Managing health and safety in the workplace HR


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Managing health and safety in the workplace HR

  1. 1. Student name: Usman Abdul Rashid (MBA) Hamdarduniversity Islamabad Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace There are many different potential risks in to a business when it comes to health and safety. Businesses have to make sure that they protect the employees and the general public from the health and safety risks. The many risks that a business can be effected with are: * Fire risks * Accident risk * Stress * Injuries These effect a business, because they have to make sure that every risks is thoroughly checked and that it is satisfactory of the law. These risks can be all identified in different places in a business. As these risks are dangerous to the employee, the employer or the general public these risks can take place anytime and in anyplace. Like the following if the risks are implemented then there can be differentaffects of the risk: · Fire: The cause of fire can be dangerous. This type of risk can happen anywhere and cause many injuries and lots of damages. The employer and the employees have to make sure that they are able to identify fires, and that they know what to do if a fire happens.
  2. 2. · Accidents: Accidents can happen anywhere. The main places that accidents could happen are when there chemicals being used, when machinery is being used. · Injuries due to accidents: There are many injuries caused through accidents they are as follows: · Dust · Noise · Toxic fumes · Asbestos inhalation · Radiation I have 2 pieces of statistic which show how injuries are caused by different risks. The first data is table 17e it shows fatal injuries which are to employees, self-employed and workers. This table shows me what different kind of accidents happens to people. This table was distributed out in 2001/2002. The table is based on a person getting injuries through different kinds of accidents. The accidents that happened to people us done by days. This table shows how many people a day get injured through different accidents. The table is also put into sectors which people work in. The second table labelled 9.9 shows also injuries to workers by
  3. 3. industry and severity of injuries. This table has more information in it but it also is based on accidents at work. This table has three sections telling what kind of injuries that people have had. Its put into three columns fatal injuries, major injuries and when people have taken day off work due to minor injuries the columns also split into three different years which are 1998/1999,1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The tables are viewable on the following pages. The statistics on the bottom show how many people are injured and how many people are reported under RIDDOR. The graphs shows Number and rate of fatal injury to workers, Rate of fatal injury to employees and theself employed and Number of fatal injuries to members of the public. The first is about the rate of fatal injuries to workers. [IMAGE] * In 2001/02 the number of fatal injuries to workers Decreased by 15% to 249 compared with 292 in 2000/01. * The number of fatal injuries to employees and the self-employed Decreased in 2001/02 by 4% and 43% respectively. * The rate of fatal injury to workers dropped to 0.9 in 2001/02 from 1.0 in 2000/01. Despite this decrease, the rate of fatal injury rose by over 30% in 2000/01, after the general downward trend until 1999/2000. * The rate of fatal injury in 2001/02 is still higher than that expected had that downward trend continued.
  4. 4. * In the last ten years the number and rate of fatal injury to workers has generally dropped, but increased in 1996/97 and 2000/01. The rate for 2001/02 is one of The lowest on record, though it was lower in 1999/2000. [IMAGE] * In 2001/02, the rate of fatal injury to employees decreased to 0.8 from 0.9 in 2000/01. * The rate of fatal injury to the self-employed decreased in 2001/02 by 44% to 1.3 from 2.4 the year before, though the rate fluctuates year on year. * The rate of fatal injury is higher to the self-employed than to employees. This reflects that proportionally more self-employed people than employees work in higher risk industries of agriculture and construction, and those rates of fatal injury are consistently higher for the self-employed than employees in agriculture and services. [IMAGE] * In 2001/02, there was a decrease of 14% in the number of fatal injuries to members of the public to 384 from 444 in 2000/01, when the highest numbers of fatal injuries were reported in the last ten years.
  5. 5. * About 72% of fatal injuries are due to acts of suicide or trespass on railway systems. The number of such fatalities tended to rise in the five years to 2000/01 but dropped from 300 to 275 in 2001/02. Prior to 1996/97 injuries resulting from acts of suicide and trespass were reportable under separate legislation. * There were also 20 fatal injuries to members of the public which were railway related and a further 89 which occurred in other industries. Of which 73 were in other service industries. * The number of fatal injuries to members of the public have been dropping in agriculture and fluctuated in construction over the past ten years. Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace E2 Businesses have to try and prevent any health hazards at the work place. They have to make sure that the business is able to trade without there being any accidents or injuries to there employees or the general public. The way in which a business can prevent these hazards and risks is by having health and safety policies. Health and safety policies would have to be followed by everyone in the organisation. The policy for
  6. 6. health and safety will provide a health and a safe environment for the employees and the general public. The heath and safety policy is there so that everyone in the business knows what to do. They are going to have to take care towards health and safety. The policy will consist of rules and regulations towards health and safety for an employee all employees must follow them. If they are not followed by an employee they may get into trouble with the organisation and also the law. One way that a business can eliminate hazards is by giving adequate health and safety training to its employees. There are many steps in which an organisation go through before they give any training. Businesses have to look at who needs what training but as for health and safety is training that is given to everyone in the organisation. Employees may be required to attend on the job training sessions on such topics as hazard communication, hazardous waste and asbestos awareness. Managers of affected employees should exercise a measure of accommodation for those needing training. Checklists would help them understand the training requirements which can be found by the organisation health and safety books. In some cases, managers may conduct specialized training sessions (e.g., safety procedures for using powered equipment). Other training may have to be provided by outside vendors (e.g., forklift or bucket truck operation). At a minimum, health and safety training for employees must include * recognition of health and safety hazards; * general and job-specific health and safety practices; and
  7. 7. * State and federal regulations and UK's health and safety policies applicable to the job. Training should occur when an employee is hired, when an employee is given a new work assignment for which training has not previously been given, and when a new hazard (chemical or physical) is introduced into the workplace. By law businesses have to follow the management of health and safety at work regulation 1992 it says that they have to provide health and safety training to employees who start their job, when their work or responsibilities change or there are greater risks as a result. Here are the ways in which a manager would give training. It explains who, what and when training should be given: · WHEN THEY START WORKING FOR YOU. All new starters need some form of induction training. They will all need to know the businesses safety policy and the arrangements you have made to deal with health and safety matters. · WHEN THEY ARE EXPOSED TO NEW OR INCREASED RISKS. Whenever something changes in the workplace, they should consider whether the risks have changed, and whether anyone needs extra training as a result. If the change makes the job safer, or doesn't change the risk, they don't have to provide extra health and safety training - though the manager might wish to provide training for other reasons. Making sure that the manager provides REFRESHER TRAINING when people need to bring their skills up to date, especially when the training relates to something they don't often do, such as dealing with
