorium for large size towns. • Dhobi ghat: one site for 1 lakh population with appropriate arrangements for water and drainage facilities. • Taxi stands/ Bus stops/ Rickshaw stands:- - These should not be located near the road intersections -The maximum distance of such facilities should not exceed 0.5 km from the farthest point in any residential area. Comment – •These are found to be sufficient.
  • 29. Telecommunication: • Communication- 10 lines per 100 population. Comment • The standards for mobile & telecommunication tower with their safe locations needs to be provided in Guidelines. •In modern days the norms & standards for wi-fi system & internet shall be considered. • Postal services- one post office for 10-15 thousand population. •Found to be Sufficient.
  • 30. Traffic and Transportation Commercial facilities Recreational facilities InfrastructureDistribution of land use Classification of Urban roads Design standards of Urban roads roads Norms and standards
  • 31. Norms and Standards for Transportation Classification of Urban roads: Arterial Road: Roads for intra-urban traffic with no frontage access. •Sub-Arterial Road: Roads for intra-urban through traffic with frontage access. •Collector road: Streets for collecting and distributing traffic from and to local streets and also providing access to arterial and sub arterial roads. •Local Street: Street for access to residence, business or other abutting property, having necessary parking and pedestrian movement free access too.
  • 32. Design Considerations of urban roads Road type Speed Width Arterial 80 kph 50-60 m Sub-Arterial 60 kph 30-40 m Collector street 50 kph 20-30 m Local street 30 kph 10-20 m Cross-Sectional Elements: Description Width Single lane without kerbs 3.5 m 2-lane without kerbs 7 m 2- lane with kerbs 7.5 m 3-lane with/without kerbs 10.5/11 m 4-lane with/without kerbs 14 m 6-lane with/without kerbs 21.0 m Comment – •These road widths shall be improved with informal parking on roads.
  • 33. • Comment - • These is one of the Important feature as many services can be laid down under Footpath • It gives surface for pedestrian movement. • These are usually not identified or demarked on site, • Hence measures & regulations for footpath shall be improved. Foot path (side walk) Capacity Required width of footpath (m) All in one direction In both directions 1220 800 1.5 2400 1600 2.0 3600 2400 2.5 4800 3200 3.0 6000 4000 4
  • 34. Cycle tracks •The minimum width of cycle tracks should be 2m.each additional lane, where required should be 1 m. •Separate cycle tracks should be provided when the peak cycle traffic is 400 or more on routes where motor traffic is 100-200 vehicles/hr. •When number of motor vehicles using routes is more than 200 per hour, separate cycle tracks are justified even if cycle traffic is only 100 cycles per hour. •These are still Missing on many Urban Roads hence Regulations needs to be effectively developed. Parking Equivalent car space for different vehicles. Car/taxi 1 Two wheeler 0.25 Auto rickshaw 0.50 Bicycle 0.10
  • 35. a) The minimum parking space requirements for each car and truck is : Car : 3m X 6m Truck : 3.75 m X 7.5m a) Residential - Detached, semi-detached and row houses Plot area upto 100 Sq.Mt – no private or community parking space Plot area:101-200 Sq.Mt – only community parking space Plot area:301-500 Sq.Mt- minimum 1/3 of open area for parking Plot area :501-1000 Sq.Mt- minimum 1/4th of open area for parking Plot area: 1001sq.m +- minimum 1/6 of space area for parking a) Flats :- - one space for every two flats of 50-90 Sq.Mt or more of floor area - one space for every flat of 100 Sq.Mt or more of floor area Parking Space Requirements • Comment - • Norms for Public Parking on street & off street shall be revised including the width of roads. • Multi-level parking System By government shall be encouraged.
  • 36. 5. Colour Specification for Land Use in a Development plan Sr. No. Zone description color 1 Primary Residential Zone yellow 2 Mixed residential Zone Orange 3 Unplanned residential Zone Brown 4 Commercial Blue 5 Industries Purple 6 Public & semi Public Red 7 Recreation Green 8 Roads Black 9 Agriculture Light Green
  • 37. Conclusions Land for Urban poor •In Mumbai more than 50 % of population are slum dwellers but they occupy only 8% of land. •The Development plan consists of various zones such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Recreational, No Development Zone, Coastal Regulation Zone, but there is no allocation of space for urban poor's, pavement dwellers which is growing population & which needs immediate attraction to make Mega cities more appealing in aesthetically & functionally. •It is the Task to reform the Strategies, policies by Central ,State & local governments to serve the interest of urban poor. •The Reserved plots & Coastal Regulation zone Norms can be modified to accommodate the land For Urban poor.
  • 38. Low Fsi • In India the Fsi ranges between 1.2 to 2% in large cities & 5 to 6 % in mega cities in special cases. • The low value of fsi tends to more consumption of land & hence Shortage of land is faced for future development. These affects the lower & middle income group households due to Increased price of land. • In Asian countries the fsi Practiced is between 5 to 15.Hence for affordability point of view, the fsi shall be increased to cater the demand of land for future needs. Educational Facilities • For safety Purpose the additional Space allocation for Peak Hour traffic in front of any school, colleges & other Institutions shall be provided. • Primary & secondary schools to be used in Double shifts with Bigger intake for efficient use of land. • Educational & institutional Zones must be crated in Master plan.
  • 39. Land Regulations • Land regulations shall be revised to reduce the difference between what is allowed & what is Financially feasible. • These can be achieved by More compact cities, more efficient Land Use & Primary Infra structure. • Increase in consumption of fsi. • Decrease in Trip length due to compact cities. • Urban population density will likely to stay Constant due to efficient land use.
  • 40. REFERENCES • Arthur B. Gallion, Simon Eisner, (1986), “The Urban Pattern – city planning and design”, CBS publishers, New Delhi, India. • Ar. Uttam K. Roy (2007), “Changing scenario & emerging planning norms for education infrastructures in planned township”, unpublished report, Institute of town planner, pp: 1-6 • Chetan Vaidya, et al (2004), “Model Municipal law of India”, ITPI journal, pp:50-51 • D.S.Mesham (2004), “Master plan of auroville universal township”, ITPI journal, pp: 1-13 • ITPI, 1996. Urban Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines, Institute of Town Planners India, Ministry of Urban Affairs and Poverty Alleviation, Government of India, New Delhi. • Sundar Burra & Sheela Patel (2001), “Norms & Standards In Urban Development: The Experience of an Urban Alliance In India” • Roy Uttam Kumar (April 2004), “Development control Regulation”, journal of Indian institute of architects (JIIA)
  • 41. Thank you