PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING AND MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OFPHARMACEUTICAL EQUIPMENT Under the guidance ofDr.R.SANTOSH KUMAR M.Pharm,Ph.D. CH.DIVAKAR RAO M.PHARM (Pharmaceutical Technology) Dept. of Pharmaceutical Technology Regd. No.: 610233701005 SRINIVASA RAO COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical packaging can be defined as the economical means of providing presentation, protection, identification , information, containment, convenience ,compliance , integrity and stability of the product. o The selection of a package therefore begins with a determination of the product’s physical and chemical characteristics, its protective needs, and its marketing requirements.
The materials selected must have followingcharacteristics: They must protect the preparation from environmental conditions. They must not be reactive with the product. They must not impart to the product tastes or odors. Must be non toxic. They must be “FDA” approved. They must meet applicable tamper – resistance requirements. They must be adaptable to commonly employed high-speed packaging equipment
Types of containers: Containers are divided into following types on the basis of their utility :Well – closed containers: A well-closed container protects the contentsfrom loss during transportation,handling,storage or sale.Single dose containers : These containers are used to supply only one ofmedicament and hold generally parenteral products.E.g. ampoules and vials
Multi dose containers: These containers allow the withdrawal of dose at various intervals without changing the strength, quality or purity of remaining portion. these containers hold more than one dose and are used for injectables. E.g. vialsLight-resistant containers: These containers protect the medicament from harmfuleffects of light. These containers are used to store those medicaments which are photo-sensitive.
Air-tight containers: These are also called hermetic containers. These containers haveair-tight sealing or closing. These containers protect the products from dust, moistureand air. Where as air-tight sealed containers are used for injectables,air-tight closedcontainers are meant for the storage of other products.Aerosol containers: These containers are used to hold aerosol products. Thesecontainers have adequate mechanical strength in order to bear the pressure ofaerosol packing.
TYPES OF PACKAGING :Primary packaging :Primary packaging is the material that envelopes the product and holds it.This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package whichis in direct contact with the contents.
Secondary packagingIs outside the primary packaging-perhaps used to group primary packagestogether.
Tertiary packages:Is used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping. The mostcommon form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into the container.
QUALITIES OF GOOD CONTAINER:The container must be neutral towards the material which is stored in it.The container must not interact physically or chemically with the substancewhich it holds.It should help in maintaining the stability of product against theenvironmental factors which causes its deterioration.It should be made of materials which can withstand wear and tear duringnormal handling.It should be able to withstand changes in pressure and temperature.The materials used for making of the container must be non-toxic.
MATERIALS USED FOR MAKING OF CONTAINERS: GLASS- e.g.bottles,vials,ampules,syringes,i.v containers, aerosol containers. PLASTIC- e.g.bottlespouches,tapes,tubes,aerosolcontainers,laminates.
Paper or cardboard-e.g. secondary packaginglabels,inserts,displayunits,pouches,laminates,cartons,carrogatedboxes,foils,paper drums
GLASS CONTAINERS:Composition of glass:Glass is composed principally of sand, soda ash, lime stone andcullet.Sand is almost pure sillica,soda ash is sodium carbonate, limestone is calcium carbonate.Cullet is broken glass that is mixed with the batch and acts asfusion agent for the entire mixture.
Manufacture of glass:The four basic processes used in the production of glass are:-1. Blowing uses compressed air to form the molten glass in the cavity of metal mold.2. In drawing, molten glass is pulled through dies or rollers that shape the soft glass.3. In pressing mechanical force is used to press the molten glass against the side of a mold.4. Casting uses gravity or centrifugal force to cause molten glass to form in the cavity of mold.
TYPES OF GLASSES: Type I-borosilicate glass It is highly resistant glass. It has high melting point so can with stand high temperatures. It is more chemically inert than the soda lime glass. It can resist strong acids,alkalies and all types of solvents. Reduced leaching action.USES:Laboratory glass apparatus.For injection and water for injection.
Type II-treated soda lime glassType II containers are made of commercial soda lime glass that has been dealkalised ortreated to remove surface alkali.The de-alkalizing process is know as sulfur treatment.Sulfur treatment neutralizes the alkaline oxides on the surface, rendering the glassmore chemically resistant. Uses: Used for alkali sensitive products. Infusion fluids, blood and plasma. Large volume container.
