Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Bolivia gedi2011-ra2012-2[1]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Bolivia gedi2011-ra2012-2[1]

  • 169 views
Published

An analysis of entrepreneurship development and performance in Bolivia using the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) 2011

An analysis of entrepreneurship development and performance in Bolivia using the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) 2011

Published in Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
169
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Colonial idea??? Too radical???? This is the premise of concepts like the bottom of the pyramid… many in tech world know this, people working on biological and hard sicences all over the world… don’t just look at this as selling to them, the smartest are looking to harness their ingenuity, --- rich assets, that can be grow exponentiall (oil runs out, human ingenuity does not)

Transcript

  • 1. The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) Zoltan J. AcsCenter of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy (CEPP) George Mason University And Imperial College Business School © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 2. Shaping The Future “Making predictions is really hard, especially about the future.” Yogi Bera New York Yankees© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 3. Stages of Economic Development over time © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 4. In an age where human ingenuity powers growth, the question of the developing economies & their human capital becomes the largest economic and social opportunity in the history of the world© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 5. Jedi Warrior – Killer App © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 6. Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) Purpose:GEDI Index is a tool.The purpose of the GEDI Index is to give the world a “tool to support sustainable growth, and increased standards of living by measuring the contextual nature of successful entrepreneurship.© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 7. Support for entrepreneurs andentrepreneurship policy appearsto be gaining acceptanceglobally However, a real understanding of entrepreneurship & the successful implementation of policies that actually support and lead to the development of high© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012 impact firms is rare
  • 8. Why is true understanding ofentrepreneurship and policy rare?Entrepreneurship is a complexphenomenon with individuals,societal norms, economic, political,and educational institutionsinteracting around the future(the unknown)Very difficult to understand(not to mention measure)© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 9. What do we mean byentrepreneurship?High Impact Firms:•Microsoft•Lenovo•InfosysNOT: coffee shops, Some call them Gazelles,home based because they grow fast,businesses, and employ people, growingself-employed partners/suppliers, & generally have deep impact on regional, national, or even international level © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 10. Global Entrepreneurship andDevelopment Index (GEDI)Created to capture themultidimensional nature ofentrepreneurshipEmploys qualitative as wellas quantitative measuresUses institutional andindividual variables© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 11. Global Entrepreneurship andDevelopment Index comprised of 3 Sub-Indexes Entrepreneurial Attitudes Entrepreneurial Activity Entrepreneurial Aspiration © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 12. What the GEDI sub-indexes tell us Attitude measures society’s basic attitudes toward entrepreneurship through education and social stability. Activity measures what individuals are actually doing to improve the quality of human resources and technological efficiency. Aspiration measures how much of the entrepreneurial activity is being directed toward innovation, high-impact entrepreneurship, and globalization. © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 13. More powerful collectively Attributes in the sub-indexes, are more powerful collectively than they are individually. This makes true entrepreneurship, the killer application for sustainable economic development© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 14. More powerful collectively In an efficiency-driven economy (manufacturing) individuals need to be encouraged to be entrepreneurs and start businesses. In an innovation-driven economy (knowledge- based economy) some entrepreneurs need to create large and successful enterprise© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 15. Rank Country Rank Country 1 Denmark 37 PolandBolivia’s relative position in the 2011 GEDI Index 2 Canada 38 Croatia 3 USA 39 Peru 4 Sweden 40 China 5 New Zealand 41 Colombia 6 Ireland 42 South Africa 7 Switzerland 43 Turkey 8 Norway 44 Mexico 9 Iceland 45 Dominican Republic 10 Netherlands 46 Indonesia 11 Australia 47 Hungary 12 Belgium 48 Romania 13 Finland 49 Macedonia 14 United Kingdom 50 Egypt 15 Singapore 51 Morocco 16 Germany 52 Jordan 17 Puerto Rico 53 Panama 18 France 54 India 19 Slovenia 55 Brazil 20 Korea 56 Venezuela 21 Israel 57 Thailand 22 Austria 58 Russia 23 Hong Kong 59 Tunisia 24 United Arab Emirates 60 Jamaica 25 Czech Republic 61 Algeria 26 Chile 62 Serbia 27 Italy 63 Kazakhstan 28 Spain 64 Bosnia and Herzegovina 29 Japan 65 Ecuador 30 Saudi Arabia 66 Bolivia 31 Malaysia 67 Syria 32 Latvia 68 Guatemala 33 Portugal 69 Iran 34 Greece 70 Philippines 35 Uruguay 71 Uganda 36 Argentina © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 16. GEDI INDEXThe Global Entrepreneurship and DevelopmentIndex GEDI is a collaboration between GeorgeMason University, University of Pécs, and ImperialCollege Business School, London. The GEDI Indexcombines Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)data with data on country-level institutionalconditions to estimate a country’s EntrepreneurialAttitudes, Aspirations, and Activities. Combined,these three pillars define the entrepreneurialcharacter of a nation.Each of the three pillars – Attitudes, Aspirations,and Activities – comprises several sub-pillars, suchas Opportunity Perception, Cultural Support,Opportunity Start-Ups, Growth Aspirations andNew Technology.For the GEDI method, see www.thegedi.org. © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012 www.thegedi.org