  8. 8. emergencies. Make sure that training materials are kept up to date. · PROVIDE TRAINING WITHIN WORKING HOURS. Make special arrangements, if necessary, for part-timers. · Make sure that you take account of any SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS that apply, for example first-aid training. The other procedures which will ensure a good health and safety by the business are having risk assessments. The can have health and safety risk assessment, fire risk assessments and also display screen risk assessment. This will ensure if equipments like for fire a fire hose is worthy of usage when there may be a fire. This help the manager know what they might have to replace. The other way in which a business can ensure good health and safety is by providing protective equipment. Like the following: · Eye and face protection- this type of protection would be used when people are using hazards chemicals, physical hazards, welding and laser. · Hand/arm and head protection · Head and Foot Protection · Hearing Protection · Respiratory Protection
  9. 9. All these equipments have to be checked by the manager so that they can meet the standards that have been set. The equipment has to be checked regularly and also they have to be in good condition for their purpose of use. This will ensure that the organisation is following strict health and safety rules. There are other important aspects to having and improving the health and safety in the workplace. That is that the business has to ensure that they have notices in each department informing the staff who and where the first aider's or appointed persons are and where the first aid box is located. To ensure good health and safety the manager has to make sure that a suitable first aid is provided where assessment of first aid needs identifies this as necessary. If they can't provide a first aid room then they must ensure that the first aid facilities and the equipment can be made available quickly if necessary. The business should appoint first aider's in the business. If the person has no experience in first aid then they should be sent place where training for first aid is given. This will ensure that the business has people who can help other people around them. Making sure that the business checks all the equipment is important as they will never know when they might need it on a person that is injured. They have to make the sure that they have certain amount of the things that is needed for first aid. The following shoes what they would need: * 1 Guidance Card: noting the most important emergency procedures. * 20 Individually Wrapped Sterile Adhesive Dressings (Assorted sizes): for protecting small cuts or other breaks in the skin. Waterproof dressings must be used if the casualty works as a food/drink handler. Blue waterproof dressings should be used in a
  10. 10. food preparation area. * 2 Sterile Eye Pads: sterile pad with a bandage attached to it to use over the eye following eye injuries. * 4 Individually Wrapped Triangular Bandages (preferably sterile): can be used as a pad to stop bleeding, as a sterile covering for large injuries such as burns, as a bandage, or to make a sling. * 6 Safety Pins: may be necessary to secure bandages. * 6 Medium Wound Dressings: a sterile un-medicated dressing pad with a bandage attached to it. * * (Approx. 12 cm. x 12 cm.) (No.8) * 2 Large Wound Dressings: sterile un-medicated dressing pad with a bandage attached to it. * * (Approx. 18 cm. x 18 cm.) (No.9) * 2 Pairs Disposable Gloves: gloves to be worn at all times when dealing with blood or body fluids. * Plastic Disposable Bags: to be used for disposal. This waste
  11. 11. should be incinerated where possible, or sealed and disposed of in the normal way. * Face Shield for Resuscitation: to prevent contamination by casualty's vomit, blood or other body fluids. * 6 Alcohol Free Wipes (for Travelling First Aid kits only). * Sterile eyewash solution (2 x 500 ml): only necessary where the work process presents an increased risk of eye injury and there is no running water available. By having the things that the are named they can ensure that nothing is ever missing form the first aid boxes and also it will help ensure that no one is left having no treatment on the injury. Having procedures and policies a business is able to follow certain rule that needs to be followed by the employees and the employer. There are many policies and procedures that needs to be followed I have made my own policy in which a business can make. I have drawn up a first aid policy in which the appointed person or the first aiders who are available can follow. The business/organisation has to comply with the requirements of the Health and Safety (First-aid) Regulations 1981 and the Health and Safety Commission's Approved Code of Practice and Guidance. The extent of the provision will be based on risk assessment. The aim of first-aid is to reduce the effects of injury or illness
  12. 12. suffered at work, either caused by the work itself or by some other factor. There must be sufficient first-aid personnel and facilities to · give immediate assistance to casualties with common injuries or illness and those likely to arise from specific hazards at work; · Summon an ambulance or other professional help. Managers will also consider the first-aid requirements of travelling officers and anyone who works outside normal hours. Non-employees do not have the right to first-aid, but the only way to discharge the overall duty of care is to make some first-aid provision. The amount will depend on the risk, but it should be ensured that there is adequate cover as part of any customer care strategy. Areas of Action Priority Rules & Procedures 1. Each manager must make an assessment of the first-aid needs within their area of responsibility. 2. Managers should ensure that the first-aid provision identified in the assessment is provided. 3. Managers should ensure that first aiders and/or appointed persons are trained as required by the assessment.
  13. 13. 4. Managers should ensure that all employees are made aware of what first-aid facilities are available and how trained personnel can be contacted. Other procedures which an organisation would use are recording first aid accidents and also ladder safety, safety signs and also harassment forms procedures. · Recording first aid- this lets a business no how many people are getting injured at work. This would also help a manager or an appointed person know how much provision is used so that it can be replaced. This is important because if the provisions are not replaced firstly they would be breaking the law and secondly someone could need it in the need of a serious accident. I have a drawn up a very simple first aid recording sheet which would enable a manager write down who has had first aid. It will also record the person names and date and also what kind of accident they have had. · Ladder safety- some organisation use ladders well nearly all organisation use ladders to either decorate or to reach for something that is high. The organisation has to make sure that certain rules are followed when using ladders. These are the procedures that businesses/organisation have to comply with when using ladders. European standards for ladders 1. Ladders purchased before 31 December 1995must confirm to British Standard.
  14. 14. 2. From 1 January 1996ladders must comply with the new European Standard for all class 2 trade ladders. These are recommended ladders for use in schools and all other educational establishments. As from 1 January 1995all class 2 ladders which are manufactured, will have to display the relevant BS Kite Mark. 3. Those carrying current Kite Marks carry the assurance of having been manufactured to a specific standard. However, those not carrying current Kite Marks may not meet current minimum safety requirements. Factory safety officers may insist on the use of approved ladders. In the event of an accident or injury involving a ladder, inspectors may take a view on liability if a ladder does not comply with current safety standards. 4. It is advisable to ensure your ladders are inspected by a competent person. A competent person is someone who has practical and theoretical knowledge as well as sufficient experience of working with ladders to enable them to identify defects or weaknesses during ladder examinations. This would normally be the manufacturer or supplier. · Safety signs- these are important because it will show people any harmful chemical or substances that are involved in an organisation. It's very important that employees, general public are able to see the signs. If for example something is flammable it has to have a clear flammable sign not being hidden between the chemical. Or far away from the substances. The information for the different sign and how it has to be displayed is shown at the bottom.
