Bhutan 2010 gnh_index_1

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  • thank you very much for this wonderful measure of happiness. I wish to construct one for my country too following your variable indicators with some little modifications.
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  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain
  • Hypothetical classification of psychological wellbeing domain

Transcript

  • 1. The 2010 Gross NationalHappiness Index : Part I The Centre for Bhutan Studies 2011 .
  • 2. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 3. Background: Legal code of 1629 “if the government cannot create happiness for its people, then there is no purpose for government to exist.” .
  • 4. 4th King of Bhutan, 1972 “Gross National Happiness is moreimportant than Gross National Product.” .
  • 5. Constitution of Bhutan 2008 Article 9:“The State shall strive to promote thoseconditions that will enable the pursuit ofGross National Happiness.” .
  • 6. Gross National Happiness (GNH) measures the quality of a country in more holistic way and believes that the beneficial development of human society takes place when material and spiritual development occurs side by side toHM Jigme Khesar Namgyel complement andWangchuck, the 5th King ofBhutan, is committed to GNH. reinforce each other. .
  • 7. GNH in Bhutan: profound & rooted “We have now clearly distinguished the „happiness‟ … in GNHfrom the fleeting, pleasurable „feel good‟ moods so oftenassociated with that term. We know that true abidinghappiness cannot exist while others suffer, and comesonly from serving others, living in harmony withnature, and realizing our innate wisdom and the trueand brilliant nature of our own minds.” Prime Minister of Bhutan, 2009 .
  • 8. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 9. GNH has NineDomains: Theseappear in the 10th plan and areMeasured in the GNH Index. .
  • 10. Nine Domains of GNH1. Living Standard2. Health3. Education4. Time Use5. Good Governance6. Ecological Diversity & Resilience7. Psychological Well-being8. Community Vitality9. Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 11. Domains of GNHStandard Domains• Living Standard• Health• Education• Time Use• Good Governance• Ecological Diversity & Resilience• Psychological Well-being• Community Vitality• Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 12. Domains of GNH• Living Standard• Health• EducationNewer Domains• Time Use• Good Governance• Ecological Diversity & Resilience• Psychological Well-being• Community Vitality• Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 13. Domains of GNH• Living Standard• Health• Education• Time Use• Good Governance• Ecological Diversity & ResilienceInnovative Domains• Psychological Well-being• Community Vitality• Culture Diversity & Resilience .
  • 14. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness6. Weighting7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 15. GNH Index Survey, 2010 CBSCompleted Interviews = 7142Retained Sample size = 6476Sample representative of 20 districts, and by rural and urban areas758 variables, covering all 9 domains of GNHUnusual depth and quality of dataDraws on 2006 Pre-Pilot and the 2008 Pilot GNH Survey .
  • 16. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 17. 33 GNH Indicators wereselected for the GNH Indexaccording to:1) Normative values, official documents2) Statistical properties3) Accuracy across time4) Policy relevance5) Clarity of interpretationThe 33 indicators draw on over 120questions from the survey. .
  • 18. Domain Indicators1 Psychological wellbeing 42 Health 43 Time use 24 Education 4 Cultural diversity and5 resilience 46 Good Governance 47 Community vitality 4 Ecological diversity and8 resilience 49 Living standards 3 Total 33 .
  • 19. Life satisfaction • Health • Living standard • Occupation • Relationships • Work-life balanceSpirituality Positive• Spirituality emotions level • Calmness• Prayer Psychological • Empathy/ recitation Wellbeing compassion• Meditation • Forgiveness• Considerati • Contentment on of Karma • Generosity Negative emotions • Anger • Fear • Worry • Selfishness • Jealousy .
  • 20. Number of Mental health: Healthy days • Able to concentrate • Lost sleep over worry • Playing useful part • Capable of making decisions • Constantly underDisability strain • Difficult to cope with• Long- difficulties term • Able to enjoy disability Health • Able to face problems • Feeling unhappy and that depressed restricts • Losing confidence • Thinking of self as a activities worthless person Self reported health status – 10% weight .
