1. P.G. STUDIES SEM- 2
Urban Infrastructure Planning & Management (CE-632)
Fire Safety Network
Guided By : Prepared by :
Dr. Krupesh chauhan Cheitali shroff P11UP023
(Associate Professor) Zankhana DhimmarP11UP036
POST GRADUATE SECTION IN URBAN PLANNING
3.Causes of Fire
4.Fire Station Location & Building:
6.Fire Extinguishing Equipment's
7.Fire And Emergency Services As Per Govt. Of
India Advisory Council:
8.Present Scenario Of Surat City
9.Provision In Suda Byelaws
Civic and public safety facilities are community icons--buildings that
promise security and care through any crisis.
Fire hazards and occurrence of fire accidents cause danger to life and property.
So, it is planner’s role to locate fire stations in such a way that if fire hazard
occurs, fire brigade can reach easily& in effective time.
Fire safety of building means fire resistance of building in terms of hours
when subjected to fire of known intensity.
The Fire Service Week (FSW) is observed nation-wide under the
guidance of the Fire Adviser, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India during
April 14 – 20.
The Campaign provides a unique opportunity to enhance fire safety awareness
and mobilize action amongst employees, their families and the public.
4.  OBJECTIVES OF FIRE SERVICES:
Fire prevention and reduction in number of fire outbreaks.
To prevent spread of fire , both internally and externally
Safe exit of all occupants, in the event of an outbreak of fire
Prevention is better than Cure”.
Fire Prevention is most important & its care shall be taken while
designing different Buildings & Cities to safeguard & protect the life
of people & Properties
The purpose of fire prevention is to lessen the important factors
which contribute to occurrence and spread of fire and thus
preventing physical, Occupational and mental hazard.
5. Causes of Fire
The reasons of fire may vary from building to building pertaining to
it’s use & user’s . Some common reasons can be observed as
- Carelessness- Careless discarding of lighted ends of cigarettes, cigars,
matches and tobacco.
- Smoking in unauthorized places.
- Incorrect storage of materials .
- Faulty workmanship and inattention to electrical installations .
- Inattention of persons concerned with inspection and patrol of the
premises under their jurisdiction
-Domestic Gas Leakage in residential areas & public places.
-Inattention of fire safety regulations
-Unapproved hazardous equipment and layout of the building.
In case of an outbreak of fire, the danger is from fire, smoke and panic.
6. Criteria for location of fire station:
Fire station design is a complicated process of blending residential,
commercial, and vehicular spaces into one building
Most prefered location is that it shall be easily accessible to all
industrial, business and ware houses and residential areas.
The international standards for location of fire stations:
- Fire tenders should reach the spot of fire in five minutes in urban and in
twelve minutes in rural areas.
- Should be located along the major road i.e. road having right of way
greater or equal to 30m.
- Should be within the radius of two to three kilometers.
The Statutory Fire Advisory Committee guidelines
- One Fire Station per four square miles area
- High value district shall not more than 1.5 km distance
- Response time less than 5 to 10 minutes in the peak time
- Major road with minimum 30 45m right of way‐
7. • 1 fire station or sub fire station within 1 to
3 km to be provided for 2 lakh population
• Area for fire station with essential
• Area for sub- fire-station with essential
Norms as per UDPFI Guidelines:
8. - The building site plan should
provide adequate driveway
widths, turning radii, and
parking space on firm, level
surface for fire apparatus.
- Avoid man-made and natural
barriers that could interfere with
movement of fire vehicles.
- Fire apparatus turning radii (R)
typically vary from 28 to 40 ft
and vehicle length (L) from 40
to 65 ft for ladder trucks and
from 20 to 40 ft for pampers
9. Typical Fire station Plan
10. - It has dormitory living
facilities , work areas such as
meeting rooms, Conferences,
workshop, or laundry.
- Living areas are arranged
above the garage bays .
- It may have special means to
allow entry to the ground floor
quickly when a call for help is
received such as sliding down a
brass pole called a fire pole.
-Occupied station will have a
station alarm system for
receiving and annunciating
alarm, and indications of where
and what cause the alarm.
A fire station is a building for storage of firefighting apparatus (i.e. fire engines and related
vehicles), personal protective equipment, firehouse, fire extinguishers, and other firefighting
11. Reception Area
The fire station’s entrance area that is open to the public.
Hall for eating meals.
Room where meals are prepared.
Room equipped to field emergency calls, sound the alarm, determine fire locations, etc.