  15. 15. Managers should ensure all necessary health and safety signs are displayed at appropriate positions on the site both inside and outside buildings. During normal workplace inspections and reviews, the need for suitable signs, labels and other markings should be noted and where practicable, pictorial signs should be displayed of an approved format and type. Managers should ensure that: · necessary information and training is provided regarding the need for compliance with all signs; and · Necessary notices regarding safety and emergency procedures are placed in all relevant positions. All staff and site users should: · Take note of the various types of health and safety signs displayed on the premises. · follow the information and instructions given in all signs and notices to ensure the safety of all persons in all work activities; and · Be entirely familiar with all information displayed in key positions on the premises regarding safety actions and emergency procedures. Safety Signs Regulations 1980
  16. 16. The Safety Signs Regulations 1980 (Safety Signs and Colours) show the types of safety signs that need to be displayed at the workplace. Prohibition signs The background colour must be white. The circle and bar must be red. The enclosed symbol must be black, but not obliterate the bar. Any text must be put on a supplementary strip, i.e. red outline circle with crossbar - red means stop (i.e. prohibition). Warning signs The background colour must be yellow. The triangle must be black. The enclosed symbol or text must be black and centrally placed, i.e. yellow outline triangle - yellow means risk of danger (i.e. warning). Mandatory signs The background colour must be blue. The enclosed symbol or text must be white and centrally placed, i.e. blue solid circle - blue means obey (i.e. mandatory). Safe condition signs The background colour must be green. The enclosed symbol or text must be white and the sign rectangular or square, i.e. green square or rectangle, green means go (i.e. safe condition). Fire equipment signs
  17. 17. These must (Fire Safety Signs, Notices and Graphic Symbols) have a red backgroundcolour. The shape of the sign should be square or rectangular and enclose a white symbol, i.e. red square or rectangle red means fire equipment. The Health and Safety (Safety and Signals) Regulations require employers to make additional health and safety arrangements. · Safety signs must be used when recognised health and safety risks cannot be suitably controlled through other means. · Other means of communications may be necessary and could include verbal or acoustic signals, illuminated signs and hand signals. · Displays of signs in prescribed circumstances when hazards are present, e.g. marking of pipe work. Information on the selection and use of safety signs is provided as well as the technical requirements relating to shape size and colour for different types of sign. The legislation excludes signs that should be used in connection with traffic, transport or marking of dangerous substances. * Harassment form procedure- managers have to make sure that they listen to their employees. If they don't listen to their employees then there could be a conflict. If some is getting harassed then the manager has to make sure that they try and fixed the problem.
  18. 18. Harassment can be external or internal to an organisation. There are many different harassment that people can go through they are sexual, physical and non- physical. Management has to make sure that they look after their staff. Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace E3 All employees who work for a business all have to take some kind of responsibility for health and safety. They have to take responsibility forthem selves and people around them. Employees have to make sure that they take duty of care. Duty of care means that an employee has to take care of what they are doing. They have to make sure that they don't cause any injuries to anyone other wise it is a criminal offence resulting in punishment of the perpetrator. The negligent person will not be punished; however the injured party may seek financial compensation as a result. The compensation is paid by the individual who has caused the loss and could amount to millions of pounds. Responsibility Responsibility of health and safety is taken care by everyone in the business. The manager is the one in charge of making sure that all employees new or old (if needed adequate training in health and safety) get training in health and safety. The following will show the responsibility each person/persons have in the organisation.
  19. 19. · Corporation-The ultimate authority and responsibility for establishing and maintaining effective policies regarding health and safety issues specific to the foundation facilities and operations rest with the executive director. · Safety Committee- The safety committee has been established and is charged with evaluating policy and procedures on issues relating to health and safety in the workplace. The committee consist of managers, supervisors and employee representative form each unit. It is also the responsibility of this committee to develop and coordinate an injury and illness prevention program. · Directors/Managers- It is the responsibility of the director/manager to coordinate and maintain the injury and illness prevention program and procedures to ensure effective compliance with the health and safety policies as they relate to operation under their control. Managers have to also make sure that they give training to the staff. Specific areas include employee's education and training identification and correction of unsafe conditions and record keeping. Specifically these individual will: Ø Give maximum support to all programs and committee as required. Ø Instruct employees in recognising and avoiding unsafe conditions including hazards associated with non- routine task and emergency operation. Ø Provide training to employees in safe work practises prior to start
  20. 20. of work. Ø Review serious accidents to ensure proper reports are completed and appropriate action is taken to prevent repetition. Ø Documents all employee training activities. Forward documentation to human resources. Ø Inspect work area often to detect unsafe conditions and work practises. Utilise foundation self inspection checklist as required. · Supervisors-familiarise themselves with foundation safety polices, programs and procedures. Provide complete safety training and education of health and safety to employees prior to the task of duties. Review accidents to ensure that proper reports are completed and appropriate action taken to prevent repetition. Ensure that all injuries no matter how minor are treated immediately and referred to human resources to ensure prompt reporting to the insurance carrier. Inspect work areas often to detect unsafe conditions and work practises. Utilise foundation self-inspection checklist as required. · Employees-Employees are responsible for reading and complying with procedures and guidelines provide by their supervisor. Employees are responsible for asking questions of their supervisors when they are concerned about an unknown or hazardous situation. Report to their supervisor of workplace hazards without fear of reprisal. Work in a manner that protects themselves and co-workers. Attend scheduled training sessions understand and comply with all applicable safety requirements. Failure to comply with established safety rules may be
  21. 21. reflected in performance evaluation and may lead to disciplinary action. No employee is required to perform any function or operation that is considered hazardous. Wear protective equipment when working in hazardous operation area and/or required by the supervisor. Submit any suggestions for accident preventions which may assist in improving working conditions or work practises to their immediate supervisor. Employee's responsibilities Instructions set out on COSHH safe working method statement must, so far as is reasonably practicable, are adhered to. Employees should use the control measures identified as part of the COSHH assessments in the way they are intended to be used and should, in particular: · Use the control measures provided for materials, plant and processes. · Wear in a proper manner the PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) provided. · Store the PPE when not in use in the accommodation provided. · Remove any PPE which could cause contamination before eating, drinking or smoking. · Practice a high standard of personal hygiene, and make proper use of the facilities provided for washing, showering or bathing and for
  22. 22. eating and drinking. · Report promptly to management any defects discovered in any control measure (including systems of work), device or facility, or any item of PPE. As these are the people who take responsibility for health and safety they all have different stages of health and safety to look after. One person /persons may look after in making the polices, procedure and other people would have to look out for hazards or they have to make sure that they follow the policies that are drawn up. But even if they follow the health and safety there is also lots more too learn form different hazards. They can get different information about health safety form different business organisations. They can get more information through architects who can help them with the building side of the things, the police, fire service, ambulance service, health and safety executive, environmental health officer and external bodies. Managers and supervisors are responsible in handing out good and useable protective equipment where it is needed. The following will show what different kinds of protection are needed and for what types of jobs: Eye and Face Protection Chemical hazards-Safety glasses are the minimum protection recommended for all operations involving hazardous chemicals. When there is a
  23. 23. significant risk of splash to the eyes and face when using or dispensing hazardous liquids, non-vented chemical goggles or safety glasses with side shields and full-face shield offer the best protection. Physical hazards-when using high-pressure cleaning or spray equipment, safety glasses with side shields and full-face shields are the recommended PPE. Those work activities that produce chips or dust-such as grinding/drilling, power fastening, or power tools-require safety glasses with side shields as a minimum protection level and in some instances may also require the use of a full face shield. Welding-Welding operations require a full welding hood with the appropriate tinted vision screen. Safety glasses with side shields must be used when the hood is raised or removed. When doing acetylene-oxygen torch soldering, brazing, or cutting, appropriately tinted safety glasses with side shields or tinted goggles are the appropriate PPE. Lasers-When using lasers or when in an area with a working laser, appropriate safety eyewear is a must. Different lasers require different types and shades of eye protection. Consult the Radiation Safety Department for appropriate protective eyewear. Hand/Arm and Body Protection When using hazardous chemicals, specialized gloves offering protection for specific chemical families, a laboratory coat, and at times a splash apron are the appropriate PPE. Insulated gloves and arm sleeve