  • 21. WORK Time Use SLEEP .
  • 22. SchoolingValue : Little Knowledgejustification for of:• Killing • Local legends• Stealing and folk stories• Lying Education • Local tshechus• Creating disharmony among and festivals people • Constitution• Sexual misconduct • How HIV/AIDS is transmitted Literacy .
  • 23. Speak native language Artistic skills Cultural• Weaving, Embroide participation: ry, Painting, Carpe ntry, Carving, Scul Cultural • Number of days pture, Casting, Bla Diversity spent in socio- cksmithing, Bambo and cultural events o in a year works, Gold/silvers Resilience mith, Masonry, Leather works, Paper making Driglam Namzha (code of etiquette and conduct) • Importance • Changes in practice .
  • 24. Political participation * Voting * Attending Zomdue at: Government performance • Chiwog level • Gewog level • Creating jobs • Thromdue level • Reducing gapServices between rich and poor• Walking time to • Providing nearest health education care centre • Improving• Waste disposal Good health services• Source of water Governance • Fighting• Quality of corruption drinking water • Protecting• Access to environment electricity Fundamental rights • Preserving cultural and • Freedom of speech & opinion traditions • To vote • To join political party • To form/join tshogpa • To join public service • Equal value of work • Freedom from discrimination .
  • 25. Donations (time & money) • Proportion of household income donated • Days of volunteering Family • Family careSafety • Wish you were Community not part of your• Having been a recent victim Vitality family of crime • Argue too much • Feel like a stranger in family • Family are understanding • Family are a real Community source of comfort relationship • Sense of belonging • Trust neighbours .
  • 26. Responsibility towards Environment Ecological IssuesUrbanization • Pollution ofissues rivers and steams• Traffic congestion• Absence/inadequa • Air pollution te green spaces Ecological • Absence of waste disposal sites• Lack of pedestrian friendly streets Diversity and • Landslides• Urban sprawl Resilience • Soil erosion • Floods • Littering • Noise pollution Wildlife Damage (Rural) • Wild animals are a constraint to crops. • Crops have been damaged by wild animals .
  • 27. Household income per capita Living Standard Assets • Mobile phone • Fixed phone • Personal computer • RefrigeratorHousing • Washing machine• Toilet • Television• Electricity • Livestock• Quality of roof • Land size (5 acres• Persons per room threshold) .
  • 28. Psychological Wellbeing • Life satisfaction • Positive emotions Living Standards • Negative emotions Health • Spirituality • Mental health • Assets • Self reported health • Housing status • Household per capita • Healthy days income • DisabilityEcologicalDiversity andResilience Time Use GNH• Ecological Issues• Responsibility • Work towards environment • Sleep• Wildlife damage (Rural)• Urbanization issues Community Vitality Education • Donations (time & • Literacy money) • Schooling • Community relationship • Knowledge • Family • Value • Safety Cultural Good Governance Diversity and Resilience • Gov‟t performance • Fundamental rights • Speak native Language • Services • Cultural Participation • Political Participation • Artistic Skills • Driglam Namzha .
  • 29. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 30. Weighting: 9 domains are equally weighted 33 indicators, 2-4 per domain Relatively equal weights among 33 Most reliable have larger weights .
