Fire fighting


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Fire fighting

  1. 1. P.G. STUDIES SEM- 2 Graduate Report Urban Infrastructure Planning & Management (CE-632) Fire Safety Network Guided By : Prepared by : Dr. Krupesh chauhan Cheitali shroff P11UP023 (Associate Professor) Zankhana DhimmarP11UP036 POST GRADUATE SECTION IN URBAN PLANNING C.E.D,SVNIT 2011 (January-May)
  2. 2. CONTENTS CONTENTS 1.Introduction 2.Fire Prevention 3.Causes of Fire 4.Fire Station Location & Building: 5.Water Demand 6.Fire Extinguishing Equipment's 7.Fire And Emergency Services As Per Govt. Of India Advisory Council: 8.Present Scenario Of Surat City 9.Provision In Suda Byelaws Summary References.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: Civic and public safety facilities are community icons--buildings that promise security and care through any crisis. Fire hazards and occurrence of fire accidents cause danger to life and property. So, it is planner’s role to locate fire stations in such a way that if fire hazard occurs, fire brigade can reach easily& in effective time. Fire safety of building means fire resistance of building in terms of hours when subjected to fire of known intensity. The Fire Service Week (FSW) is observed nation-wide under the guidance of the Fire Adviser, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India during April 14 – 20. The Campaign provides a unique opportunity to enhance fire safety awareness and mobilize action amongst employees, their families and the public.
  4. 4.  OBJECTIVES OF FIRE SERVICES: Fire prevention and reduction in number of fire outbreaks. To prevent spread of fire , both internally and externally Safe exit of all occupants, in the event of an outbreak of fire FIRE PREVENTION: Prevention is better than Cure”. Fire Prevention is most important & its care shall be taken while designing different Buildings & Cities to safeguard & protect the life of people & Properties The purpose of fire prevention is to lessen the important factors which contribute to occurrence and spread of fire and thus preventing physical, Occupational and mental hazard.
  5. 5. Causes of Fire The reasons of fire may vary from building to building pertaining to it’s use & user’s . Some common reasons can be observed as - Carelessness- Careless discarding of lighted ends of cigarettes, cigars, matches and tobacco. - Smoking in unauthorized places. - Incorrect storage of materials . - Faulty workmanship and inattention to electrical installations . - Inattention of persons concerned with inspection and patrol of the premises under their jurisdiction -Domestic Gas Leakage in residential areas & public places. -Inattention of fire safety regulations -Unapproved hazardous equipment and layout of the building. In case of an outbreak of fire, the danger is from fire, smoke and panic.
  6. 6. Criteria for location of fire station: Fire station design is a complicated process of blending residential, commercial, and vehicular spaces into one building Most prefered location is that it shall be easily accessible to all industrial, business and ware houses and residential areas. The international standards for location of fire stations: - Fire tenders should reach the spot of fire in five minutes in urban and in twelve minutes in rural areas. - Should be located along the major road i.e. road having right of way greater or equal to 30m. - Should be within the radius of two to three kilometers. The Statutory Fire Advisory Committee guidelines - One Fire Station per four square miles area - High value district shall not more than 1.5 km distance - Response time less than 5 to 10 minutes in the peak time - Major road with minimum 30 45m right of way‐ .
  7. 7. • 1 fire station or sub fire station within 1 to 3 km to be provided for 2 lakh population • Area for fire station with essential residential accommodation • Area for sub- fire-station with essential residential accommodation 1 ha 0.60 ha Norms as per UDPFI Guidelines:
  8. 8. - The building site plan should provide adequate driveway widths, turning radii, and parking space on firm, level surface for fire apparatus. - Avoid man-made and natural barriers that could interfere with movement of fire vehicles. - Fire apparatus turning radii (R) typically vary from 28 to 40 ft and vehicle length (L) from 40 to 65 ft for ladder trucks and from 20 to 40 ft for pampers SITE PLAN
  9. 9. Typical Fire station Plan
  10. 10. - It has dormitory living facilities , work areas such as meeting rooms, Conferences, workshop, or laundry. - Living areas are arranged above the garage bays . - It may have special means to allow entry to the ground floor quickly when a call for help is received such as sliding down a brass pole called a fire pole. -Occupied station will have a station alarm system for receiving and annunciating alarm, and indications of where and what cause the alarm. A fire station is a building for storage of firefighting apparatus (i.e. fire engines and related vehicles), personal protective equipment, firehouse, fire extinguishers, and other firefighting equipment..