Type-III regular soda lime glassContainers are untreated are made of commercial soda lime glass ofaverage are better than average chemical resistance.It contains high concentration of alkaline oxides and imparts alkalinity toaqueous substances.Flakes separate easily.USES:For all solid dosage forms.For oily injections.
Type NP-general purpose soda lime glassContainers are made of soda lime glass supplied for non parental products,intended for oral or topical use.USES:FOR ORAL USE.TOPICAL PURPOSE.
STANDARDS: Test Method Glass type Over flow O.O 2 M capacity H2SO4 required (ml) Powdered Type I All 1 Glass test Water attack Type II ≤ 100 0.7 test > 100 0.2 Powdered Type III All 8.5 Glass test Powdered Type IV /NP All 15 Glass test
ADVANTAGES OF GLASS:They are quite strong and rigid.They are transparent which allows visual inspection of the contents.They are available in various shapes and sizes.They can withstand the variation in temperature and pressure duringsterilization.They are economical and readily available.They can protect the photosensitive medicaments from light during theirstorage.They do not deteriorate with age.
DISADVANTAGES OF GLASS:They are brittle and break easily.They may crack when subject to sudden changes in temperatures.They are heavier in comparison to plastic containers.
PLASTIC CONTAINERS:Plastics are synthetic polymers of high molecular weight.Plastics as packaging have proved useful for a number of reasons,including the ease with which they can be formed, their high quality and thefreedom to design.Plastic containers are extremely resistant to breakage and offer safetyconsumers.
PLASTIC ARE OF TWO FROMS:1. Amorphous plastic.2. Crystalline plastic.AMORPHOUS PLASTIC: They give good transparency. They are hard but posses little brittleness. They are more permeable to gases and vapour. They are of less inert.
CRYSTALLINE PLASTICS:For photo sensitive drugs this type of plastics are selected.They are opaque.They are more flexible.They are less permeable to gases and vapour.They are more inert.
Plastic containers for pharmaceutical products are primarilymade from the following polymers: polyethylene polypropylene poly vinyl chloride polystyrene polymethyl methacrylate amino formaldehyde poly amides
TYPES OF PLASTICS: Thermoplastic type :- On heating, they are soften to viscous fluid which hardens again on cooling. e.g. polyethylene ,PVC ,Polystyrene, polypropylene, Polyamide, Polycarbonate. Thermosetting type :- When heated , they may become flexible but they do not become liquid. Phenol formaldehyde ,urea formaldehyde, melamine formaldehyde
1) Polyethylene: Its is flexible, very light but tough plastic. It is impermeable to water vapour and does not deteriorate with age unless it is exposed to sunlight for long time. It has permeability to certain oils and preservatives. Its melting point being in the range of 1100 to 1500c It has high melting point and can sterilized by autoclaving. It is divided into 1. HDPE (HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE ) 2. LDPE ( LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE ) HDPE : Inert, low cost, tough in nature. LDPE : Inert, great resistant to gases, low cost.
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC ):It is less flexible , heavier and more permeable to water vapour ascompared with normal polythene.it has high clarity and not effectedby sunlight. It is used for preparing eye ointment tubes.
POLYMETYL METOCARYLATE(PMMA):It is hard , strong but light, transparent plastic.It softens at about1000c.It is used for preparing bottles and tubes.
POLYSTYRENE:It is a hard, rigid , light material.It can be easily molded into any shape.So it is used for preparing bottles, tubes,jars,boxes andsyringes.
POLYPROPYLENE:It is similar to high density polythene.It is very light and heat resistant.Its melting point is 1700cIt has high melting point and can sterilized by autoclaving.So it is used for preparing squeeze bottles, tubes, andsyringes.
POLYCARBONATE:It is transparent, has high impact strength and very good heatresistance.It is used in the preparation of surgical equipment.
ADVANTAGES OF PLASTIC:They are light in weight and can be handled easily.They are transported easily.They are unbreakable.They available in various shapes and sizes.They are resistant to inorganic chemicals.
DISAVANTAGES OF PLASTIC:They are permeable to water vapour and atmosphericgases.They are poor conductor to heat.They may absorb chemical substances, such aspreservative for solutions.They are relatively expensive.
