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First Steps with Android - An Exciting Introduction


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Get to know more about Android with this exciting introduction. …

Get to know more about Android with this exciting introduction.

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  • 1. First Steps with Android Cesar Augusto Nogueira @cesarnogcps
  • 2.  The Big Picture  What is Android?  Get you an idea of how to start developing Android applications  Introduce major Android application concepts  Walk you through a sample application in the development environments  Install the development environments  Create the first Android Application Goals
  • 3.  NOT a super difficult course  Guide you to go through essentials (tons of resources are available)  NOT a Java language class  Learn how to use the Android SDK APIs  NOT an Android internal course  Learn Android Application Development  NOT a lecture oriented course  Learn by doing the hands-on programming  NOT an advanced course  Introduce from the very basics (tool installation)
  • 4.  What is Android?  System architecture  Develop environment installation  Hello World!  Application components  Tool chain Agenda
  • 5.  Android’s web page:
  • 6.  Android SDK (  Windows, Linux, Mac  Utilizes the Java language  Different Libraries  Well-documented   Freely downloaded
  • 7. Android Android versions  Android 1.5 (Apr. 2009) – Cupcake  First really stable/robust version  Android 1.6 (Sep. 2009)– Donut  First ‘updatable’ version  Android 2.0 (Oct. 2009) / Android 2.1 (Jan. 2010)– Éclair  Android 2.2 (May. 2010) – Froyo  Android 2.3 (Q4 2010) – Gingerbread  Android 3.0 (Honeycomb)  Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich)  Android 4.2 (Jelly Bean)  Android 4.4 (Kitkat) system) Versioning  Higher version addressed many issues  Better audio/video  Better sensing  Use of GPS  Multi touch  Other
  • 8.  Android is a mobile operating system initially developed by Android Inc (bought by Google 2005).  Android is the software platform from Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) that has the potential to revolutionize the global cell phone market.  A free, open source mobile platform  Android is not a device or a product  Android™ consists of a complete set of software components for mobile devices including:  an operating system (Linux-based, multiprocess, multithreaded OS),  middleware, and  key mobile applications.  It has the capability to make inroads in many other (non‐phone) embedded application markets such as a tablet, a DVR, a handheld GPS, an MP3 player, etc.
  • 9.  Android Open Source Project web page to download the source   How many lines of code does it take to create the Android OS?  lines-of-code-does-it-take-to-create-the-android-os/
  • 10.  Listen from the project creators/developers (2.19 min)  Nick Sears. Co‐founder of Android  Steve Horowitz. Engineering Director  You will hear statements such as “…currently it is too difficult to make new products … open software brings more innovation … choices … lower costs … more applications such as family planner, my taxes, understand my wife better, … ”
  • 11.  Quoting from page  “… Open Handset Alliance™, a group of 47 technology and mobile companies have come together to accelerate innovation in mobile and offer consumers a richer, less expensive, and better mobile experience.  Together we have developed Android™, the first complete, open, and free mobile platform.  We are committed to commercially deploy handsets and services using the Android Platform. “
  • 12.  Short video (4 min.)  Showing Dave Bort and Dan Borstein, two members of the Android Open Source Project talk about the project. See Android Developers
  • 13.  Android is a software environment built for mobile devices.  It is not a hardware platform.  Android includes:  Linux kernel‐based OS,  a rich UI,  telephone functionality,  end‐user applications,  code libraries,  application frameworks,  multimedia support, ...  User applications are built for Android in Java. The Android Platform Again, what did they say about Android?
  • 14. Android vs. Competitors
  • 15.  Have all of the major components of computing platform, but specially designed for the mobile environment (NOT a general purpose computing environment).  Application framework enabling reuse and replacement of components  Dalvik virtual machine optimized for mobile devices  Integrated browser based on the open source WebKit engine  Optimized graphics powered by a custom 2D graphics library; 3D graphics based on the OpenGL ES specification (hardware acceleration optional)  SQLite for structured data storage  Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats (MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)  GSM Telephony (hardware dependent)  Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi (hardware dependent)  Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer (hardware dependent)  Rich development environment including a device emulator, tools for debugging, memory and performance profiling, and a plugin for the Eclipse IDE
  • 16. Available at: video 1/3
  • 17.
  • 18.  Linux kernel is a proven core platform.  Reliability is more important than performance when it comes to a mobile phone, because voice communication is the primary use of a phone.  Linux can help meet this requirement.  Linux provides a hardware abstraction layer, letting the upper levels remain unchanged despite changes in the underlying hardware.  As new accessories appear on the market, drivers can be written at the Linux level to provide support, just as on other Linux platforms.