  24. 24. covers are recommended when handling hot or cold materials. To reduce cut or abrasion injuries, use puncture or abrasion resistant gloves, arm sleeve covers, and at times an apron, to lessen this exposure. Head and Foot Protection Occasions may develop during a work shift or job duty when the use of a hard hat or other head protection and foot protection is necessary. All hard hats or safety shoes must meet the requirements for protection to protect themselves form any heavy things falling on people Hearing Protection If your work areas or specific job tasks have been designated as requiring hearing protection, you must wear approved protective equipment. Personal stereos or Walkmans are not considered approved hearing protection. Supervisors are responsible for identifying hearing protection areas and generally provide training on the use of hearing protection equipment. Certain work areas or tasks may be designated as requiring additional protective measures. Respiratory Protection Some employees are required to wear respirators for specific job duties. Respirators include dust masks, air-purifying negative-pressure respirators, self-contained breathing apparatus, supplied-air respirators, and other such devices. If you wear one of these respirators, you must have a physical exam and you must be "fit
  25. 25. tested" and trained before using it on your job. Departments with employees wearing respirators must have a written Respiratory Protection Program. First aid requires a lot of thing when it comes to health and safety in the workplace. Having a first aid person and the essential equipment could save lives if there are serious injuries. The first aid room is important is has to have the following thing in it: · Sink with hot and water running water · Drinking water and disposable cups · Soap and paper towels · First aid box · Container suitable for the safe disposal of clinical wastes · A couch (or folding bed) with waterproof protection and clean pillows and blankets · A chair · A telephone · An accident, incident, occupational health report book The first aider who is appointed sometimes if the business
  26. 26. organisation is big then they might appoint more then 3. But whoever is appointed has to take charge when someone is injured or falls ill they would also have to take charge in calling for an ambulance if required. They have to look after the first aid equipment for example restocking the first aid box. But the first aider's are not allowed to give any kind of medication to the injured or ill person. Managers have to take care of making sure that they do risk assessment. This lets the managers and the business know what the problems are and where the problems are. By doing a risk assessment they will be able to repair anything that is not working and improve anything that needs to be improved. There are many things that have a risk assessment. The manager should take responsibility of doing a risk assessment. There are risk assessment for many things to do with health and safety like fires, health and safety and display screen assessments. Having a simple diagram which shows the health committees of the organisation is simple to understand. It shows who is represented by whom and also who has meeting with whom. I have done a flow chart that represents this. This helps with improving the health and safety. This gives the managers, the health and safety committee, employees, the executives of the organisation guidance of meeting that are going to be taken place and who has meeting with whom. Health & Safety Committees ORGANISATIONS EXECUTIVE/ MANAGEMENT TEAM
  27. 27. JOINT DEPARTMENTAL H&S COMMITTEES Senior Departmental Management Health and Safety Adviser (Central) Departmental Safety Adviser Management Representatives Trade Union Representatives JOINT H & S COMMITTEE Head of Personnel Services Health and Safety Manager Trade Union Safety Representatives (from all trade unions) Senior Departmental Representative (For each department) CORPORATE H & S GROUP Health & Safety Manager
  29. 29. [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace E4/C2 Risk assessment is a requirement of the management of health and safety at work regulation 1992. A risk assessment has to be taken up
  30. 30. by a business but they would have to make sure that they write down the assessment. However if they employ then five people then they have a responsibility of making sure that they do a risk assessment. They have to make sure that people in the organisation are aware of the health and safety * A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm for example a slippery floor * Risk is the likelihood of a hazard causing harm Nothing can be absolutely free form risk. Therefore nothing can be absolutely safe. However there are degree of risk and the health and safety at work act 1974 requires that risk is reduced to a level as low as reasonably practicable. Risk assessment is the technique to achieve this. Risk assessment involves the following: * Identifying the hazards resulting from the organisation activities that could affect anyone including members of the governing body, employees, volunteers and the general public. * Assessing the risk of the hazard occurring * Evaluating the likely severity of the outcome * Eliminating the hazards if possible or else reducing them to the lowest level of risk that is reasonable practicable. Assessing risk requires detailed knowledge of the working practices
  31. 31. normally only found in people who are experienced in doing the work. I believe that assessing risk cannot be properly done without the cooperation and involvement of the organisations employees and volunteers. There is no overall formula for rating risk but the main factor that has to be taken into account are: · The nature of the hazard · The likelihood of it occurring · How often it may occur · How the hazard could affect health or safety · The working environment e.g. lifting heavy weights could be more of a risk in a cold and wet environment. · The number of employees, volunteers or member of the public who could be affected · Potentially vulnerable people such as the young, elderly or disabled. The results of the risk assessment will be useful in determining gaps in skills or knowledge in the business and identifying training needs. There are five steps to risk assessment shown below. Step 1 look for potential hazards
  32. 32. When doing the assessment they would have to walk around the premises with employee/volunteers or safety representative if available and take critical look at the surroundings to see what could be potentially cause harm or injury to any staff, volunteers or members of the public. Not forgetting to ask other people's opinion in this process they may mention problems they are not aware of and involving them in the process usually means that they will be more committed to the outcome. As a simple example as the manager is walking around they might notice one of the employees reaching under tables to disconnect a hot kettle in order to plug in a printer. The manager may realise that this hazard which could result in an accident- the employee could be scalded by the hot water they could hit their head on the table or water could go into the electrical socket. Step 2 determine who can be harmed Do not forget to consider: · young workers, trainees and expectant mothers, etc who may be at particular risk; · cleaners, visitors, maintenance workers, etc who may not be in the workplace all the time; · Members of the public, or people you share your workplace with, if there is a chance they could be hurt by any work activities. STEP 3 - Evaluate the risks and decide whether existing precautions are adequate or more should be done
  33. 33. You can now sit down and complete your assessment. Consider how likely it is that each hazard could cause harm. This will determine whether or not they need to do more to reduce the risk. Even after all precautions have been taken, some risk usually remains. What you have to decide for each significant hazard is whether this remaining risk is high, medium or low. First, ask yourself whether you have done all the things that the law requires. For example, in your workshops, there are legal requirements on the prevention of access to dangerous parts of machinery. Then ask yourself whether generally accepted industry standards are in place. Your aim is to make all risks small by adding to your precautions as necessary. If they seem to find that something needs to be done, draw up an "action list" and give priority to any remaining risks which are high and/or those which could affect most people. In taking action ask yourself: · Can I get rid of the hazard altogether? · If not, how can I control the risks so that harm is unlikely? In controlling risks apply the principles below, if possible in the following order: · try a less risky option;
  34. 34. · prevent access to the hazard (e.g. by guarding); · organise work to reduce exposure to the hazard; · issue personal protective equipment; · Provide welfare facilities (e.g. washing facilities for removal of contamination and first aid). Improving health and safety need not cost a lot. For instance, placing a mirror on a dangerous blind corner to help prevent vehicle accidents, or putting some non-slip material on slippery steps, are inexpensive precautions considering the risks? Failure to take simple precautions can cost you a lot more if an accident does happen. If you share a work place, tell the other employers and self-employed people about any risks your work could cause them, and what precautions you are taking. Also, think about the risks to your own workforce from those who share your workplace. STEP 4 - Record your findings If the manager has fewer than five employees they do not need to write anything down, though it is useful to keep a written record of what you have done. But, if they employ five or more people, they must record the significant findings of your assessment. This means writing down the significant hazards and conclusions. Examples might be "Electrical installations: insulation and earthing checked and found sound" or "Fume from welding: local exhaust ventilation provided and regularly checked".