  • 17. ATTITUDES INDEXThe Global Entrepreneurship and DevelopmentIndex GEDI is a collaboration between GeorgeMason University, University of Pécs, and ImperialCollege Business School, London. The GEDI Indexcombines Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)data with data on country-level institutionalconditions to estimate a country’s EntrepreneurialAttitudes, Aspirations, and Activities. Combined,these three pillars define the entrepreneurialcharacter of a nation.The Attitudes sub-index combines data on CulturalSupport for entrepreneurship, OpportunityPerception, Perception of Start-Up Skills,Networking Propensity, and Nonfear of Failure.For the GEDI method, see www.thegedi.org. © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012 www.thegedi.org
  • 18. ACTIVITY INDEXThe Global Entrepreneurship and DevelopmentIndex GEDI is a collaboration between GeorgeMason University, University of Pécs, and ImperialCollege Business School, London. The GEDI Indexcombines Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)data with data on country-level institutionalconditions to estimate a country’s EntrepreneurialAttitudes, Aspirations, and Activities. Combined,these three pillars define the entrepreneurialcharacter of a nation.The Activity sub-index combines data onCompetition, Quality of Human Resources,Technology Sector orientation, and Opportunity-driven Start-Ups.For the GEDI method, see www.thegedi.org. © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012 www.thegedi.org
  • 19. ASPIRATIONS INDEXThe Global Entrepreneurship and DevelopmentIndex GEDI is a collaboration between GeorgeMason University, University of Pécs, and ImperialCollege Business School, London. The GEDI Indexcombines Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)data with data on country-level institutionalconditions to estimate a country’s EntrepreneurialAttitudes, Aspirations, and Activities. Combined,these three pillars define the entrepreneurialcharacter of a nation.The Aspirations sub-index combines data on RiskCapital, Internationalization, High-Growthaspirations, New Technology, and New ProductDevelopment.For the GEDI method, see www.thegedi.org. © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012 www.thegedi.org
  • 20. BoliviaBolivia’s overall 2011 GEDI score 0.16Bolivia’s overall 2011 GEDI rank #66Size of population 2011 (in million): 9.9Per capita GDP in international US$ 2009 (PPP, World Bank): 4,278Level of development: factor drivenRank in Doing Business Index 2010-2011: 161/183Rank in Global Competitiveness Index 2010-2011: 120/133Rank in Economic Freedom Index 2010-2011 130/179Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index rank (point): 67 (0.16)Entrepreneurial Attitudes sub-index rank (point): 61 (0.22)Entrepreneurial Action sub-index rank (point): 58 (0.20)Entrepreneurial Aspirations sub-index rank (point): 69 (0.07)Weakest pillar to improve (value): NEW TECHNOLOGY (0.03)Weakest variable to improve (value) BUSINESS RISK, TECHABSORB, INNOV(0.00) © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 21. Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador compared© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 22. Bolivia at the GEDI Variable Level:Worst Variables: INNOVATION 0.00 TECHABSORPTION 0.00 BUSINESS RISK 0.00Best Variables POSSESS SKILLS 0.93 IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES 0.80 NONFEAR OF FAILURE 0.67 © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 23. Bolivia at the GEDI Pillar Level:Weaknesses WEAK NETWORKING 0.04 HIGH LEVEL OF COMPETITION 0.16 LITTLE NEW TECHNOLOGY 0.03Strengths PRESENCE OF STARTUP SKILLS 0.65 OPPORTUNITY STARTUP 0.23 INTERNATIONALIZATION 0.14 © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 24. The relative position of Bolivia at the GEDI 2011 variable and pillar level © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 25. Policy Conclusions Identifying stages of economic development are crucial for understanding entrepreneurship development Simple measures of entrepreneurship do not work The GEDI index which combines individual & institutional data utilizing a novel Penalty for Bottleneck methodology tracks well Institutions and people are critical components influencing entrepreneurial performance People become more important agents in entrepreneurship development as we move from factor to efficiency to innovation (the three main stages of economic development). © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 26. Back to the Future: the World in2050 Surging, Shifting Populations Abundance of human capital Will we unleash the killer application: entrepreneurship? Can we use GEDI Index and others to focus investments, policies, and welcome 3 billion new global citizens to sustainable growth and improved standards of living © Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012
  • 27. GEDI 2011 Index available for purchaseCEPP 2012© Zoltan Acs,
  • 28. Questions and Comments Contact: Center for Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, George Mason University zacs@gmu.edu raidis@gmu.edu http://cepp.gmu.edu© Zoltan Acs, CEPP 2012