Workout room for fire-fighting personnel.
Room used by fire station personnel to hold meetings and discussions.
Fire Prevention Education Officer’s Office
Fire prevention education officer: person responsible for visiting buildings in a specific area
and ensuring that fire prevention measures are applied.
Work area reserved for the fire chief.
Workplace for administrative personnel.
12. Documentation Center Room used to store documentation such as security documents related
to buildings in a specific area, maps and municipal emergency plans.
Room where officers rest at night or between fire-fighting operations.
Room furnished with several beds where firefighters rest at night or between fire-fighting
Motor vehicle designed to transport fire-fighting personnel and materials and to supply water
to the fire hose nozzles.
13. WATER DEMAND
The average fire department uses only a fraction of one percent of
water pumped in a city.
Water required for fire fighting usually known as fire demand. It is
treated as a function of population and may be commuted from the B
1. KUIEHLING’S FORMULA
Q = 3182 * Sq.root of P Where, Q = quantity of water in iters
P = population in
2. BUSTON’S FORMULA
Q = 5663 * P
For a city of 1 lack population, the fore flow required by National
Board of Fire comes out to be 40,500 liters/minute.
14. Fire Extinguishing Equipment:
-These devices are used for extinguishing fire as soon- as it
-They are not so useful when once the fire has spread.
The discharge from a portable fire extinguisher lasts only for a
short duration of 20 to 120 seconds.
Fire sand bucket
- A fire sand bucket or fire bucket is a steel bucket
filled withstand which is used to put out fires.
-They are placed in prominent positions in rooms or
corridors. They are a low-technology method of
fighting small fires.
-The main advantages of fire buckets are that they are
cheap, reliable and easy to use.
15. Fire Hydrants
These are provided on a ring main of 150 mm dia. in the ground
around the building periphery. The ring main gets water from under
ground water tank with pressure, so that available pressure at each
hydrant is of the order of about 3.5 to 4 kg/cm. The fire hydrants are
placed at 300ft.c/c with easy access in case of emergency.
Automatic Sprinkler System
- This arrangement is adopted for Commercial & industrial
-The system consists of a net work of 20 mm dia. Fixed to the
ceiling of the room spaced at 3 m center to center.
-Heat actuated sprinkler heads are fixed to these pipes. The pipes get
supply from a header. Each sprinkler head is provided with a fusible
-In the event of fire, the fusible plug in the sprinkler nearest to the
wire melts due to rise of temperature, and water gushes out of the
sprinkler head. The fire is thus brought under control in a short
16. Wet Riser system
These system is adopted in high rise Buildings as wellas Public buildings
such as Cinemas,malls,Multiplexes etc. The system consist of providing 100
to 150 mm dia. vertical G.I.Pipes (Risers) at suitable locations in the
buildings. A fire pump is used to feed water from under ground fire fighting
water tank to these pipes, to ensure a pressure of 3 kg/cm2. at upper most
The fire fighting tank of 75,000 litres to 1 lakh litres are provided.
17. Wet Riser system
18. Smoke Detectors
 Smoke detector is a device that
detects smoke, typically as an
indicator of fire.
Commercial, industrial, and mass
residential devices issue a signal to
a fire alarm system, while household
detectors, known as smoke alarms,
generally issue a local audible and/or
visual alarm from the detector itself.
19. Fire And Emergency Services As Per Govt. Of India
In City Area Of 10.24 Sq.Mt (Around 10 Km.) Or At 04 Sq Mile One Fire Station is
Each fire station requires min 1 watch room fire man, one fire alarm and fire man, two
hydrant fireman, one dispatch fire man and one jamadar. For handling fire services, three
shift operation manpower is necessary in control room.
Jamadar Total Remarks
01 01 02 01 01 06 3 shift
20. Details per vehicle Driver Fireman Jamadar Officer Total Remarks
For 1 pumping
unit at 50,000
01 04 01 01 07 In 1 face total 7
at 3 to 10 lacks
1 Rescue vehicle for first
3 lack population and
then for 10 lack
population 1 vehicle
As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower
Other than above as per fire advisory council 20 % staff is reserved
and for each town basic minimum one pumping unit is necessary. As per
this rule 20 % staff is also to be reserved for fighting equipment.
21. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower
Present Scenario of Surat City:
• The main department responsible for major rescue and rehabilitation
work is the City Fire Department.