  • 19.  User applications, as well as core Android applications, are written in the Java programming language and are compiled into byte codes.  Android byte codes are interpreted at runtime by an interpreter known as the Dalvik virtual machine.  Why another Virtual Machine?  Android byte code files are logically equivalent to Java byte codes, but they permit Android to  run its applications in its own virtual environment that is free from Sun’s licensing restrictions and  an open platform upon which Google, and potentially the open source community, can improve as necessary.  Being optimized for low memory requirements  The VM was slimmed down to use less space  The constant pool has been modified to use only 32-bit indexes to simplify the interpreter
  • 20. Good Video References
  • 21.  There are four building blocks (components) to an Android application:  Activity represents a screen of the app. Moving from one activity to another is done using an Intent  An Intent describes what an application wants done, in terms of the action and the data to act upon, e.g. PICK a contact  Intent Receiver (broadcast receiver) is used when you want code in your application to execute in reaction to an external event, e.g. when the phone rings  Service is a faceless tasks that run in the background, like a sync session  Content Provider is a class that implements a standard set of methods to let other applications store and retrieve the type of data that is handled by that content provider Application Anatomy
  • 22. Android Development Applications are composed of: o Activities  Visual user interface for one focused endeavor o Services  Runs in the background for an indefinite period of time Intents  Asynchronous/ synchronous messaging  URL dispatching on steroids  Glues many Activities and Services together to make an application  Provides interactivity between applications
  • 23. Email Application - Example
  • 24.  Android application runs in its own Linux process  The process lifetime is handled by the system, not by the app: when the system needs memory to run new applications, one of the background app is killed  That's why it is important to use correctly Activities, Services, and Intent Receivers  Not using them in the right way can result in the system killing the application's process while it is doing important work  Example: starting a thread to download a file from an Activity or an IntentReceiver. A Service should be used instead. Life Cycle of an Android Application
  • 25.  Android determines which process to kill when low on memory with this priority:  Foreground process: is one that is required for what the user is currently doing (UI interaction, handling an Intent, etc.)  Visible process: is one holding an Activity that is visible to the user on-screen but not in the foreground (a foreground window leaves this visible in the background)  Service process: is one holding a Service that is invisible to the user, but is doing something valuable (e.g. Playing music)  Background process: is one holding an Activity that is not currently visible to the user  Empty process: is one that doesn't hold any active application components. It is kept only as a cache to improve startup time the next time an application's component needs to run Process priority
  • 26. Application Lifecycle • Designed to protect battery life • Activities live on a stack • Background activities can be killed at any moment • The platform makes it easy for developers to code applications that are killed at any moment without losing state o Helps with DoS issues
  • 27. Storage and Persistence Content Provider
  • 28. Building Blocks of an Application  Resources  Images  Audio files  Constants  Stored in ‘res’ directory  Permissions  Must explicitly ask permission to perform tasks  Access web  Access GPS  Access Contacts
  • 29. Project identification  When creating a new project, the following must be provided  Project name  Displayed in Eclipse to differentiate projects  Application name  Activity name  The first screen displayed when the application is launched  Package name 
  • 30. Project components  Automatically created  AndroidManifest.xml  Referenced libraries  Important directories  gen (generated)  res (resources)  src (source)
  • 31. Project components  AndroidManifest.xml  Global settings  Permissions  Activities  Intents  Referenced libraries  android.jar – standard Android library  can add other user-defined libraries
  • 32. Project components  gen directory  Contains  Automatically generated file  Contains pointers to other files and folders  Never modified by programmer
  • 33. Project components  res directory  Contains other folders  drawable  Contains image files (icons, background)  layout  Contains .xml layout files  One for each activity  main.xml is layout for the default activity  values  Contains string pointers that can be used throughout the code
  • 34. Project components  src directory  Contains the java source code  One .java file for each activity  <activity>.java for the default activity (matches activity name)  for other activities (matches corresponding .xml name)
  • 35. Manifest File
  • 36. Manifest file  AndroidManifest.xml  required  Indicates:  xml namespace and version  application information  activities  Android SDK version  activities used within the app  services that will be used (Web, phone, etc.)  other aspects
