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Introduction to Scrum - Agile Methods


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An Introduction to Scrum - Agile Methods. LLC License

An Introduction to Scrum - Agile Methods. LLC License

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  • Most slides are courtesy of Mike Cohn at Mountain Goat Software:
  • Photo Credit: Jim McDougall [via Flicker] Rugby scrum explained:
  • rapidly changing or highly emergent requirements With Scrum no specific engineering practices are prescribed
  • Agile as an umbrella term that describes several lightweight development methods including Extreme Programming, Adaptive System Development, Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM), Feature Driven Development, Kanban and Crystal.
  • while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
  • [Quick definition] Major appeal of Scrum is the simplicity of its basic principles.
  • Few ideas are completely original. What is the “sequential approach’?
  • would be nice to include a quote from Wicked Problems here
  • Releasable software every iteration.
  • Sprints may be 1-4 weeks in length. “ One aspect of agile development is often missed or glossed over: a world view that organizations are complex adaptive systems. A complex adaptive system is one in which decentralized, independent individuals interact in self-organizing ways, guided by a set of simple, generative rules, to create innovative, emergent results . XP’s 12 practices, for example, were never intended to be all-inclusive rules; instead, they are generative rules that interact in concert when a team of individuals practices them.“ “ Most methodologies provide inclusive rules—all the things you could possibly do under all situations. Agile methods offer generative rules—a minimum set of things you must do under all situations to generate appropriate practices for special situations . Teams that follow inclusive rules depend on someone else to name in advance the practices and conditions for every situation. This obviously breaks down quickly. A team that follows generative rules depends on individuals and their creativity to find ways to solve problems as they arise. Creativity, not voluminous written rules, is the only way to manage complex software development problems and diverse situations.”
  • “ Sprints contain and consist of the Sprint Planning Meeting, Daily Scrums, the development work, the Sprint Review Meeting, and the Sprint Retrospective.”
  • “ The ScrumMaster's authority extends only to the process. The ScrumMaster is an expert on the process and on using it to get a team to perform to its highest level. But, a ScrumMaster does not have many of the traditional responsibilities—scope, cost, personnel, risk management among them—that a project manager does.” Who then does risk management?
  • “ The team itself assumes the responsibility for determining how to best achieve the product goals (as established by the product owner). Team members will collaboratively decide which person should work on which tasks, which technical practices are necessary to achieve stated quality goals, and so on.” “ Scrum relies on a self-organizing, cross-functional team. The scrum team is self-organizing in that there is no overall team leader who decides which person will do which task or how a problem will be solved. Those are issues that are decided by the team as a whole. The team is cross-functional so that everyone necessary to take a feature from idea to implementation is involved.”
  • “ Scrum recognizes no titles for Development Team members other than Developer, regardless of the work being performed by the person; there are no exceptions to this rule;” [Scrum Guide] Motivation for no-roles rule: “for a team of specialists to be successful each specialist must accept general responsibility for the system as a whole.”
  • Ceremonies = activities or things you do Could add release planning or “develop product backlog”
  • Release plan = “a roadmap of what can be expected after a couple of sprints, and what will be part of the release and what won’t.” Business condition example: 99 cent apps are popular Print goal or theme is defined by stories selected from product backlog. May select a story that is not the absolutely next highest priority story because it complements a theme related to the highest priority stories.
  • “ The two parts of the Sprint Planning Meeting answer the following questions, respectively: o What will be delivered in the Increment resulting from the upcoming Sprint? o How will the work needed to deliver the Increment be achieved?”
  • Chickens and pigs… “ Over the years, the labels have generated their share of controversy. Some argue that the terms are harmful to the process because they are derogatory. Others say that the negative connotation conjures a power dynamic that drives negative behaviour. Either way, you won't find any references to animals, barnyard or otherwise, in the new Scrum Guide.”
  • As a <role> I want to <feature> so that <business value>
  • Transcript

    • 1. Mountain Goat Software, LLC An Introduction to Scrum
    • 2. Scrum
    • 3. What is Scrum? • Scrum is a lightweight, simple to understand (but difficult to master) agile process framework. • Scrum is one of several agile software development methods. • Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP) are probably the two best-known Agile methods. XP emphasizes technical practices such as pair programming and continuous integration. Scrum emphasizes management practice such as the role of Scrum Master. • Many companies use the management practices of Scrum with the technical practices of XP.
    • 4. Agile Methods Scrum Extreme Programming (XP) DSDM Crystal Kanban Adaptive System Development Feature Driven Development
    • 5. Mountain Goat Software, LLC The Agile Manifesto–a statement of values Process and toolsProcess and toolsIndividuals and interactions Individuals and interactions over Following a planFollowing a planResponding to changeResponding to change over Source: Comprehensive documentation Comprehensive documentationWorking softwareWorking software over Contract negotiationContract negotiationCustomer collaboration Customer collaboration over
    • 6. History of Scrum • Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland developed the Scrum method in the early 1990’s. The Scrum method has evolved somewhat over the years. • The definitive guide to the rules of Scrum, The Scrum Guide, is maintained by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland. [The most recent edition of The Scrum Guide was published in 2011.]