• In Surat City there are total 12 fire stations to serve the area of 326 sq.km. of
• The distributions of these fire stations are zone wise, they spread in the city
as per the land reserved by the Surat Municipal Corporation. In Central and
Southwest zone, there are 3 fire stations.
• South and West zone are having two fire stations. While east and North zone
are having only one fire station
• The area required for fire station is (10 x 15) mts. and (100 x 200) mts.
respectively as minimum and maximum requirement..
22. LOCATION OF FIRE STATIONS IN SURAT :
1. Mugli sara
2. Ghanchi Sheri
3. Navsari Bazar
4. Majura Gate
5. Man Darwaja
6. Mora Bhagal
NO PLACE AREA OF FIRE STATION
1 Mughlisara 18mts x 30 mts
2 Ghanchisheri 15mts x 18 mts
3 Katargam 28 mts x 36 mts
4 Varachha 24 mts x 30 mts
5 Navasaribazar 11 mts x 15 mts
6 Manderwaja 18 mts x 22 mts
7 Pandesara 18 mts x 20 mts
8 Majuragate 32 mts x 42 mts
9 Adajan 18 mts x 21 mts
10 Morabhagal 20 mts x 18 mts
11 Kosad 18 mts x 20 mts
12 Dumbhal 18 mts x 22 mts
The location of fire stations in surat city
The Details of fire stations in surat city
24. Hierarchy of organization set up in fire department:
25. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower
Provision in Suda Byelaws
- Design and construction of any building shall be such as to
ensure safety from fire.
- For multi-storied, high-rise and special building, additional
provisions relating to fire protection shall also apply.
- The approach to the building and open spaces on all sides
upto 6 m. width and their layout shall conform to the
requirements of the Chief Fire Officer.
-They shall be capable to taking the weight of a fire engine
weighing upto 18 tones. -These open spaces shall be free of
any obstruction and shall be motorable.
26. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower
Definitions of different fire terms:-
Fire Or Emergency Alarm System
An arrangement of call point or defectors, sounders and other
equipment for the transmission and indication of alarm signals working
automatically or manually in the event of fire.
A special lift designed for the use of fire services proposal in that event
of fire or other emergency.
Fire Proof Door
A door or shutter fitted to a wall opening and constructed and erected
with the requirement to check the transmission of heat and fire for a
Fire Pump – Busrea Fire Pump
A mechanical / electrical device which boosts up the
water pressure at the top level of a multi-story building and which is
capable of a pressure of 3.2 kg/ Cm2. at the nearest point.
27. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower
- The time during which a fire resistant material fulfills its function of
contributing the fire safety of a building when subjected to prescribed
conditions of heat and load or resistant.
-The fire resistance test of structure shall be done in accordance with
IS:3809-1966 Fire Resistance Test of Structure.
-The distance in meter measured from any other building on the site
or from another site or from the opposite side of a street or other
public space to the building.
Fire Service Inlet
A connection provided at the base of a building for pumping up
water through in built fire fighting arrangements by fire service
pumps in accordance with recommendation of the Chief fire officer.
28. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower
An enclosed staircase which can only be approached from the various floors
through landings or lobbies separated from the floor area and the stair case
by fire resistance doors.
The distance to be travelled from any point in a building to a protected
escape route, external escape route or final exit.
A means of escape on to the roof of a building where the roof has access to
it from the ground. The exit shall have adequate cut-off within the building
from staircase below.
29. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower
Surat is a compact city and has been expanding along the transport corridors.
The City has central core of 84 sq. kms. which is old city with residential,
commercial ,industrial & many other activities. It is over density area with various
activities ,with old buildings & Less road widths.
-The city area at many places has not sufficient widths to pass fire tenders at times of
emergency, Hence Specific Rescue plan shall be kept ready with means of escapes for
safety of citizens.
- Many fire stations are old & not upto the mark & they need renovations.
- The fire stations in developing area shall be planned with minimum necessary
requirement & shall have future expansion possible.
- The Buidings shall be planned with modern techniques & shall be equipped with
- Dormitories shall be planned with modern Look & not like EWS housing look.
- The legislations & Building regulations for Industries & Commercial/public
buildings Shall include the fire safety Audit with periodical maintaianance of fire
fighting system Installed within the Buildings.
– www. Surat municipal.org.in
– National Building Code of India, Second Revision, 2005 (Part 4-
Fire & Life Safety)
– IITK-GSDMA Project on Building Codes – Fire codes