DRUG-PLASTIC CONSIDERATIONSA packaging system must protect the drug without altering thecomposition of the product until the last dose is removed.Drug-plastic considerations have been divided into five categories:1. Permeation2. Leaching3. Sorption4. Chemical reaction5. Alteration
Permeation:It is the transmission of gases, vapors or liquids through plasticpackaging material.Permeation of water vapor and oxygen through plastic wall into the drugis a major problem is the dosage form is sensitive to hydrolysis andoxidation.The volatile ingredients might change when stored in plastic containersand the taste of the medicinal products may change for the same reasonof permeation.
Leaching:Some plastic containers have one or more ingredients added to stabilizeit, these may leach into the drug product.Problems may arise with plastics when coloring agents are added insmall quantities to the formula.Particular dyes may migrate into the parental solution and cause a toxiceffect.
Sorption:This process involves the removable of constituents from the drugproduct by the packaging material.The therapeutic efficacy of the product may be reduced due to sorption.Sorption may change the chemical structure, Ph., solvent system,concentration of active ingredients and temperature etc…
Chemical reactivity:Certain ingredients in plastic formulations may react chemically withone or more components of the drug product.Even in micro quantities if incompatibility occurs may alter theappearance of the plastic or the drug product.
Modification:The physical and chemical alteration of the packaging material bythe drug product is called modification.Some solvent systems found to be considerable changes in themechanical properties of the plastics.For example oils have a softening effect on polyethylene,hydrocarbons attack polyethylene and PVC.
METALS:Metals are used for construction of containers. The metalscommonly used for this purpose are aluminium ,tin platedsteel, stainless steel, tin and lead.ADVANTAGES:They are impermeable to light, moisture and gases.They are made into rigid unbreakable containers byimpact extrusion.They are light in weight compared to glass containers.Labels can printed directly on to their surface.
DISADVANTAGES:They are expensive.They react with certain chemicals.
COLLAPSIBLE TUBES METALThe collapsible metal tube is an attractive container that permitscontrolled amounts to be dispensed easily, with good reclosure,andadequate protection of the product.It is light in weight and unbreakable and lends itself to high speedautomatic filling operations.Any ductile metal that can be worked cold is suitable for collapsibletubes, but the most commonly used are tin, aluminium and lead. Tin ismost expensive and lead is cheapest.
Tin:Tin containers are preferred for food, pharmaceuticals and any productfor which purity is considered.Tin is the most chemically inert of all collapsible metal tubes.
Aluminum:Aluminum tubes offer significant savings in product shipping costsbecause of their light weight.They are attractive in nature.
Lead:Lead has the lowest cost of all tube metals and is widely used for nonfood products such as adhesives,inks.paints and lubricants.Lead should never be used alone for anything taken internally becauseof the risk lead poison.With internal linings, lead tubes are used for products such as chloridetooth paste.
CLOSURE:A closure is the part of the package which prevent the contents from escapingand allow no substance to enter the container. Closures are available in five basic designs 1. Screw on, threaded or lug 2. Crimp on(crowns) 3. Press on(snap) 4. Roll on and 5. Friction
Threaded screw cap:When a screw cap is applied, its threads engaged with the corresponding threadsmolded on the neck of the bottle.A liner in the cap, pressed against the opening of the container, seals the product inthe container and provide the resistance to chemical and physical reaction with theproduct.The screw cap is commonly made of metal or plastics. The metal is usually tinplate or aluminum and in plastic is thermoplastic and thermosetting material.
Lug cap:The lug cap is similar to the threaded screw cap and operates on the sameprinciple.It is simply an interrupted thread on the glass finish, instead of acontinuous thread.Unlike the threaded closure, it requires only a quarter turn.The lug cap is used for both normal atmosphere pressure and vacuumpressure closing.
Crown caps:This style cap is commonly used as a crimped closure for beverage bottles.
Roll-on closuresThe aluminum roll on cap can be seal securely, opened easily andresealed effectively.Resealable,non resalable and pilfer proof types of roll on closures areavailable for use on glass or plastic bottles.
Pilfer proof closuresIt is similar to roll on closure but has a greater skirt length.This additional length extends below the threaded portion and fastened to the basiccap by the series of narrow bridges.When the closure is removed the extra portion remains in the space on neck of thecontainer, this indicates that the package has been opened.