  • 31. Weights on the 33 IndicatorsDomain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environment 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 32. Equal Weights within the indicators in 3 domainsDomain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environment 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 33. 5 subjective indicators receive10% weights only (dark blue); others equal.Domain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environment 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 34. In 3 domains, subjective indicators are weighted 20%; objective at 30%.Domain Indicators Weight Domain Indicators WeightPsychological wellbeing Life satisfaction 33% Good Governance Political participation 40% Positive emotions 17% Services 40% Negative emotions 17% Governance performance 10% Spirituality 33% Fundamental rights 10%Health Self reported health status 10% Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30% Healthy days 30% Safety 30% Disability 30% Community relationship 20% Mental health 30% Family 20%Time use Work 50% Ecological diversity Wildlife damage 40% Sleep 50% & resilience Urban issues 40%Education Literacy 30% Responsibility towards environmen 10% Schooling 30% Ecological issues 10% Knowledge 20% Living Standard Per capita income 33% Value 20% Assets 33%Cultural diversity Zorig chusum skills (Artisan) 30% Housing 33%& resilience Cultural participation 30% Speak native language 20% Driglam Namzha (Etiquette 20% .
  • 35. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. Weighting6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 36. How much is enough?The GNH Index uses two kinds of thresholds: 1. Sufficiency thresholds 2. Happiness thresholdSufficiency thresholds:Shows how much a person needs in orderto enjoy „sufficiency‟ – how much isenough, normally, to create a happinesscondition. Each of the 33 GNH indicatorshas a sufficiency threshold. .
  • 37. Sufficiency thresholds were set by: International standards: Eg. MDGs, ILO, Habitat National standards: Eg.1.5 x income poverty line Normative judgments: Eg. Positive emotions Participatory meetings: Local advisors gave input - e.g. the threshold for land depends upon its quality. Here in Wangdiphodrang 5 acres is enough. .
  • 38. Psychological wellbeingIndicator Sub-indicator Question Response range Sufficiency Life Health How satisfied are you with your health? 5 (Low-worst) 20-25 Standard of living …with your standard of living?satisfaction To Occupation …with your major occupation? 25 (High Family relationship …with your family relationship? satisfaction) Work life balance …with your work life balance?Spirituality 1 (Not at all)- 4 4 (Very Spirituality How spiritual do you consider yourself? (Very spiritual) spiritual) Do you consider Karma in the course of 1 (Not at all)-4 4 (Always) Karma your daily life? (Always) 1 (Not at all)- 4 4 (Regularly) Prayer recitation How often do you recite prayers? (Regularly) 1 (Not at all)- 4 3 (Occasionally) (Regularly) or 4 (Regularly) Meditation How often do you meditate? Positive Calmness During the past few 5 (Low )-20 15-20 emotions Compassion weeks, how often do you (High positive (Positive Forgiveness experience __(Emotion)_? emotion score) emotion Contentment score) Generosity Negative Selfishness During the past few 5 (Low)-20 15-20 emotions Jealousy weeks, how often do you (High negative (Negative Fear experience __(Emotion)_? emotion score) emotion Worry score) Anger .
  • 39. Health Response range Sufficiency Indicator Sub-indicator Question (worst-best) thresholdSelf Self reported health In general, would 1 (Very poor)- 4 (Good) or 5reported status you say your health 5 (Excellent) (Excellent)health is…statusHealthy Healthy days Number of healthy 0 (Worst)-30(Best) Above 26days days in the past 30 days daysDisability Long term disability Do you have any 1 (Yes)-2 (No) 2 (No) long term disabilities, health/mental problems? Activity limitations Does the long-term 1 (All the time)- 3 (Rarely) or disability restrict 5 (Never) 4 (Never) your activities?Mental 12 item General 12 item General 0-15 (Severe 21-36health health questionnaire health questionnaire distress)-21-36 (Normal (Normal mental mental wellbeing) wellbeing) .
  • 40. Education Indicator Sub-indicator Question Response range SufficiencyLiteracy Literacy level Can you read and write in any of the 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) languages?Schooling Schooling What is your highest level of education? 1 (No formal 2 (Class VI) education)-8 (Postgraduate/PHD)Know- Local legend and How would you rate your knowledge 5 (Low knowledge 19-25 and understanding on local legend and score)-25 (High (Knowledgeledge folk stories folk stories? knowledge score) score) Local tshechus How would you rate your knowledge and understanding on local tshechus? Traditional songs How would you rate your knowledge and understanding on traditional songs? The Constitution How would you rate your knowledge and understanding on constitution? HIV/AIDS How would you rate your knowledge on how HIV/AIDS is transmitted? transmission Killing Is killing justifiable? 5 (Low value score)- 14-15 (Value 15 (High value score) Stealing Is stealing justifiable? score) Lying Is lying justifiable? Disharmony Is creating harmony in human relations justifiable?Value Sexual misconduct Is sexual misconduct justifiable? .