  35. 35. Risk assessments must be suitable and sufficient. The managers need to be able to show that: · a proper check was made; · they asked who might be affected; · they dealt with all the obvious significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involved; · The precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low. The written record can help you if an HSE inspector asks what precautions the manager have taken, or if they become involved in any action for civil liability. It can also remind them to keep an eye on particular hazards and precautions. It also helps to show that they have done what the law requires. Refer to other documents, such as manuals, the arrangements in your health and safety policy statement, company rules, manufacturers' instructions, there health and safety procedures and there arrangements for general fire safety. These may already list hazards and precautions and you do not need to repeat it. They must tell there employees about the findings. STEP 5 - Review your assessment and revise it if necessary Sooner or later the employer will bring in new machines, substances
  36. 36. and procedures which could lead to new hazards. If there is any significant change, add to the assessment to take account of the new hazard. Do not amend the orighinal assessment for every trivial change or for each new job unless they introduce significant new hazards. In any case, it is good practice to review the assessment from time to time. These are the five steps that a business should take account for if they want make sure that they do a good risk assessment. I have on the following page made my own risk assessment that a business can use. This risk assessment will have all things that is needed for a manger or a health and safety representative to make sure that they a good risk assessment. RISK ASSESSMENT RECORD RISK ASSESSMENT FOR: ASSESSMENT UNDERTAKEN: ASSESSMENT REVIEW: Company Name:
  37. 37. Company Address: Postcode: (Date :) Signed: Date: Date: STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 List significant hazards here: List groups of people who are at risk from the significant hazards you have identified: List existing controls or note where the information may be found. List risks which are not adequately controlled and the action needed: NOTE: You must tell your employees about your findings.
  38. 38. They have a three step risk assessments as for the steps four and five they can go back to review there risk assessment and also they have to make sure that record their risk assessment. First aid assessment All employers have a duty under law to provide first aid facilities and equipment which is adequate and appropriate for the workplace. By law employers must: * Make an assessment to decide what first aid facilities are adequate and appropriate for the organisation * Provide adequate equipment and facilities For instance an organisation which refurbishes old gas ovens and fridges will have different first aid requirements to an organisation offering computer training to the unemployed. This is why an assessment needs to be carried out and why the regulations do not give a definitive list for outlining the minimum standards all organisations have to achieve. Factors to be considered in carrying out first aid assessment * Workplace hazards and risk- for instance are there any dangerous machines or chemicals being used? * The size of the organisation- the more personnel you have the grater the risk of someone needing first aid
  39. 39. * The organisationhistory's of accident * The nature and distribution of the workforce- do personnel work alone or in remote areas? * The nature of activities- the assessment of an organisation which takes parties of young children canoeing will be very different from that of an organisation arranging a school trips to the theatre. If minibuses are used are first aids kits fitted? Are personnel trained to administer first aid * The availability of emergency medical service- some countryside organisation work in very remote location * Employees working on shared or multi-occupied sites- it is very easy to assume the business or organisation next door will have a first aid kit or first aider * Holidayand other absences- absences which may leave your organisation with no first aiders or appointed persons. Assessment is the key to all above points After the first aid assessment is completed the managers will be able to use the results obtain to decide on the type of first aid provision they will need and the number of first aiders or appointed person required. They must as a minimum have someone who is able and available to take charge in an emergency. This individual is known as
  40. 40. the appointed person. An appointed person is someone who has basic first aid knowledge and is available whenever people are at work. They can take charge in an emergency and are responsible for calling the emergency services. The following is the first aid assessment that an organisation can use for assessing there first aid. Workplace First Aid Assessment Department: Size and layout of the workplace: Area: __________________________________________________________ Single Storey/Multi-Storey Complex: __________________________________ Access between Floors: ____________________________________________ Number and Distribution of Employees: Number of Staff: _____________________________ Overtime Worked / After Hours: __________________ Are any employees isolated: _____________________ Are members of the public present: ________________ Nature of Hazards and Severity of Risk:
  41. 41. Known Hazards (refer to Incident Form): _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Severity of Risk: _____________________________________________________________ Do MSDSs and Product Labels specify any first aid requirements ? _____________________________________________________________ Location of the Workplace Nearest Hospital: ________________________________________________ Nearest Medical Service: __________________________________________ Time to Medical Service: __________________________________________ Known Occurrences of Accidents and Illnesses (Refer to the last 12 months of accident data)
  42. 42. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Near Misses: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Workplace First Aid Assessment Outcomes of Assessment Contents of the First Aid Kit: __________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Number and Location of Kits: __________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ First Aid Room: ______________________________________________ Competencies Required of First Aiders: _________________________
  43. 43. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Training Required of First Aiders: _____________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Training required for Staff: ____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Number of First Aiders Required: ______________________________ Health and Safety Representative: _______________________________ Date: _________________________________________________________ First Aid Officers: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________
  44. 44. ____________________________________________ This first aid assessment sheet is a simple way in which an organisation is able to asses their first aid. It's very important for a business to do this as I have explained on the above. Fire risk assessment The attached form has been designed to assist the managers in undertaking a fire risk assessment (FRA). It is recommended that the assessment is undertaken by the HSC accompanied by the local Fire Warden. Step 1 Identify the Hazard The Regulations require that you: · Assess the fire risks in you workplace; consider sources of ignition, combustible material and structural features that could promote the spread of fire. · Check that a fire can be detected in a reasonable time and that people can be warned. · Check that people who may be in the building at the time can get out safely. · Ensure that reasonable fire fighting equipment, of the correct type, is available.
  45. 45. · Check that those in the building know what to do in the event of a fire. · Check that the fire safety equipment is correctly located and maintained. List the hazards and controls on the FRA Form, where hazards are identified they should take steps to reduce the risks by removing or reducing the numbers of ignition sources and quantities of combustible materials in the workplace. To reduce the risk to people there should be adequate fire escape routes, fire detection, alarms and fire fighting equipment. There is little they can do about the structure of the premises but take note of any ducting which is not adequately sealed or foam furniture which does not comply with modern fire standards. Take steps to rectify these matters, for example by contacting Estates Division, and document your action. Step 2 Estimate the Risk Armed with this information a risk assessment can then be produced using the following form and fire risk assessment ratings to identify the level of risk within the workplace. Estimate the likelihood of harm and the severity of the consequences should a fire occur, then calculate the overall risk rating. Where there are several workplaces with similar hazards in the same area. This process will allow an overall assessment of the building or area to be given on the principle assessment form whilst still identifying specific risks in individual workplaces.
  46. 46. Step 3 Further Action Once completed the FRA Form should be signed by the person carrying out the assessment and countersigned by the Head of Unit. Where a risk rating higher than 'Low' has been identified appropriate action must be instigated to reduce risks as low as practicable. A copy of the FRA must be retained by the HSC and the original sent to the OH&S Section. Step 4 Review the Assessment Assessments must be reviewed if there is any significant change to the workplace or its use; it is also good practice to review assessments regularly to ensure their continued validity. Do not amend the assessment for every trivial change, but if a new task or procedure is introduced into the work area consider the effects it may have on existing assessments. Each time the assessment is reviewed, the appropriate section of the form should be completed. Fire Risk Assessment Form UNIT................................................................................................... Area assessed by this form:....................................................................... Numbers of staff in areas:..................................................................................