CLOSURE LINERS:A liner may be defined as any material that inserted in a cap to effect a sealbetween the closure and the container.It is of two types:1. Homogeneous linerThese are one piece liners available as disk or a ring of rubber or plastic.It can be withstand high temperature sterilization.2. Heterogeneous linersThese are composed of layers of different materials chosen for specificrequirements.It consists of facing and backing. Facing is in contact with product and backingprovides questioning effect.
RUBBER:Rubber is used mainly for the construction of closure meant for vials,transfusion fluid bottles, dropping bottles and as washers in many othertypes of product.BUTYL RUBBER:Advantages:Permeability to water vapor .Water absorption is very low.They are relatively cheaper compared to other synthetic rubbers.Disadvantages:Slow decomposition takes place above 1300C.Oil and solvent resistance is not very good.
NITRILE RUBBER: Advantages: Oil resistant due to polar nitrile group. Heat resistant. Disadvantages: Absorption of bactericide and leaching of extractives are considerable. CHLOROPRENE RUBBERS: Advantages: Oil resistant. heat stability is good.
SILICON RUBBERS: Advantages: Heat resistance. Extremely low absorption and permeability of water. Excellent aging characteristic. Disadvantages: They are very expensive.
TAMPER RESISTANT PACKAGING:The requirement for tamper resistant packaging is now one of themajor considerations in the development of packaging forpharmaceutical products.Tamper resistant package is one having an indicator to entry inwhich, if breached or missing, can reasonably be expected to providevisible evidence to consumers that tampering has occurred.
FDA approves the following configurations as tamperresistant packaging:1. Film wrappers2. Blister package3. Strip package4. Bubble pack5. Shrink seals and bands6. Oil, paper, plastic pouches7. Bottle seals8. Tape seals9. Breakable caps10. Aerosol containers
1. Film wrapperFilm wrapping has been used extensively over theyears for products requiring package integrity orenvironmental protection.It is categorizes into following types:i. End folded wrapperii. Fin seal wrapperiii. Shrink wrapper
End folded wrapperThe end folded wrapper is formed by passing the product into a sheetof over wrapping film, which forms the film around the product andfolds the edges in a gift wrap fashion.The folded areas are sealed by pressing against a heated bar.The materials commonly used for this purpose are cellophane andpolypropylene.
Fin seal wrapperThe seals are formed by crimping the film together and sealingtogether the two inside surfaces of the film, producing a fin seal.Fin sealing is superior than end folded wrapperWith good seal integrity the over wrap can removed or opened bytearing the wrapper.
Shrink wrapperThe shrink wrap concept involves the packaging of the product ina thermoplastic film that has been stretched and oriented during itsmanufacture.An L shaped sealer seals the over wrapThe major advantage of this type of wrapper are the flexibility andlow cost of packaging equipment.
BLISTER PACKAGE:Blister package provides excellent environmental protection, estheticallyleasing and efficacious appearance.It also provides user functionality in terms of convenience ,childresistance and tamper resistanceThe blister package is formed by heat softening a sheet ofthermoplastic resin and vacuum drawing the soften sheet of plastic into acontoured mold.After cooling the sheet is released from the mold and proceeds to thefilling station of the machine.It is then lidded with heat sealable backing material
Peel able backing material is used to meet the requirements ofchild resistance packaging.The material such as polyester or paper is used as a component ofbacking lamination.Materials commonly used for the thermo formable blister are PVC,polyethylene combinations , polystyrene and polypropylene.
STRIP PACKAGEA strip package is a form of unit dose packaging that is commonly usedfor the packaging of tablets and capsule.A strip package is formed by feeding two webs of a heat sealable flexiblethrough heated crimping roller.The product is dropped into the pocket formed prior to forming the finalset of seals.A continuous strip of packets is formed in general.
The strip of packets is cut into desired number of packets.Different packaging materials used are: paper/polyethylene/foil/PVC.
BUBBLE PACKA bubble can be made usually by sandwiching the product between athermo formable, extensible or heat shrinkable plastic film and a rigidbacking material.The product is dropped into pocket which is then sealed with heatsealed coated paper board.