  • 41. Cultural diversity and resilience Indicator Sub-indicator Question Response range SufficiencyLanguage Ability to How well can you speak 1 (Not at all)-4 (Very 4 (Quite well) or speak mother your mother tongue well) 5 (Very well) tongue now?Cultural Number of How many days do you 1 (None)-5 (More than 20 3 (6-12 days) orparticipation days spend in a year days) 4 (13-20 days) or participated in attending social and 5 (More than 20 cultural acitivities days) socio-cultural (community festivals or activities choku of neighbours)?Artisan skills Artisan skills Do you have any of the 0 skill (Worst)-13 skills One skill or zorig chusum skills? (Best) moreDriglam Attitude Is Driglam Namzha 1 (Not Important)-3(Very 3 (VeryNamzha important? Important) Important-2(code of (Important)etiquette andconduct) Change over How do you percieve 1 (Getting weaker)-3 3 (Getting time the change in practice (Getting stronger) stronger) and observance of Driglam Namzha during the last few years? .
  • 42. Good Governance Indicator Sub-indicator Question Range SufficiencyGovernment Creating jobs Rate the performance of government in 7 (Low 28-25 (Institutionalperformance creating jobs? institutional performance score Reducing gap between rich in reducing gap between rich and poor? performance and poor score) Fighting corruption - in fighting corruption? 35 (High Preserving culture and in preserving culture and traditions? institutional traditions performance ) Protecting environment in protecting environment? - Providing educational in providing educational needs? needs Improving health services n improving health services?Fundamental Freedom of speech Do you feel that you have right to the freedom of 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes)Rights speech and opinion? Vote have right to vote? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Join political party have right to join political party of your choice? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Form tshogpa have right to form tshogpa? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Equal access to join public have right to equal access and opportunity to join 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) service public service? To equal pay for equal have right to equal pay for work of equal value? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) work Free from discrimination have right to the freedom from discrimination? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes)Services Access to health care How long does it usually take you to walk to <60 minutes the nearest health care centre? Electricity Do you have electricity? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Waste disposal How do you dispose your household waste? 1 (Dump on 5 (Municipal garbage open land)- 7 pick up) or 6 (Burning) or (Compost) 7 (Compositing) Access to water What is the main source of water for your 1 (River, pond 5 (Protected well) or 6 etc.)-8 (Piped in (Public outdoor tap) or 7 household? dwelling) (Piped water outside house) or 8 (Piped in dwelling) .
  • 43. Good Governance (cont’d) Indicator Sub-indicator Question Range SufficiencyServices Access to health care How long does it usually take you to walk to <60 minutes the nearest health care centre? Electricity Do you have electricity? 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 2 (Yes) Waste disposal How do you dispose your household waste? 1 (Dump on 5 (Municipal open land)- garbage pick up) or 7 (Compost) 6 (Burning) or 7 (Compositing) Access to water What is the main source of water for your 1 (River, 5 (Protected well) household? pond etc.)-8 or 6 (Public outdoor (Piped in tap) or 7 (Piped dwelling) water outside house) or 8 (Piped in dwelling) Quality of water How would you rate the quality of your 1 (Very 5 (Very Good) or 4 drinking water Poor)-5 (Good) (Very Good)Political Election Will you vote in the next elections? 1 (No)-2 1 (No) (Yes)participa- The frequency of zomdue attendance in the past 12 At least once Zomduetion participation months .