  47. 47. Possible numbers of visitors in area:................................................................. Specific Hazards Identified: (e.g. open flames, flammable liquids) Means of Raising Alarm and Escape: (Clear signage and unobstructed routes, assembly points) Fire fighting Equipment: (e.g. types of extinguishers, sprinklers) Control Measures: (Are there sufficient trained Wardens, Are there written procedures?) Assessment of Risk, A*B = Risk Level: LOW MEDIUM HIGH UNSAFE Remedial actions required: (Additional equipment, training, procedures) Action taken: (Annotate with date) Assessors Name:.............................. Signature:......................................... Date of Assessment:...............................
  48. 48. Head of Unit Signature:......................................... Date:.................................. Date of review and assessor: ................................................................................................. Date of review and assessor: ................................................................................................. Date of review and assessor: ................................................................................................. Date of review and assessor: ................................................................................................. A fire occurs when a source of ignition, fuel and oxygen combine in the correct quantities. If any one of these is missing, a fire cannot start. Taking steps to prevent these coming together will therefore reduce the chances of a fire occurring. Emergency escape lighting may be needed if areas of the workplace are without natural daylight or are used at night. The relevant parts of the workplace should be checked with the lights off to see whether there is sufficient borrowed light from other sources to illuminate escape routes e.g. street lights or unaffected lighting circuits. Where there is insufficient light, some form of emergency lighting should be provided. Emergency escape lighting should: · Indicate the escape routes clearly
  49. 49. · Provide illumination along escape routes to allow safe movement towards the final exits · Ensure that the fire alarm call points and fire fighting equipment can be easily located. To ensure that health and safety is maintained they have to make sure that they have the correct assessment material to ensure that they record any fire hazard. I have appendix A and appendix B. Appendix A is about recording how many fire drills they have. Appendix B is a fire safety inspection form for a business. This helps when not doing a fire risk assessment. This just enables a business to see what hazards they have currently and let them check the equipments. Appendix B also has to been done every six months. These materials will help a business by them making sure that fire is not a hazard as it can be very deadly. Appendix A: Records of fire drills ================================== Fire Drill Record ================= Premise:
  50. 50. Location: Date Full / Part Evacuation Start Time Finish Time Total Time Number of staff present Approximate number of people present Comments & Signature Appendix B: Fire Safety Inspection Checklist FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST - to be completed every 3 months ======================================================
  51. 51. PREMISES:…………………………………………. DATE:…………………… COMPLETED BY (PRINT NAME):………………………………………………. Tick the appropriate column. If you tick "yes" to all the questions, fire safety is being well managed. If you tick "no" to a question, you will need to take action to improve fire management. ITEM ---- YES --- NO ACTION ------ MANAGEMENT ---------- Is fire alarm tested weekly ?
  52. 52. Has a fire drill been held within the past 6 months? Is there a means for calling the emergency services? Are fire doors kept closed? Are lifts signed not to be used in a fire? Are escape routes clear of storage? Are escape routes well signed? Are fire notices completed & near the call points? Are suitable fire extinguishers available? Have extinguishers been serviced in past year? Has electrical equipment been tested in past year? Are extension leads kept to a minimum? Are multi-adaptors avoided? Is the smoking policy followed? Are flammable substances kept to a minimum? Is the workplace tidy & free from unnecessary combustible items?
  53. 53. PEOPLE ------ Can night staff & staff that "sleep in" escape easily? Can disabled staff or clients escape easily? Can cleaners & ancillary workers escape easily? Are contractors shown fire escape routes? Are people hiring venues inducted & shown the fire alarm &escape routes? ACTIONS REQUIRED: ================= COSHH Assessments A COSHH assessment shall be completed for each product on inventory which have been identified as hazardous to health and for each work activity that involves a substance hazardous to health, i.e. any harmful substances given off during the activity (dust, fumes etc.).
  54. 54. Each individual completing a COSHH assessment must be competent to do so. Assessors should have received suitable and sufficient training prior to undertaking this task. The Manager needs to identify the following information for each assessment: · Constituents of the product including the form in which it is used. · Any hazard associated with those constituents, i.e. what effect they could have both short term and long term. · Exposure type: inhalation, ingestion, absorption through the skin. · How the product is actually used. · Amount of the product used. · Where the product will be used. · Who could be affected, to what extent and for how long? This includes persons other than employees, e.g. tenants, members of the public. Check out actual operations. Monitor to produce and identify answers, if previous experience is not available. · How the substance is stored. · Emergency procedures.
  55. 55. · Control measures currently in use. A conclusion about the possible risks to health needs to be made from the above information. These will either be: · The risks are insignificant. · There are risks to health but these have been controlled so far as is reasonably practicable. · There are risks to health which are not adequately controlled and further preventative measures are necessary. The following shows the COSHH assessment form that a business would use. COSHH ASSESSMENT Complete for all substances hazardous to health: Name of Person Completing Form: Dept: Section: Location:
  56. 56. Tel: Product Name: Constituents: Use(s): How is the product actually used? Hazards: Estimated quantity used per week or month? Location(s) used: Persons exposed: Staff: Job Titles: Service Users: Members of the Public Young Persons Others: (Please state)
  57. 57. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Estimated exposure time per day: Is the product used in poorly ventilated areas? Yes No If Yes, please give details: Is the product used with other chemicals? Yes No Is accidental contact with other chemicals possible? Yes No If Yes to either, please give details: Is dust, gas, vapour, fume or mist given off during its use? Yes No If Yes, please give details: Where and how is it stored?