SHRINK BANDINGThe shrink band concept make use of heat shrinking characteristics of astretch oriented polymer usually the PVC.The polymer is manufactured as a extruded oriented tube in a diameterslightly larger than the cap and neck ring of the bottle to be sealed.
BOTTLE SEALSA bottle may be made tamper resistant by bonding and inner seal to therim of the bottle in such a way that the product can only be attained bydestroying the seal.Typically glassine liners are two ply laminations use in two sheet ofglassine paper bounded together with wax or adhesive.For pressure sensitive inner seals pressure sensitive adhesive is coated onthe surface of the inner seal as an encapsulated adhesive.
TAPE SEALSIt involves the application of glued or pressure sensitive tape or labelaround or over the closure of the package which is to be destroyed toobtain the product.The paper used must often is a high density light weight paper withpoor tear strength.Labels made of self destructing papers are available.But these cannot survive any attempt at removal once they havebeen applied.
BREAKABLE CAPSBreakable closures come in many different designs.The roll-on cap design of aluminum shell used for carbonated beveragesThe bottom portion of the cap is rolled around the bottle neck finish.The lower portion of the cap blank is usually perforated so that itbreaks away when the cap is unscrewed.The bottom portion of the closure has a tear away strip.
SEALED TUBESCollapsible tubes used for packaging are constructed of metal, plastic orlamination of foil, paper and plastic.Metal tubes are still used for products that required high degree of barrieprotection.Most of these are made of aluminum.Extruded plastic tubes are widely used for products that are compactableand limited protection of plastic.
AEROSOL CONTAINERThe aerosol container used for pharmaceutical products is usuallymade of drawn aluminum.A hydrocarbon propellant in its cooled liquid phase is added to thecontainer along with the product.A spray nozzle contained in a gasket metal is crimped over the openingof the container.A dip tube is attached inside, draw the product through the spraynozzle.
The spray nozzles are usually metered to allow a specific dose to bedispensed with each spray.
SEALED CARTONSFolding paperboard cartons have been used as a secondary package forOTC products.The popularity is based on both functional and marketingconsiderations.
EVALUATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALSTESTS FOR GLASS CONTAINERS: 1) Powdered glass test 2) Water attack testPreparation of specimen for powdered glass test: Rinse 6 or more containers and dry them Crushed in to fragments Divide 100gms of coarsely crushed glass in to three equal parts
place 1 portion in a mortarCrush further by striking 3 or 4 blows with hammer Nest the sieves (# 20,40 at least) Empty the mortar in to sieve 20Shake the sieves and remove the glass particles from # 20and 40 Crush them again and sieve them Transfer the retained portion on # 50
Spread the specimen on a glazed paperand remove iron particles with the help of magnet Wash with 6 portions of 30ml acetone Dry the contents for 20mins at 140oc Transfer to weighing bottle and cool in a desiccator Final specimen should be used in powdered glass test
1) POWDERED GLASS TEST: (according to USP volume 27) Transfer 10gms of prepared specimen in a 250mlconical flask digested previously with high purity water in a bathat 90o c Add to conical flask containing 50ml high purity water Cap all the flasks and auto clave Adjust temperature to 150oc Cold the temperature to 121oc for 30mins Cool the flasks under running water
Wash the residue powdered glass(4 times with 15ml purity water) Add the decanted washings to main portion. add five drops of methyl red solution. Titrate immediately with 0.02N sulphuric acid. Record the volume of 0.02N sulphuric acid. Volume does not exceed i.e. indicated in the USP as perthe type of glass concerned
WATER ATTACK TEST:(USP) rinse 3 or more containers with high purity water fill each container to 90%of its over flow capacity cap all the flasks and autoclave for 60mints empty the contents and cool the contents in 250mlconical flasks to a volume of 100ml add 5 drops of methyl red solution titrate with 0.02N sulphuric acid while warm record the volume of 0.02Nsulphuric acid consumed volume should not exceed as indicated in USP as fortype of glass
TESTS FOR PLASTIC CONTAINERS 1.Leakage test for plastic containers(non injectablesand injectables 1996 IP): fill 10 plastic containers with water and fit the closure keep them inverted at room temperature for 24 hrs no sign of leakage should be there from any container