  11. 11. Reception Area The fire station’s entrance area that is open to the public. Dining Room Hall for eating meals. Kitchen Room where meals are prepared. Control Center Room equipped to field emergency calls, sound the alarm, determine fire locations, etc. Gymnasium Workout room for fire-fighting personnel. Meeting Room Room used by fire station personnel to hold meetings and discussions. Fire Prevention Education Officer’s Office Fire prevention education officer: person responsible for visiting buildings in a specific area and ensuring that fire prevention measures are applied. Chief’s Office Work area reserved for the fire chief. Administrative Office Workplace for administrative personnel.
  12. 12. Documentation Center Room used to store documentation such as security documents related to buildings in a specific area, maps and municipal emergency plans. Officers’ Dormitory Room where officers rest at night or between fire-fighting operations. Firefighters’ Dormitory Room furnished with several beds where firefighters rest at night or between fire-fighting operations. Fire Truck Motor vehicle designed to transport fire-fighting personnel and materials and to supply water to the fire hose nozzles.
  13. 13. WATER DEMAND The average fire department uses only a fraction of one percent of water pumped in a city. Water required for fire fighting usually known as fire demand. It is treated as a function of population and may be commuted from the B formula. 1. KUIEHLING’S FORMULA Q = 3182 * Sq.root of P Where, Q = quantity of water in iters per minute P = population in thousands 2. BUSTON’S FORMULA Q = 5663 * P For a city of 1 lack population, the fore flow required by National Board of Fire comes out to be 40,500 liters/minute.
  14. 14. Fire Extinguishing Equipment: Portable fire extinguishingManualFireExtinguishingEquipme -These devices are used for extinguishing fire as soon- as it starts. -They are not so useful when once the fire has spread. The discharge from a portable fire extinguisher lasts only for a short duration of 20 to 120 seconds. Fire sand bucket - A fire sand bucket or fire bucket is a steel bucket filled withstand which is used to put out fires. -They are placed in prominent positions in rooms or corridors. They are a low-technology method of fighting small fires. -The main advantages of fire buckets are that they are cheap, reliable and easy to use.
  15. 15. Fire Hydrants These are provided on a ring main of 150 mm dia. in the ground around the building periphery. The ring main gets water from under ground water tank with pressure, so that available pressure at each hydrant is of the order of about 3.5 to 4 kg/cm. The fire hydrants are placed at 300ft.c/c with easy access in case of emergency. Automatic Sprinkler System - This arrangement is adopted for Commercial & industrial buildings. -The system consists of a net work of 20 mm dia. Fixed to the ceiling of the room spaced at 3 m center to center. -Heat actuated sprinkler heads are fixed to these pipes. The pipes get supply from a header. Each sprinkler head is provided with a fusible plug. -In the event of fire, the fusible plug in the sprinkler nearest to the wire melts due to rise of temperature, and water gushes out of the sprinkler head. The fire is thus brought under control in a short period.
  16. 16. Wet Riser system These system is adopted in high rise Buildings as wellas Public buildings such as Cinemas,malls,Multiplexes etc. The system consist of providing 100 to 150 mm dia. vertical G.I.Pipes (Risers) at suitable locations in the buildings. A fire pump is used to feed water from under ground fire fighting water tank to these pipes, to ensure a pressure of 3 kg/cm2. at upper most outlet. The fire fighting tank of 75,000 litres to 1 lakh litres are provided.
  17. 17. Wet Riser system
  18. 18. Smoke Detectors  Smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial, industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible and/or visual alarm from the detector itself.
  19. 19. Fire And Emergency Services As Per Govt. Of India Advisory In City Area Of 10.24 Sq.Mt (Around 10 Km.) Or At 04 Sq Mile One Fire Station is Necessary. Each fire station requires min 1 watch room fire man, one fire alarm and fire man, two hydrant fireman, one dispatch fire man and one jamadar. For handling fire services, three shift operation manpower is necessary in control room. Details Watch room fire man Fire Alarm Fire man Hydrant Fireman Dispatch Fireman Jamadar Total Remarks At around 10 Km. 01 01 02 01 01 06 3 shift operation Manpower necessary in control room
  20. 20. Details per vehicle Driver Fireman Jamadar Officer Total Remarks For 1 pumping unit at 50,000 population 01 04 01 01 07 In 1 face total 7 members necessary 1Rescue Vehicle at 3 to 10 lacks population 1 Rescue vehicle for first 3 lack population and then for 10 lack population 1 vehicle necessary. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower Other than above as per fire advisory council 20 % staff is reserved and for each town basic minimum one pumping unit is necessary. As per this rule 20 % staff is also to be reserved for fighting equipment.
