Course Tech 2013, Sasha Vodnik, A Crash Course in HTML5

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Over the past few years, HTML5 has changed web browsers and coding alike with a stream of new elements, …

Over the past few years, HTML5 has changed web browsers and coding alike with a stream of new elements,
attributes, and possibilities. In this session we’ll explore the major features that HTML5 offers developers, including
semantic elements, form enhancements, and browser-native audio and video. We’ll also survey the landscape of
browser support and get familiar with strategies for maintaining compatibility with legacy browsers like IE 7 and 8.
Finally, we’ll look at the fundamental changes happening to the process of revising HTML as a language and we’ll
consider some of the likeliest scenarios for the evolution of HTML in coming years.

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  • Show code, replace a few divs with semantics
  • Show code, replace a few divs with semantics
  • Add Figures N-6 and N-7 to this slideOr maybe show restaurant info for San Diego?
  • Add images of mobile keyboards displayed for email (@ and . And .com) and tel (number pad) values
  • demo with Mozilla thimble or CSS3generator.comyou can use any color systemhoriz length vertical length blur radius (spread) color
  • http://www.westciv.com/tools/3Dtransforms/index.html
  • http://www.westciv.com/tools/3Dtransforms/index.htmlcan also use rotate(x,y)
  • http://www.westciv.com/tools/3Dtransforms/index.htmlcan also use translate(x,y)
  • http://www.westciv.com/tools/3Dtransforms/index.htmlcan also use translate(x,y)
  • http://www.westciv.com/tools/3Dtransforms/index.htmlcan also use translate(x,y)
  • show demo on http://css3.bradshawenterprises.com/transitions/
  • Show code for an old embedded video, then show newer code for video element
  • Show code for an old embedded video, then show newer code for video element
  • Show code for an old embedded video, then show newer code for video element
  • Show code for an old embedded video, then show newer code for video element
  • show http://www.google.com/doodles/alexander-calders-113th-birthday as demo of awesomeness possible
  • talk about IE6-based corporate environments vs latest/greatest browsers for high-tech focused websites
  • Show a Lakeland Reeds page in IE7 and Safari
  • This code usesmodernizr to detect whether a user’s browser supports the placeholder attribute for the input element. If not, this script generates placeholder text using JavaScript.
  • Show a graph of market share/usage of mobile browsers and call out the older ones?