  58. 58. How is it transported? How is the product and the empty container disposed of? What is the procedure for spillages? What, if any control measures are currently used? (tick those that apply) Safe system of work Isolation/shielding General ventilation Reduced exposure time Restricted personnel Local ventilation (LEV) Personal Protective Equipment: Type: Goggles/visor
  59. 59. Gloves Coveralls Respirator/mask Shoes/boots Other (please specify) Are there any exposure standards? Yes No Has any monitoring been carried out? Yes No (if yes, refer to monitoring records) Conclusion: The risks are insignificant; There are risks to health but these have been controlled so far as is reasonably practicable provided control measures are monitored; or There are risks to health which are not adequately controlled and further preventative measures are necessary. Any action required: Any other comments:
  60. 60. To the best of my knowledge the above information is correct and complete [IMAGE][IMAGE]Signed Date Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace E5 Many businesses have many different health and safety rules which they have to comply with. Some businesses have other health and safety rules which will be for a pacific business like a restaurant business. All businesses which supply food and drink have to comply with certain different laws which may not be needed in a building site. The supply of food and drink is common activity in the majority of organisation. The requirement to provide food and drink which is safer is absolute any person falling ill as a result of culinary activities may be able to seek damages if they have been negligent. There is a general duty of care to provide wholesome safe food and drink in all circumstances but if they are providing food for sale then they have to comply with the regulations. Illness and deaths due to food poisoning have been given high media profile in recent years. The food safety act 1990 requires for human consumption is safe not falsely labelled or presented. There are other regulations regarding food hygiene made under this act and the three component areas of which may
  61. 61. apply to organisation which sell or supply food. The food safety (general food hygiene) regulation 1995 The regulations create the basic framework for food hygiene law specifying the basic hygiene conditions fro food businesses. These regulation apply to food which is produced commercially for profit and food produced by voluntary groups or any other non-profit making organisation. The person in charge must ensure that: * Food handlers are supervised and trained in food hygiene matters * Those in charge of the food production control the quality of the food by good management of hygiene. The regulation also requires: * Personal hygiene for persons handling food * Sanitary provision and wash basins * Clean work area and equipment * Suitable premises * Arrangement for food waste * Arrangement for movable or temporary premises including transport e.g. check that the site is suitable and the water supply must be
  62. 62. whole some and without risk The food safety (temperature control) regulations 1995 These specify the temperature at which foods that are likely to support the growth of pathogenic bacteria must be kept. Generally speaking food which can support bacterial growth must be kept at temperature lower than 8C or higher than 60C- check the temperature gauges on fridges or hot plate. The food premises (registration) regulations 1995 These require that food premises (including vehicles) be registered by the local authorities in order that the premises can be inspected. Organisations dealing with food must register with the local authority if their premises are used on five or more consecutive days or they are used on more than five days in any weeks. They will not be required to register of they supply beverages/biscuits to a business whose main activity is not the sale of food or if you supply food via automatic vending machines. A maximum fine of £1,000 can be imposed for failing to register with the local authority well advices to check. The food safety act 1990 and the regulations allows a defence of due diligence. Here the defendant needs to show that they took all reasonable precautions and record system of control, training records, cleaning regimes and risk assessment will need to be evident. If catering is a regular activity there will be key personnel who handle food to attend a basic food & hygiene certificate course. Actual cases of food poisoning and salmonella are not recorded and the
  63. 63. 'notified cases of food poisoning' include a significant number of non food borne cases and should not be used as an indication of food safety standards. It should also be noted that approximately 20% of food borne illness is acquired abroad. Food Poisoning Notifications [IMAGE] Salmonella Isolates [IMAGE] Food Poisoning Outbreaks [IMAGE] Others business which have extra legal constraints are builders. Any type of building job requires the general health and safety laws but they have to also comply with other legislations. People who do building work have to comply with some different laws then other businessorganisations. Because their job consist of many hazards which is very easily turned into injuries. One of the laws that they have to comply with is wearing head protection. Head protection is provided to give protection against foreseeable risks of injury to the head to which the wearer may be exposed. Most head protection is in the form of a "hard hat", normally of plastic construction. If the plastic is not properly cared for, its tensile strength may be affected and it may no longer be strong enough to provide adequate
  64. 64. protection. Under the Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 and the Personal Protection Equipment at Work Regulations 1992, employers must provide, maintain and replace head protection whenever necessary and employees must take reasonable care of any head protection provided and report any loss or obvious defect to their employer. Both employer and user must read and understand the requirements of the above regulations. The head protection provided should also be compatible with the work or activity carried out by the wearer, for example, a helmet with a little or no peak is functional for a surveyor or scaffold erector who is constantly looking upwards. How to prevent damage and ensure damaged head protection Is not used · Hard hats should be replaced at least within the manufacturers recommended time period (approximately every three years). · Any hard hat that has suffered any significant impact damage should be replaced immediately. · Any hard hat exposed to a solvent (e.g. point spillage) should be replaced immediately. · While not in use, hard hats should be stored in a cool dark place, preferably in the manufacturer's original box. They should never be left in the back window of a car. · Names, symbols or any other markings should never be painted or
  65. 65. glued to a hard hat. · Hard hats should be carefully examined both before and after use for any signs of damage. Unit 24: Managing Health and Safety In the Workplace C3/A2 Businesses have to make sure that they have policies in their organisation. There are many policies that businesses have to adopt to when it comes to health and safety. One of the policies that a business has to have is health and safety policy. The policy would consist of responsibilities that business has and also the general statement on what the policy would consist on. There are many policies in a business like fire policies, first aid, COSHH policies, display screen policies etc. Policies help a business in making sure that they have everything in order that is to do with they also show who has responsibility to what. These polices are just some that a business can have but there are many more which a business has. Health and Safety Policy 1. The organisation would have to conform with all statutory legislation and recognises and accepts its responsibility as an employer for providing so far as it is reasonably practicable, safe and healthy work places and working environment, both physically and
  66. 66. psychologically, for all its employees, volunteers, other workers and people who use Council services. 2. theorganisation would have to take all steps within its ability to meet this responsibility, paying particular attention to workplace risk assessment, health surveillance, and the provision and maintenance of: (i) Plant, equipment and systems of work; (ii) Arrangements for the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances; (iii) Information, instruction, training and supervision to enable all employees to recognise hazards and contribute positively to their own safety and health at work and to the safety and health of others; (iv) Access to and the condition of work places; (v) Welfare facilities at work; (vi) To provide sufficient organisation and arrangements for the health and safety of persons not in the Council's employment that visit to carry out their duties or regularly occupy all or part of Council designated working environment. 3. Without detracting from the paramount responsibility of managers and supervisors for ensuring safe conditions at work, the organisation would have to continue to keep under review the organisational
  67. 67. arrangements to provide competent technical advice on health, safety and welfare matters where this is necessary to assist line management in its task. 4. All reasonable action will be taken to protect the employees, and others who are the organisations responsibility under the Health and Safety and Work Act etc 1974 and its associated Regulations, from physical and/or verbal abuse. 5. No safety policy is likely to be successful unless it actively involves employees themselves. The organisation would have to therefore co-operate with safety representatives appointed by recognised trade unions and will provide them where necessary with facilities to carry out their role. The organisation will also co-operate in the development of appropriate safety committee arrangements for joint consultation on health and safety matters. 6. The organisation has to also remind employees that they should ensure they understand the health and safety precautions connected with their job and observe them, make use of the protective equipment and clothing available and report defects and hazards to their management. 7. This statement to be read in conjunction with the employee's departmental safety policy and departmental codes of practice. 8. This statement, all departmental health and safety policies and any revision of the policies must be brought to the notice of all employees along with sufficient health and safety induction training
  68. 68. for all new employees. 9. This statement will be reviewed, added to, or modified from time to time. Supplementary statements will be issued as appropriate cases relating to the work of particular departments or group of employees. Risk Assessment Policy The business organisation would comply with the requirements of the Management of the Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. As an employer it will ensure the suitable and sufficient assessment of: · the risks to the health and safety of it's employees to which they are exposed whilst they are at work; and · The risk to the health and safety of persons not in their employment* arising out of or in connection with the conduct of its undertaking. [IMAGE] * Persons not in their employment" includes sub-contractors, customers, end-users, the public, emergency personnel, etc. who can be affected by the undertaking. Risk to such people can arise in connection with the operations, premises, plant, purchasing function, design function, services, storage and transport operations, waste
  69. 69. handling and any other aspect of the undertaking. It is the organisations aim to ensure that arrangements are in place to ensure a systematic approach to the assessment and control of risks. The risk assessment procedure provides a practical approach that is cost-effective and will assist in management fulfilling health and safety responsibilities. Assessments will enable management to plan, introduce and monitor measures needed to ensure compliance with health and safety legislation, to implement best practice and to ensure that particular risk are eliminated altogether or controlled adequately at all times. Assessments will be reviewed when there is a reason to suspect they are no longer valid or where there has been a significant change in the matter to which it relates. Where the assessment identifies the need for preventative and protective measures, these shall be implemented using the following hierarchy: · avoiding risk altogether e.g. doing the work in a different way; · evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided; · combating the risk at source; · adapting the work to the individual (consulting those who will be affected), especially as regards the design of workplaces, the choice of work equipment and the choice of working methods, with a view, in
  70. 70. particular to alleviating monotonous work and work at a predetermined work rate and increasing the control individuals have over the work they are responsible for; · adapting to technical progress; · take advantage of technological and technical progress which often offers opportunities for improved working methods; · Implement risk prevention measures to form part of a coherent overall prevention policy and approach. This will take into account theorganisation of work, working conditions, social relationships and the influence of factors relating to the working environment; · giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures; · giving appropriate instructions to employees; · The existence of a positive health and safety culture within the organisation. All significant findings of risk assessments will be recorded. Employees will be consulted on risk assessments which affect their work and will be provided with comprehensible and relevant information on the risks to their health and safety identified by those assessments including the preventative and protective measures.