    • 7. Origins of the idea • The Scrum methodology was inspired by new approaches to commercial product development being explored in the late 1980’s. • In a 1986 article in the HBR, Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka urged companies to “Stop running the relay race and take up rugby”. “In today's fast-paced, fiercely competitive world of commercial new product development, speed and flexibility are essential. Companies are increasingly realizing that the old, sequential approach to developing new products simply won't get the job done. Instead, companies in Japan and the United States are using a holistic method—as in rugby, the ball gets passed within the team as it moves as a unit up the field.”
    • 8. Mountain Goat Software, LLC We’re losing the relay race Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, “The New New Product Development Game”, Harvard Business Review, January 1986. “The… ‘relay race’ approach to product development…may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or ‘rugby’ approach—where a team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth—may better serve today’s competitive requirements.”
    • 9. Mountain Goat Software, LLC • Scrum is an agile process that allows us to focus on delivering the highest business value in the shortest time. • It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month). • The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features. • Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint. Scrum in 100 words
    • 10. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Scrum origins • Jeff Sutherland • Initial scrums at Easel Corp in 1993 • IDX and 500+ people doing Scrum • Ken Schwaber • ADM • Scrum presented at OOPSLA 96 with Sutherland • Author of three books on Scrum • Mike Beedle • Scrum patterns in PLOPD4 • Ken Schwaber and Mike Cohn • Co-founded Scrum Alliance in 2002, initially within the Agile Alliance
    • 11. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Characteristics • Self-organizing teams • Product progresses in a series of month-long “sprints” • Requirements are captured as items in a list of “product backlog” • No specific engineering practices prescribed • Uses generative rules to create an agile environment for delivering projects • One of the “agile processes”
    • 12. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Scrum Cancel Gift wrap Return Sprint 2-4 weeks Return Sprint goal Sprint backlog Potentially shippable product increment Product backlog CouponsGift wrap Coupons Cancel 24 hours
    • 13. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Putting it all together Image available at
    • 14. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Sprints • Scrum projects make progress in a series of “sprints” • Analogous to Extreme Programming iterations • Typical duration is 2–4 weeks or a calendar month at most • A constant duration leads to a better rhythm • Product is designed, coded, and tested during the sprint
    • 15. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Sequential vs. overlapping development Source: “The New New Product Development Game” by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986. Rather than doing all of one thing at a time... ...Scrum teams do a little of everything all the time Requirements Design Code Test
    • 16. Mountain Goat Software, LLC No changes during a sprint • Plan sprint durations around how long you can commit to keeping change out of the sprint Change
    • 17. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Scrum framework •Product owner •ScrumMaster •Team Roles •Sprint planning •Sprint review •Sprint retrospective •Daily scrum meeting Ceremonies •Product backlog •Sprint backlog •Burndown charts Artifacts
    • 18. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Scrum framework •Sprint planning •Sprint review •Sprint retrospective •Daily scrum meeting Ceremonies •Product backlog •Sprint backlog •Burndown charts Artifacts •Product owner •ScrumMaster •Team Roles
    • 19. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Product owner • Define the features of the product • Decide on release date and content • Be responsible for the profitability of the product (ROI) • Prioritize features according to market value • Adjust features and priority every iteration, as needed  • Accept or reject work results
    • 20. Mountain Goat Software, LLC The ScrumMaster • Represents management to the project • Responsible for enacting Scrum values and practices • Removes impediments • Ensure that the team is fully functional and productive • Enable close cooperation across all roles and functions • Shield the team from external interferences
    • 21. Mountain Goat Software, LLC The team • Typically 5-9 people • Teams are self-organizing • Cross-functional: • Programmers, testers, user experience designers, etc. • Members should be full-time • May be exceptions (e.g., database administrator)
    • 22. Mountain Goat Software, LLC The team • Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility • Membership should change only between sprints
    • 23. Mountain Goat Software, LLC •Product owner •ScrumMaster •Team Roles Scrum framework •Product backlog •Sprint backlog •Burndown charts Artifacts •Sprint planning •Sprint review •Sprint retrospective •Daily scrum meeting Ceremonies
    • 24. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Sprint planning meeting Sprint prioritization • Analyze and evaluate product backlog • Select sprint goal Sprint planning • Decide how to achieve sprint goal (design) • Create sprint backlog (tasks) from product backlog items (user stories / features) • Estimate sprint backlog in hours Sprint goal Sprint goal Sprint backlog Sprint backlog Business conditions Business conditions Team capacity Team capacity Product backlog Product backlog TechnologyTechnology Current product Current product
    • 25. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Sprint planning • Team selects items from the product backlog they can commit to completing • Sprint backlog is created • Tasks are identified and each is estimated (1-16 hours) • Collaboratively, not done alone by the ScrumMaster • High-level design is considered As a vacation planner, I want to see photos of the hotels. As a vacation planner, I want to see photos of the hotels. Code the middle tier (8 hours) Code the user interface (4) Write test fixtures (4) Code the foo class (6) Update performance tests (4)
    • 26. Mountain Goat Software, LLC The daily scrum • Parameters • Daily • 15-minutes • Stand-up • Not for problem solving • Whole world is invited • Only team members, ScrumMaster, product owner, can talk • Helps avoid other unnecessary meetings
    • 27. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Everyone answers 3 questions • These are not status for the ScrumMaster • They are commitments in front of peers What did you do yesterday?What did you do yesterday? 1 What will you do today?What will you do today? 2 Is anything in your way?Is anything in your way? 3
    • 28. Mountain Goat Software, LLC The sprint review • Team presents what it accomplished during the sprint • Typically takes the form of a demo of new features or underlying architecture • Informal • 2-hour prep time rule • No slides • Whole team participates • Invite the world
    • 29. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Sprint retrospective • Periodically take a look at what is and is not working • Typically 15–30 minutes • Done after every sprint • Whole team participates • ScrumMaster • Product owner • Team • Possibly customers and others
    • 30. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Start / Stop / Continue • Whole team gathers and discusses what they’d like to: Start doingStart doing Stop doingStop doing Continue doingContinue doing This is just one of many ways to do a sprint retrospective.