  21. 21. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower Present Scenario of Surat City: • The main department responsible for major rescue and rehabilitation work is the City Fire Department. • In Surat City there are total 12 fire stations to serve the area of 326 of city limit. • The distributions of these fire stations are zone wise, they spread in the city as per the land reserved by the Surat Municipal Corporation. In Central and Southwest zone, there are 3 fire stations. • South and West zone are having two fire stations. While east and North zone are having only one fire station • The area required for fire station is (10 x 15) mts. and (100 x 200) mts. respectively as minimum and maximum requirement..
  22. 22. LOCATION OF FIRE STATIONS IN SURAT : CONTENTS 1. Mugli sara 2. Ghanchi Sheri 3. Navsari Bazar 4. Majura Gate 5. Man Darwaja 6. Mora Bhagal 7. Adajan 8. Katargam 9. Varachha 10. Kosad 11. Dumbhal 12. Pandessara
  23. 23. CONTENTS NO PLACE AREA OF FIRE STATION 1 Mughlisara 18mts x 30 mts 2 Ghanchisheri 15mts x 18 mts 3 Katargam 28 mts x 36 mts 4 Varachha 24 mts x 30 mts 5 Navasaribazar 11 mts x 15 mts 6 Manderwaja 18 mts x 22 mts 7 Pandesara 18 mts x 20 mts 8 Majuragate 32 mts x 42 mts 9 Adajan 18 mts x 21 mts 10 Morabhagal 20 mts x 18 mts 11 Kosad 18 mts x 20 mts 12 Dumbhal 18 mts x 22 mts The location of fire stations in surat city The Details of fire stations in surat city
  24. 24. Hierarchy of organization set up in fire department: CONTENTS
  25. 25. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower Provision in Suda Byelaws - Design and construction of any building shall be such as to ensure safety from fire. - For multi-storied, high-rise and special building, additional provisions relating to fire protection shall also apply. - The approach to the building and open spaces on all sides upto 6 m. width and their layout shall conform to the requirements of the Chief Fire Officer. -They shall be capable to taking the weight of a fire engine weighing upto 18 tones. -These open spaces shall be free of any obstruction and shall be motorable. .
  26. 26. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower Definitions of different fire terms:- Fire Or Emergency Alarm System An arrangement of call point or defectors, sounders and other equipment for the transmission and indication of alarm signals working automatically or manually in the event of fire. Fire Lift A special lift designed for the use of fire services proposal in that event of fire or other emergency. Fire Proof Door A door or shutter fitted to a wall opening and constructed and erected with the requirement to check the transmission of heat and fire for a specified period. Fire Pump – Busrea Fire Pump A mechanical / electrical device which boosts up the water pressure at the top level of a multi-story building and which is capable of a pressure of 3.2 kg/ Cm2. at the nearest point.
  27. 27. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower Fire Resistance - The time during which a fire resistant material fulfills its function of contributing the fire safety of a building when subjected to prescribed conditions of heat and load or resistant. -The fire resistance test of structure shall be done in accordance with IS:3809-1966 Fire Resistance Test of Structure. Fire Separation -The distance in meter measured from any other building on the site or from another site or from the opposite side of a street or other public space to the building. Fire Service Inlet A connection provided at the base of a building for pumping up water through in built fire fighting arrangements by fire service pumps in accordance with recommendation of the Chief fire officer.
  28. 28. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower Fire Tower An enclosed staircase which can only be approached from the various floors through landings or lobbies separated from the floor area and the stair case by fire resistance doors. Travel Distance The distance to be travelled from any point in a building to a protected escape route, external escape route or final exit. Roof Exits A means of escape on to the roof of a building where the roof has access to it from the ground. The exit shall have adequate cut-off within the building from staircase below.
  29. 29. As Per Fire Advisory Council Necessary Vehicles And Manpower - Summary Surat is a compact city and has been expanding along the transport corridors. The City has central core of 84 sq. kms. which is old city with residential, commercial ,industrial & many other activities. It is over density area with various activities ,with old buildings & Less road widths. -The city area at many places has not sufficient widths to pass fire tenders at times of emergency, Hence Specific Rescue plan shall be kept ready with means of escapes for safety of citizens. - Many fire stations are old & not upto the mark & they need renovations. - The fire stations in developing area shall be planned with minimum necessary requirement & shall have future expansion possible. - The Buidings shall be planned with modern techniques & shall be equipped with modern devices. - Dormitories shall be planned with modern Look & not like EWS housing look. - The legislations & Building regulations for Industries & Commercial/public buildings Shall include the fire safety Audit with periodical maintaianance of fire fighting system Installed within the Buildings.
  30. 30. REFERENCES – www. Surat – National Building Code of India, Second Revision, 2005 (Part 4- Fire & Life Safety) – IITK-GSDMA Project on Building Codes – Fire codes
  31. 31. Thank you