  • 44. Community vitality Indicator Sub-indicator Question Response range Sufficiency thresholdDonation Donations In the past 12 months, did you donate Amount of More than 10% of(time & money? donation made in a annual householdmoney) year income Days volunteer During the past 12 months, how many Number of days National average- days did you volunteer? volunteered More than 17 daysCommunity Sense of belonging How would you describe your sense of 1 (Weak)-3 (Very 3 (Very strong)relationship belonging to your local community? strong) Trust in neighbours How much do you trust your 1 (Trust none of 4 (Trust most of neighbours? them)-4 (Trust them) most of them) Family members care Do the members of your family care 18 (High familyFamily about each other about each other? index score)-6(Low Wish you were not Do you wish you were not part of your family Index Score) part of your family family? Feel like a stranger in Do you feel like a stranger in your your family family? Enough time to spend Do you get enough time to spend with with your family your family? Lot of understanding Is there a lot of understanding in your in your family family? Family is a real Do you think family is a real source of 15-18 (Family source of comfort to comfort to you? index score) you Victim of crime Have you been a victim of crime in the 1 (Yes)-2 (No) 2 (No)Safety last 12 months? .
  • 45. Ecological diversity and resilienceIndicator Sub-indicator Question Response range (worst-best) Sufficiency thresholdEcological Pollution of rivers and Is ___ISSUE________ 1 (Major concern)-4 4 (Not a concern)issues streams an environmental issue (Not a concern) or 3 (Minor Air pollution of concern in your concern) or 2 Noise pollution community? (Some concern) Absence of waste disposal in at least 6 sites ecological issues Littering Landslides Soil erosion FloodsResponsibility Do you feel responsible 1 (Not at all 4 (Highlytowards for conserving the natural responsible)-4 (Highly responsible) Feelings of responsibilityenvironment towards environment environment? responsible)Wildlife Was wildlife a constraint 1 (Major constraint)-4 1 (Major constraint)damage (Rural) to your crops during the (Not a constraint) & 1 (A lot) or 2 Wildlife problems last year? (Some) In the past one year, has 1 (A lot)-4 (Not at all) your crops been damaged Crop loss by wild animals?Urbanization Is ___ISSUE________ an 1 (Major concern)-4 4 (Not a concern) orissues Traffic congestion environmental issue of (Not a concern) 3 (Minor concern) Absence/inadequate concern in your or 2 (Some concern) green spaces community? in at least 3 Lack of pedestrian urbanization issues friendly streets Urban sprawl .
  • 46. Living standards Indicator Sub-indicator Question Response range (worst-best) Sufficiency thresholdAssets Mobile telephone Do you own a 1 (No)-2 (Yes) 3 electrical Fixed line _______Equipment____ equipment telephone Personal computer or Refrigerator 5 livestock Colour Television or Washing machine 5 acres of land Land How many acres of Number of acres land does your household own? Livestock How many livestock Number of livestock does your household own?Housing Type of toilet used What kind of toilet 1 (No toilet facility, 5 (Flush toilets) or 4 facility does your open spaces)-5 (Flush (Pit latrine with septic household use? toilet) tank) Roof material What type of roof 1 (Slate/Bamboo/ 2 material is mainly used Straw/Wood/Mud)- 2 (Concrete/Brick/Ston for your dwelling? (Concrete/Brick/Stone e or CGI/ Metal) /CGI/Metal) Room ratio How many rooms are Number of persons per 2 persons per room or there in the dwelling room less (exclude bath/toilet)?Household per Household income What was the total cash Household income in 1.5* poverty line income for your Ngultrumscapita income household during the past 12 months? .
  • 47. Time Use Response range SufficiencyIndicator Sub-indicator Question (worst-best) threshold Work Hours of work 480 mins Sleep Hours of sleep 480 mins .