2.WATER PERMEABILITY TEST FOR PLASTICCONTAINERS(INJECTABLE PREPARATIONS IP1996): fill 5 containers with nominal volume of water and sealed weigh each container allow to stand for 14 days at relative humidity of 60% at 20-250C reweigh the container loss of weight in each container should not be more than0.2%
TESTS FOR RUBBER/RUBBER CLOSURES 1.FRAGMENTATION TEST(IP 1996): place a volume of water corresponding to nominal volume-4ml in each of 12 clean vials close vial with closure and secure caps for 16hrs pierce the closure with number 21 hypodermic needle(bevelangle of 10 to 140c)and inject 1ml water and remove 1ml air repeat the above operation 4 times for each closure count the number of fragments visible to naked eye Total number of fragments should not be more than 10
2.SELF SEALABILITY TEST FOR RUBBERCLOSURES APPLICABLE TO MULTI DOSECONTAINERS ONLY(IP 1996): fill 10 vials with water to nominal volume and closethe vials with closures pierce the cap and closures 10 times at differentplaces with no 21 syringe needle immerse the vials in 0.1 %W/v solution ofmethylene blue under reduced pressure restore the nominal pressure and keep thecontainer for 30 min and wash the vials none of the vial should contain traces of coloredsolution
MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIPMENT
FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR PLANT CONSTRUCTION 3 Types of factors:I. Chemical factors.II. Physical factors.III. Economical factors.
CHEMICAL FACTORS:1. Contamination of the product by material of plant lead to instability, decomposition and physiological effect. E.g. presence of traces of heavy metal decompose penicillin. Stability of vitamins decrease in presence of metallic ions. The color of esters will change to pale yellow in the presence of iron impurities. Esters should be processed in stainless steel.
2 .The effect on the material of plant by drugs and chemicals. Acids, Alkali and Oxidizing agent and tannins may affect the material of construction. Allows and Plastic have a corrosion resistant properties.
PHYSICAL FACTORS:Adequate mechanical strength.Erosion.Weight.Ease of fabrication.Thermal expansion.Thermal conductivity.Cleansing.Sterilization.Transparency.
• The material should have sufficient strength so that it can withstand the stress to which the material is subjected in the production. • Iron and Steel satisfy this property. • E.g. The packing material should withstandSTRENGTH the rigors of handling and transportation. • The equipment should have a light weight so it is easy to transport. • Plastic materials employed for the manufacture of container for the use of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics because MASS of its light weight.
• There is a possibility of friction between the moving parts. • During milling and grinding surface wear off and this materials will be incorporated into powderWEAR PROPERTIES as impurities. • The materials used for evaporators ,dryers and heat exchanger should have a good thermal conductivity. THERMAL • Resistant film retard the rate of heat transfer. CONDUCTIVTY
• If the materials has high coefficient of expansion, the temperature changes cause increase in stress and risk of fracture. • The materials should be able to maintain size and THERMAL shape of equipment at working temperature.EXPANSION • It permits the visual observation of the changes during a process. • For this reason borosilicate glass has been used inTRANSPENCY the construction of reactors,fermentors etc.
• Initial costs and maintenance of the plant must be economical. • Low wearing qualities and lower maintenance. ECONOMIC FACTORS • Higher initial cost is more economical in the long run. • During fabrication, the materials under go various processes such as casting,welding,forging etc. • Glass and plastic can be easily molded into EASE OF containers of different size and shape.FABRICATION
• Smooth and polished surfaces allow the process of cleansing easy. • Stainless steel and glass are easy for cleansing. CLEANSING • In the production of parenterals, ophthalmic products, antibiotics and biological, sterilization is an essential step which is obtained by autoclaving. • The material should be able to withstand theSTERILIZATION steam pressure.
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION NON- METALS METALS IN - FERROURS NON-FERROUS ORGANIC ORGANICCAST IRON ALUMINIUM GLASS RUBBER STEEL CARBONSTAINLESS LEAD PLASTICS TEEL
FERROUS METALS:oWidely used because of its mechanical strength, abundantavailability and lower cost. FERROUS METALS CAST IRON Carbon steel. Carbon steel. Stainless steel
CAST IRON: Cast iron consist of iron with a proportion of carbon.The properties of iron depends on the amount of carbonpresent.They are hard and brittle.Cast iron is abundantly available inexpensive.