  • 37. Example Manifest file <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="" package="com.examples.hello" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".Hello" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="6" /> </manifest>
  • 38. Manifest File  Exploring the <application> tag  android:icon=“@drawable/icon”  Icon to display in the drawer  android:label="@string/app_name“  Name of the icon in the drawer  <activity>  child of <application>
  • 39. Manifest File  Exploring the <activity> tag  android:name=“.Hello”  Associated .java file  short for packagename.Hello  i.e. com.csci153.examples.Hello  android:label=“@string/app_name”  Text that appears in title bar when this activity is displayed  <intent-filter>  child of <activity>
  • 40. Manifest File  Exploring the <intent-filter> tag  <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />  Indicates this is the main entry point of the application  <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />  Indicates that the activity should be launched  Without these lines, the application is started but no activity is presented  intent-filters ‘filter’ what an object can do – if there is no action defined within the filter, they implicitly deny that the action can be performed
  • 41. Intent  Class within Android  android.content.Intent  contains information regarding some action to be performed  starting the phone dialer  starting an activity  opening a web page  other
  • 42. Intent Example  Starting the phone dialer Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_DIAL,Uri.parse("tel:5551234")); startActivity(intent);
  • 43. Intent Example  Opening a web page Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_VIEW,Uri.parse (””)); startActivity(intent);
  • 44. Intent Example  Opening an Activity Intent intent = new Intent(this, Screen2.class); startActivity(intent);  this refers to the current activity  Screen2.class refers to the class file associated with the new activity to be opened  implies a corresponding file exists  activity MUST be referenced in the manifest file
  • 45. Intents  Helpful hints about Intents  The intent class has many methods  put… to add information to the intent  get… to retrieve information from an intent  many others  some of these may provide useful when one Activity launches another
  • 46. Activities  Helpful hints about Activities  Each Activity will have a corresponding .xml and .java file  Remember to reference each Activity in the manifest file  The Activity class has a method to retrieve the intent that initiated it (onCreate)  The Activity class has many methods, some of which monitor events associated with it  on… (onResume, onStop, …  some of these may provide useful when one Activity launches another
  • 47. public class Activity extends ApplicationContext { protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState); protected void onStart(); protected void onRestart(); protected void onResume(); protected void onPause(); protected void onStop(); protected void onDestroy(); }
  • 48. 3.2 IDE and Tools Android SDK • Class Library • Developer Tools  dx – Dalvik Cross-Assembler  aapt – Android Asset Packaging Tool  adb – Android Debug Bridge  ddms – Dalvik Debug Monitor Service • Emulator and System Images • Documentation and Sample Code Eclipse IDE + ADT (Android Development Tools) • Reduces Development and Testing Time • Makes User Interface-Creation easier • Makes Application Description Easier 3. Software development (2)
  • 49. Emulator • QEMU-based ARM emulator runs same system image as a device • Use same toolchain to work with devices or emulator 3. Software development (2)
  • 50. Layouts  Define the user interface for an activity  Layouts are defined in .xml files  within /res/layout folder  different layout can be designed for landscape view  placed within /res/layout-land folder  Handful of layouts to choose from  All derived from the class: android.view.ViewGroup
  • 51. Layouts  Available layouts  AbsoluteLayout  Deprecated as of 1.5  Allows specific x, y coordinates  LinearLayout  Default  Allows child items to be placed in a single row or column  RelativeLayout  Allows child itmes to be placed relative to each other  TableLayout  Allows child items to be placed in multiple rows and columns  FrameLayout  Allows child items to be stacked on one another  We will not cover
  • 52. Android  Dalvik Virtual Machine  Android’s equivalent of JVM  Optimized for low memory-management  Written by Dan Bornstein (named after a village where relatives lived)  AVD  Android Virtual Device  Phone Emulation  ADB  Android Debug Bridge  Allows access and control over emulators  DDMS  Dalvik Debug Monitor Service  Middleman between IDE and applications  Communications with ADB to provide control  Telephony  Location  Other
  • 53. Building Blocks of an Application  Activities  User interface screen  Each application can have multiple activities  Layout defined in .xml file  Functionality defined in .java file  Intents  Intention to perform a task  Explicitly stated in code  Launch an activity  Display a webpage  Broadcast a notification
  • 54. Building Blocks of an Application  Services  Task that runs in the background  Music Player  RSS reader that updates an activity when a site is updated  Content Providers  Bundles data so it can be shared among multiple applications
  • 55.
  • 56. References
  • 57. Cesar Augusto Nogueira @cesarnogcps