  • 48. 0% 100% 120% 20% 40% 60% 80% Value Safety Speak native language Family Disability Mental health Urbanization issues Responsibility towards… Life satisfaction Government performance Healthy days Assets Self reported health status Ecological issues Percentage of people enjoying sufficiency Sleep Negative emotions towards Community relationship and assets Fundamental rights sufficiency in Artisan skills life, government Driglam Namzha value, safety, native Positive emotions health, urbanization issues, responsibility Most Bhutanese enjoy Wildlife damage (Rural) language, family, mental Political participation performance, healthy days Household per capita income environment, satisfaction in Spirituality. Literacy
  • 49. 0% 100% 120% 40% 60% 80% 20% Value Safety Speak native language Family Disability issues, negative Mental health Urbanization issues relationship, Artisan Responsibility towards… emotions, community Life satisfaction sufficiency in ecological Government performance 50-60% of Bhutanese enjoy skills, Driglam Namzha etc. Healthy days Assets Self reported health status Ecological issues Sleep Percentage of people enjoying sufficiency Negative emotions Community relationship Fundamental rights Artisan skills Driglam Namzha Positive emotions Wildlife damage (Rural) Political participation Household per capita income Spirituality. Literacy
  • 50. Mental health Urbanization issues Responsibility towards… Life satisfaction Government performance Healthy days Assets Self reported health status Ecological issues Sleep Negative emotions Community relationship Fundamental rights Artisan skills Driglam Namzha Positive emotions Percentage of people enjoying sufficiency Wildlife damage (Rural) Political participation oling, cultural participation and knowledge Household per capita income Less than 50% of Bhutanese enjoy sufficiency in Spirituality literacy, housing, donations, work, services, scho Literacy Housing Donations (time & money) Work Services Schooling Cultural participation Knowledge.
  • 51. Who is considered Happy?The GNH Index uses two kinds of thresholds: 1. Sufficiency thresholds 2. Happiness thresholdHappiness Threshold= 66% of domainsA person who enjoys sufficiency in morethan six or more of the 9 domains isconsidered happy. .
  • 52. Happiness threshold of 6 or more (66%) of the 9 domains were set based on: Diversity: Some indicators do not have universal application. Eg. Political participation under Good Governance is not relevant to monks and nuns. Measurement error: some responses might not be fully accurate, whether it be about household income or about their values Freedom of choice: Many people seem fully happy without sufficiency in all indicators. They might not value other indicators. Their happiness might not be increased by requiring sufficiency in all. They have enough. .
  • 53. 0% 5% 10% 15% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 20% Value Safety Family Disability Mental health Life satisfaction Applying Both Thresholds Speak native language Responsibility towards… Healthy days Urbanization issues Self reported health status Assets the 9 domains Government performance Negative emotions Wildlife damage (Rural) Sleep Household per capita… Positive emotions Ecological issues Artisan skills Literacy Fundamental rights Community relationship Spirituality Housing. the conditions of both thresholds ; 1) sufficiency threshold of Work value indicator and 2) the overall happiness threshold of 6 of 39% of Bhutanese are happy in this indicator means 39% fulfi
  • 54. A person is ‘happy’ if he/she achievessufficiency in 6 or more of the 9 domains Dorji Sufficiency in 7 Tashi domains, so he is Sufficiency in 4 domains so considered happy she is considered unhappy .
  • 55. A person is ‘happy’ if he/she achievessufficiency in 6 or more of the 9 domains How many hit the target? .
  • 56. How can another know?Happiness is deeply personal. Any measure is imperfect. It can only suggest. Yet… .
  • 57. 40.8% of Bhutanese enjoy sufficiency in six or more domains at the same time. According to the GNHIndex, they are ‘happy’. .
  • 58. Part I:1. GNH concept2. GNH domains3. GNH survey4. 33 indicators5. GNH thresholds-sufficiency & happiness6. Weighting7. GNH Index methodology .
  • 59. GNH Index MethodologyThe GNH Index is related to:1. Headcount ratio:Percent of people who are happy2. Breadth:The percentage of domains in whichpeople who are not-yet-happy enjoysufficiency .