• Cheap. • Resistant to conc. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid and dilute alkalis. ADVANTAGES • It has low thermal conductivity so used for construction of outer jackets of steam parts. • It is very brittle so difficult to machine. • It is attacked by dil. Sulphuric acid, nitricDISADVANTAGES acid as well as conc. hydro chloric acid. • It has low thermal conductivity so not used for heat transfer in steel. • Supports for plant. • Jacket of steam pans. USES • Lining with enamel, plastic or suitable protective materials.
CARBON STEEL OR MILD STEEL: Carbon steel is an iron alloy, which contains only a small percentage ofcarbon. ADVANTAGES •Cheapest. • Used in fabrication. • Carbon steel has limited resistant to corrision.It can be improved by preparing DISADVANTAGES alloys. • Its reacts with caustic soda, brine and sea water. • Used in construction of bars, pipes and plates. USES • Used to fabricate large storage tanks for water and organic solvents.
STAINLESS STEEL:Steels containing 18 % of chromium and 8% of nickel and known as“18/8 Stainless steel” , have considerable use in the pharmaceuticalindustry.Chromium and nickel, which makes the steel corrosion resistant.Stainless steel is stabilized by the addition of titanium, or tantalum.Minor amount of other elements such as copper, molybdenum andselenium are added.
PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL:Heat resistant.Corrosion resistant.Ease of fabrication.Tensile strength.Cleaning and sterilization.
• Corrosion resistant ADVANTAGES • Heat resistant. • Ease of fabrication. • Ductility is poor.DISADVANTAGES • Not good against reducing agents. • Sinks, bench tops, storage tanks, USES buckets etc.
ALUMINIUM:Its is cheap, light in weight and offer good mechanicalstrength.Aluminum equipment can be easily fabricated.Aluminum can be strengthened by cold working.Number of modification of aluminum are available.Aluminum is non toxic to micro-organism.
• High resistant to atmosphere conditions,industrial fumes,vapour and ADVANTAGES fresh or salt waters. • Thermal conductivity of aluminum is 60% that of pure copper. • Mechanical strength decrease above 1500c.DISADVANTAGES • Aluminum can not be used with strong caustic solution. • Used in heat transfer. USES • Used as storage containers.
LEAD:It has the lowest cost.Used as collapsible tube material particularly for non-foodproducts such as adhesive inks, paints and lubricants.Lead tubes with internal linings are used for fluoride tooth-paste.Lead chamber process is used in the manufacture of sulphuricacid.
• It has the lowest cost. ADVANTAGES • Much lead is used in the chemical industry because of its resistance to corrosion • Lead has low melting and hence posses poor structural qualities.DISADVANTAGES • It has a high coefficient of expansion. • It is used for cold water pipes, USES waste pipes and dilution tanks for laboratories.
LEAD ALLOYS AND MODIFICATIONS:Acid lead and copper leads are used in chemical industries.Some metals are added to lead for altering properties. SILVER AND COPPER:Improve corrosion resistant.Improve creep and fatigue resistant.
TIN,ARSENIC:Hardens, steel melting point is low.Lead lined steel structures are used for the constructionof pipes, valves, vessels designed for operations at hightemperature, fluctuating temperature or vacuum.
GLASS: • Glass is composed principally of sand, soda ash, lime stone and cullet. COMPOSITION • Sand is almost pure sillica,soda ash is sodium carbonate, lime stone is calcium carbonate. • Cullet is broken glass that is mixed with the batch and acts as fusion agent for the entire mixer •It is chemically inert. •It is non corrosive. ADVANTAGES •It imparts no odor or taste to that of the product. •It is impermeable.
• They are brittle and break easily. • They may crack when subject to sudden changes of temperatures,DISADVANTAGES • They are heavier in comparison to plastic containers. • Transparent glasses gives passage to UV-light which may damage the photosensitive drugs inside the container. • Mostly used in pharmaceutical industries USES as a containers.
GLASS STEEL:Glassed steel is cooled to a rigid condition withoutcrystallizing.It requires special consideration in its design and use.Glassed steel combines the corrosion resistance of glasswith the working strength of steel.