  71. 71. Anyone undertaking a risk assessment will be adequately trained in the risk procedure and be familiar with the activities involved in the activity being assessed. For some service/sections of business, presenting few or simple hazards, a suitable and sufficient risk assessment will be a very straightforward process based on judgement and requiring no specialist skills or complicated techniques. For a few intermediate cases specialist advice may be sought in respect of unfamiliar risks, such as those requiring some knowledge of ergonomics or more complex processes and techniques, and in these instances the departmental safety adviser will be able to help. The depth of risk assessment and time spent on it need not be great; it will depend upon the risks posed. Manual Handling Policy A business organisation has to comply with the requirements of the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992. Where the general risk assessment indicates the possibility of risks to employees from the manual handling of loads, the following hierarchy of measures will be followed: 1. Avoiding hazardous manual handling operations so far as reasonably practicable. 2. Completing a suitable and sufficient assessment of any hazardous manual handling operation that cannot be avoided. 3. Reducing the risk from injury from those operations so far as is reasonably practicable.
  72. 72. 'Manual Handling Operations' means any transporting or supporting of a load (including lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving thereof) by hand or by bodily force, as opposed to mechanical handling by crane, lift truck etc. 'Load' includes any person and any animal. A load in this context must be a discrete moveable object. It is the businesses aim to ensure that arrangements are in place to ensure a systematic approach to the assessment and control of risks. Manual handling accidents cause a lot of time to be lost and are probably the most common accidents. Assessments will enable management to plan, introduce and monitor measures needed to ensure compliance with health and safety legislation and to implement best practice. ABSETSOS POLICY a. A business organisation, in recognition of its duties under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 towards its employees, tenants, visitors, service users, contractors and members of the public, undertakes to manage responsibly all asbestos containing material within its control. b. The business organisation will not differentiate between the health risks presented by the three most commonly used types of asbestos, Crocidolite (blue), Amosite (brown) and Chrysotile (white). c. The business organisation aims is to prevent the exposure to
  73. 73. asbestos of anyone who may be affected by the businesses activities. Where this is not reasonably practicable, the business will have to reduce exposure to the lowest level reasonably practicable, by measures other than the use of personal protective equipment. The businessorganisation will also reduce the numbers of people exposed as low as reasonably practicable. d. The aims to undertake a suitable and sufficient assessment of all non-domestic premises to determine whether asbestos is or is liable to be present and to apply the businesses Asbestos Risk Assessment Scheme. These assessments will be reviewed if there is reason to suspect it is no longer valid or there are significant changes in the premises. For Housing properties, assessments will be based on a survey of a representative sample of 20% of the housing stock. e. Where the assessment shows asbestos is present or liable to be present, they will have to ensure a written asbestos plan identifying its location is prepared. This plan should be clearly understandable. f. The business has to recognise that its management responsibility for asbestos containing material and will prioritise all asbestos treatment works. In non-domestic premises where asbestos has been sampled and identified as such, this will be clearly labelled. g. The business organisation will maintain registers of all identified asbestos containing material within the buildings it owns or occupies. These registers will be kept and updated by Property Services (Corporate Services Department).
  74. 74. h. Where an assessment has not been completed, any materials not readilyrecognised in buildings and fittings (e.g. glass, wood etc) will be deemed to contain asbestos and treated as such. i. The business will have to provide information on identified or suspected asbestos to occupiers of its premises and any other appropriate persons. Where asbestos based material has been identified on a sample survey the occupiers of all similar dwellings in the block should be notified of the likely locations of asbestos, based on the results of the sample survey. j. The organisation will not undertake or contract out any work to any building without adequate information on the nature, condition and extent of any asbestos containing material likely to be disturbed. Any corporate or departmental asbestos register/database should be consulted, along with the premises asbestos plan. Works orders shall indicate that this has occurred or include details of the asbestos information. k. The business organisation will not carry out any work that exposes or is liable to expose any person to asbestos without ensuring a suitable and sufficient assessment has been completed of the risk created by that exposure (work assessment), including the control measures required. No work will be undertaken unless the required control measures have been properly implemented. Where the work assessment indicates the likelihood that the action level will be exceeded, the work shall be undertaken by a licensed contractor. l. The business organisations directors will have to provide adequate
  75. 75. information, instruction and training for all employees who are involved in the management are liable to be exposed to during the course of their employment. All contractors who are liable to be exposed to asbestos will be required to show evidence of similar information, instruction and training to their staff, as part of the vetting procedure for the Approved List. Polices allows a business to work better. The manager in the business have to make sure that they show the polices to there employees. Polices is a rule that has to be in a business organisation so people will follow the rules of the business and also the law. The policies of the organisation would be drawn up by the cooperation itself. As are the one who are responsible in making sure that the make a good policy for the business. But as they have the overall power on making the policies the safety committee will be in charge of evaluating the policy's and the procedures that have been drawn up. The impact of having a policy in a business is that there will be fewer mistakes in theorganisation. There will be fewer injuries through following the health and safety policies. This helps as this give the business a good image as they would net have to go through any legal requirements when someone is injured like a customer. As there are changes in the laws. If there are changes to any law which is for the business the businessorganisation has the responsibility of making sure that they change their policies if they have to. This would cost money and time but at the end of the day they would be better of spending money and time in changing around their policy then rather them going to court or getting a fine for not following the law. A policy can always be improved as the laws changes. The policies are changed in a business so that they can make sure that have people following the rules.
  76. 76. Policies can be improved by the organisation · Risk assessments · risk checklist · get feedback from there employees · getting advice form health executives all these people can try and help make a policy better then currently which is used by a business. These people will be able to give advice on what needs top be improved. As well as people also checklists and risk assessment will also help as they can draw up a policy so people would follow them. This will stop any current or new hazards that are discovered returning. But if the business organisation thinks that if by not changing it nothing will happen to them then they are wrong. If a business doesn't change its policy's people will not follow the new rules that are meant to be. They will be breaking the law. And if someone is injured because of the changes of the law has not be drawn up into the policies then the business can be sued and fined. This would lead to theorganisation of having a bad reputation as people will see that they are breaking the law. There sales figure will fall as well as staff turnover would rise. This would also demotivate staff which would lead to them leaving eventually.