    • 31. Mountain Goat Software, LLC •Product owner •ScrumMaster •Team Roles Scrum framework •Sprint planning •Sprint review •Sprint retrospective •Daily scrum meeting Ceremonies •Product backlog •Sprint backlog •Burndown charts Artifacts
    • 32. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Product backlog • The requirements • A list of all desired work on the project • Ideally expressed such that each item has value to the users or customers of the product • Prioritized by the product owner • Reprioritized at the start of each sprintThis is the product backlog This is the product backlog
    • 33. Mountain Goat Software, LLC A sample product backlog Backlog item Estimate Allow a guest to make a reservation 3 As a guest, I want to cancel a reservation. 5 As a guest, I want to change the dates of a reservation. 3 As a hotel employee, I can run RevPAR reports (revenue-per-available-room) 8 Improve exception handling 8 ... 30 ... 50
    • 34. Mountain Goat Software, LLC The sprint goal • A short statement of what the work will be focused on during the sprint Database Application Financial services Life Sciences Support features necessary for population genetics studies. Support more technical indicators than company ABC with real-time, streaming data. Make the application run on SQL Server in addition to Oracle.
    • 35. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Managing the sprint backlog • Individuals sign up for work of their own choosing • Work is never assigned • Estimated work remaining is updated daily
    • 36. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Managing the sprint backlog • Any team member can add, delete or change the sprint backlog • Work for the sprint emerges • If work is unclear, define a sprint backlog item with a larger amount of time and break it down later • Update work remaining as more becomes known
    • 37. Mountain Goat Software, LLC A sprint backlog TasksTasks Code the user interface Code the middle tier Test the middle tier Write online help Write the foo class MonMon 8 16 8 12 8 TuesTues 4 12 16 8 WedWed ThurThur 4 11 8 4 FriFri 8 8 Add error logging 8 10 16 8 8
    • 38. Mountain Goat Software, LLC A sprint burndown chartHours
    • 39. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Hours 40 30 20 10 0 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri TasksTasks Code the user interface Code the middle tier Test the middle tier Write online help MonMon 8 16 8 12 TuesTues WedWed ThurThur FriFri 4 12 16 7 11 8 10 16 8 50
    • 40. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Scalability • Typical individual team is 7 ± 2 people • Scalability comes from teams of teams • Factors in scaling • Type of application • Team size • Team dispersion • Project duration • Scrum has been used on multiple 500+ person projects
    • 41. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Scaling through the Scrum of scrums
    • 42. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Scrum of scrums of scrums
    • 43. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Where to go next • • • •
    • 44. Mountain Goat Software, LLC A Scrum reading list • Agile and Iterative Development:A Manager’s Guide by Craig Larman • Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn • Agile Project Management with Scrum by Ken Schwaber • Agile Retrospectives by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen
    • 45. Mountain Goat Software, LLC A Scrum reading list • Agile Software Development Ecosystems by Jim Highsmith • Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle • Scrum andThe Enterprise by Ken Schwaber • Succeeding with Agile by Mike Cohn • User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development by Mike Cohn
    • 46. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Copyright notice • You are free: • to Share to copy, distribute and and transmit the work― • to Remix to adapt the work― • Under the following conditions • Attribution.You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). • Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author’s moral rights. • For more information see
    • 47. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Contact information Presentation by: Mike Cohn (720) 890-6110 (office) Presentation by: Mike Cohn (720) 890-6110 (office) You can remove this (or any slide) but you must credit the source somewhere in your presentation. Use the logo and company name (as at bottom left, for example) or include a slide somewhere saying that portions (or all) of your presentation are from this source. Thanks.