• Excellent resistant to all acids. • It can be attacked by hot alkalineADVANTAGES solution. • Acid resistant glass with improved alkali resistance. • Used for strong acids, alkali and saline solution. USES • For small scale manufacture and pilot plant work glassed steel vessels are used.
RUBBER:Used as such lining material for the construction of plants.Type of rubber:I. Natural rubber.II. Soft-rubber.III. Hard-rubber.IV. Synthetic rubber.
• Rubber is naturally occurring polymer obtained as latex from rubber tress. • It is common example of an elastomer. • Elastomer is a substance that can be stretched NATURAL readily regains its original from. RUBBER • The naturally occurring polymer is known as soft rubber. • It is a polymer of monomeric isoprene. • It is resistant to dil. Mineral acids, dil. Alkalis and salts.SOFT RUBBER • Used lining materials for plants. • Used in making tyres ,tubes and conveyor belt.
• Soft rubber with >25% sulphur is know as hard rubber. • Hard rubber is used for making gloves, bands, tubes and stoppers.HARD RUBBER • Synthetic rubber is resistant to oxidation, solvent , oils and other chemicals. • Synthetic rubber is thermoplastic. SYNTHETIC RUBBER
PLASTIC:Plastics are synthetic polymers of high molecular weight.Plastics as packaging have proved useful for a number of reasons,including the ease with which they can be formed, their high quality andthe freedom to design.Plastic containers are extremely resistant to breakage and offer safetyconsumers
ADVANTAGES OF PLASTIC:They are light in weight and can be handled easily.They are transported easily.They are unbreakable.They available in various shapes and sizes.They are resistant to inorganic chemicals.
DISADVANTAGES OF GLASS:They are brittle and break easily.They may crack when subject to sudden changes intemperatures.They are heavier in comparison to plastic containers
TYPES OF PLASTIC:Thermoplastic type :-On heating, they are soften to viscous fluid whichhardens again on cooling.e.g. polyethylene ,PVC ,Polystyrene ,polypropylene,Polyamide ,Polycarbonate.Thermosetting type :-When heated , they may become flexible but they donot become liquid. Phenol formaldehyde ,urea formaldehyde, melamineformaldehyde
BASED ON UTILITY OF PLASTIC:Rigid materials.Flexible materials.Metallic surfaces.Plastic cements.Special case plastic.
RIGID MATERIALS:These are phenolic resins with resins various inert filler.Used in fabrication of number of items.Light in weight.Used in gears, pipes ,fittings, ducts, valves, vessels.Resistant to corrosion except oxidizing substance and strongalkali.
FLEXIBLE MATERIALS:These are thermo plastic materials.These materials can be rigid or flexible depending upon theamount of plasticizer added.They are used in fabrication of tanks, pipes , funnel, buckets.
METALLIC SURFACE:Plastics of polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride types are usedalong with plasticizer for the coating of metallic surfaces.These are used to protect the metal from corrosion.These linings are applied on tanks, vessels ,stirrer and fans.
PLASTIC CEMENTS:Used for spaces between acid resistant tiles and bricks.SPECIAL CASE:Plastics are used as guards for moving parts of machinery.Nylon and PVC fibers woven into filters cloth and are used for aseptic screening.
Conclusion : Packaging is one of the most important part ofpharmaceutical industries . Product produced is might be of vary good quality at thetime production but it is useless if is not able to reach as it is upto end user. Quality Maintenance is the major role played by packagingmaterial .Along with that it gives pharmaceutical elegance andconvenience to user to product . Many times the Packaging is may become a ideal uniqueidentification for some of brand in market .Quality control ofsuch important part is also a vary valuable work.
REFERENCESPackaging materials “ Leon Lachman and HerbertA. Lieberman”.Materials of plant pharmaceutical plant construction“Copper and Gunns” tutorial pharmacy.Packaging materials R.M.MEHTA Pharmaceutics-I
Hearty thanks toProf .Dr. M.B.Venkatapathi Raju Sir,Principal,SRCP.Prof : G.Sudhakar sir , Vice principal,SRCP.Prof .Dr. R. Santosh Kumar sir , H.O.D,SRCP.My Teachers and other faculty members and non teaching staff,SRCP.Finally special thanks to Srinivasa Rao College of Pharmacy Management.