  • 60. The 2010 GNH Index, like the 2008 Index, isbased on the Alkire & Foster (2007, 2011)methodology. In this methodology we:1. Choose indicators2. Apply sufficiency thresholds (who has enough)?3. Apply weights for each indicator4. Apply the happiness threshold5. Identify two groups: 1. Happy people 2. Not-yet happy people (policy priority) .
  • 61. • The first thing we do is apply sufficiency thresholds to each of the 33 indicators.• For simplicity, here we present as if we had nine indicators, one per domain, equally weighted.• We start with each person, one by one, and create their GNH profile.• The tall coloured bar indicates that a person has achieved sufficiency in that domain• The flat dark bar means that they lack sufficiency. .
  • 62. • The first thing we do is apply sufficiency thresholds to each of the 33 indicators.• For simplicity, here we present as if we had nine indicators, one per domain, equally weighted.• We start with each person, one by one, and create their GNH profile.• The tall coloured bar indicates that a person has achieved sufficiency in that domain• The flat dark bar means that they lack sufficiency. .
  • 63. • The first thing we do is apply sufficiency thresholds to each of the 33 indicators.• For simplicity, here we present as if we had nine indicators, one per domain, equally weighted.• We start with each person, one by one, and create their GNH profile.• The tall coloured bar indicates that a person has achieved sufficiency in that domain• The flat dark bar means that they lack sufficiency. .
  • 64. Sample GNH profiles .
  • 65. Sample GNH profiles .
  • 66. Next: Count domains (%) Jampel has sufficiency in 3 of 9 domains (orange). That is, 33%. .
  • 67. Next: who is happy? A person who has 6 or more domains is happy .
  • 68. What % of people are happy And what % are not-yet-happy?Here 5 outof 7 peopleare not yet happy –5/7 = 71%. Happy people2 out of 7people are happy –2/7 = 29% .
  • 69. GNH Index MethodologyAlmost there.Now, to compute the GNH Index, we only needto know one more thing:6. Among the Not-yet-Happy people, whatpercentage of domains do they lack sufficiency? .
  • 70. Last step: among the not yet happy… In what percentof dimensions do they lack sufficiency? .
  • 71. Last step: among the not yet happy… In what percent of dimensions do they lack sufficiency?Have sufficiency in 46% Lack sufficiency in 54% .
  • 72. The percentage of Happy people we call Hh This is 29% in the exampleThe percentage of not-yet-happy people Hn This is 71% in the exampleThe percentage of domains in which not-yet-happy people lack sufficiency we call An This is 54% in the example .
  • 73. Why does the GNH Index useshortfalls?So the GNH Index changes when thepercent of happy people increasesor when not-yet-happy people havesufficiency in more domains. (This makes it useful for policy) .
  • 74. .
  • 75. Now that we‟ve computed it, the GNH can be unpacked indifferent ways, to tell different stories.The GNH Index can be decomposed by subgroups likeDzonkhags, age groups, gender, or some occupations.It can also be analysed by each dimension & indicator. .
  • 76. .
  • 77. Hence, GNH Index is used: To Understand Happiness: How many people are happy? How are they happy? To Increase Happiness Who is not yet happy? What do they lack? .
  • 78. How do we increase GNH? 1) Increase the % of happy people (Reduce the % of unhappy) OR 2) Increase the % of domains in which not-yet-happy people enjoy sufficiency. (Reduce the insufficiencies of the unhappy). .
  • 79. GNH Index: IncentivesThe 2010 GNH Index, like the 2008 Index, isbased on the Alkire & Foster methodology.It provides an incentive ~to sustain GNH among the happy and ~to care for those who are not-yet-happy … so they enjoy sufficiency in more domains … and so they become happy. .
  • 80. The 2010 Gross NationalHappiness Index : Part I The Centre for Bhutan Studies 2011 .