Transcript

  • 1. A Crash Course in HTML5 Sasha Vodnik
  • 2. Agenda1. Where did HTML5 come from?2. What’s different in HTML5?3. How compatible is HTML5?4. What’s around the corner for HTML?
  • 3. 1. Where did HTML5 come from?• Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) Language HTML 2 HTML 3 HTML 4 HTML5 future XHTML 1 XHTML5 HTML WHATWG WHATW G XHTML
  • 4. 2. What’s different in HTML5? Semantics Multimedia CSS3 3D, Graphics, Effects Offline & Storage Device Access Connectivity Performance & Integration
  • 5. Simplified Syntax • DOCTYPE <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"transitional "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">XHTML 1.1 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">HTML5 <!DOCTYPE html>
  • 6. Simplified Syntax • script element <script <scriptHTML 4.01/ type="text/javascript"> type="text/javascript"XHTML 1.1 … src="file.js”> </script> </script>HTML5 <script> … <script src="file.js”> </script> </script>
  • 7. Semantic Elements• Instead of the generic div element, we have article, figcaption, figure, footer, header, hgroup, nav.• In general, no different in a browser, but opens doors for predictive indexing by search engines, making content easier to find.
  • 8. Semantic example<body> <body> <div class=“navigation”> <nav> … … </div> </nav> <h1>…</h1> <h1>…</h1> <p class=“tagline”>…</p> <p class=“tagline”>…</p> <div class=“maincontent”> <article> … … </div> </article> <div class=“footer”> <footer> … … </div> </footer></body> </body>
  • 9. Semantics: Microdata• A system for adding semantic information to specific elements.• Similar to microformats and RDFa• Main use case: marking information that can show up in Google Rich Snippets
  • 10. Microdata example<footer itemtype="http://www.data-vocabulary.org/Organization"itemscope="itemscope"> <p id="contact"> <span itemprop="name">Lakeland Reeds Bed &amp; Breakfast</span> <img src="images/flourish.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="" /> <span itemprop="address" itemscope="itemscope" itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Address"> <span itemprop="street-address">45 Marsh Grass Ln.</span> <img src="images/flourish.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="" /> <span itemprop="locality">Marble</span>, <span itemprop="region">MN</span> <span itemprop="postal-code">55764</span> <img src="images/flourish.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="" /> <span itemprop="tel">(218) 555-5253</span> </span> title element </p> content</footer> Room selection at Lakeland Reeds Bed & Breakfast content marked Marble, MN - (218) 555-5253 as microdata Lakeland Reeds Bed & Breakfast offers 4 comfortable rooms that accommodate from 2 to 5 people. All have meta element private baths and views of Twin Lakes. content www.example.com URL Google rich snippet incorporating microdata
  • 11. Forms: New input types• Instead of type="text", you can set the type attribute to email, color, range, time, date, url, search, number, or tel• No issues with backward compatibility, because older browsers assume a value of text when they don’t understand the type value.
  • 12. Forms: New input types• Indispensable for mobile interfaces type="email" type="tel" type="number" type="date" type="url"
  • 13. Forms: Native validation• Add the required attribute to trigger a browser-defined error message when the field is left blank.• Use the pattern attribute to specify a regular expression that the field value must match.• These only work in browsers that support them; continue to back up with a script.
  • 14. Native validation example Field with required attribute:invalid pseudo-class:red background:valid pseudo-class:green background
  • 15. CSS3: New color systems CSS 2: red green blue (rgb) CSS3: red green blue alpha (rgba) <div style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0);"></div> <div style="background-color: rgb(243,191,189);"></div> <div style="background-color: rgb(0,255,0);"></div> <div style="background-color: rgb(246,143,142);"></div> <div style="background-color: rgb(0,0,255);"></div> <div style="background-color: rgb(249,95,94);"></div> <div style="background-color: rgb(252,47,47);"></div> <div style="background-color: rgb(255,0,0);"></div> CSS3: hue saturation light (hsl) CSS3: hue saturation light alpha (hsla)<div style="background-color: hsl(0,100%, 50%);"></div> <div style="background-color: hsla(0,100%,50%,0.2);"></div><div style="background-color: hsl(120,100%, 50%);"></div> <div style="background-color: hsla(0,100%,50%,0.4);"></div><div style="background-color: hsl(240,100%, 50%);"></div> <div style="background-color: hsla(0,100%,50%,0.6);"></div> <div style="background-color: hsla(0,100%,50%,0.8);"></div> <div style="background-color: hsla(0,100%,50%,1);"></div>
  • 16. CSS3: Shadows text-shadow: 2px -2px 5px #9393fa; box-shadow: 2px -2px 5px 0px rgba(63, 127, 255, 0.5);
  • 17. CSS3: Rounded corners border-radius: 25px;
  • 18. CSS3: 2D Transforms• rotate: in degrees or turns• translate: moves an element up, down, left, or right• skew: changes alignment of one pair of edges; creates a non-rectangular parallelogram• scale: >0 and <1 for smaller; >1 for larger
  • 19. rotate transform -webkit-transform: rotateX(45deg) rotateY(45deg); -moz-transform: rotateX(45deg) rotateY(45deg); -o-transform: rotateX(45deg) rotateY(45deg); -ms-transform: rotateX(45deg) rotateY(45deg); transform: rotateX(45deg) rotateY(45deg);
  • 20. translate transform-webkit-transform: translateX(100px) translateY(-100px);-moz-transform: translateX(100px) translateY(-100px);-o-transform: translateX(100px) translateY(-100px);-ms-transform: translateX(100px) translateY(-100px);transform: translateX(100px) translateY(-100px);
  • 21. skew transform -webkit-transform: skewX(-30deg); -moz-transform: skewX(-30deg); -o-transform: skewX(-30deg); -ms-transform: skewX(-30deg); transform: skewX(-30deg);
  • 22. scale transform -webkit-transform: scale(0.5); -moz-transform: scale(0.5); -o-transform: scale(0.5); -ms-transform: scale(0.5); transform: scale(0.5);
  • 23. CSS3: Animations• transition property• applies to long list of properties, including position, color, font-family
  • 24. audio &video elements• Current versions of all major browsers support native audio and video playback• HTML5 includes the audio and video elements for browsers that support them, but they do nothing in older browsers (we’re looking at you, IE6, 7, and 8!)• track element enables embedding of captions
  • 25. video example <object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" data="media/bfly.swf" width="320" height="240"> <param name="movie" value="media/bfly.swf" />HTML <param name="wmode" value="opaque" /> <param name="loop" value="false" />4.01/XHTM <param name="play" value="false" />L 1.1 <img src="images/bfly.png" alt="a bush with purple flowers covered in dark butterflies" width="320" height="240" title="Unfortunately, your browser isnt able to play this video." /> </object> <video controls="controls" poster="images/bfly.png" width="320" height="240"> <source src="media/bfly.m4v" type=video/mp4; codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2" />HTML5 <source src="media/bfly.webm" type=video/webm; codecs="vp8, vorbis" /> <source src="media/bfly.ogv" type=video/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis" /> <track kind="subtitles" src="subtitles.vtt" /> </video>
  • 26. Robust video example <video controls="controls" poster="images/bfly.png" width="320" height="240"> <source src="media/bfly.m4v" type=video/mp4; codecs="avc1.42E01E,HTML5 mp4a.40.2" /> <source src="media/bfly.webm" type=video/webm; codecs="vp8,with vorbis" />nested <source src="media/bfly.ogv" type=video/ogg; codecs="theora,fallback vorbis" />code <track kind="subtitles" src="subtitles.vtt" /> <object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" data="media/bfly.swf" width="320" height="240"> <param name="movie" value="media/bfly.swf" /> <param name="wmode" value="opaque" /> <param name="loop" value="false" /> <param name="play" value="false" /> <img src="images/bfly.png" alt="a bush with purple flowers covered in dark butterflies" width="320" height="240" title="Unfortunately, your browser isnt able to play this video." /> </object> </video>
  • 27. audio &video in browsersnative video controlsnative audio controls
  • 28. The canvas Element• creates a space to draw graphics using JavaScript example from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/HTML/Canvas/Tutorial/Basic_usage?redirectlocale=en-US&redirectslug=Canvas_tutorial%2FBasic_usage
  • 29. App Cache• Lets developers cache web apps on the client side for offline use
  • 30. Geolocation • Provides access to user’s location data • Canonical example: Google Maps • With a Google Maps API key, a business could include a “Directions” link on its website that provides directions from the user’s location
  • 31. Web sockets• Baked-in replacement for AJAX• creates a persistent connection• low latency• near-realtime
  • 32. Web Workers• enables running scripts in the background• do computation-intensive work without affecting interface scripts• uses the Worker() constructor
  • 33. 3. How compatible is HTML5?• You can use it now!• New features in HTML5 were designed not to fail in older browsers.• New elements like video and new input types like email won’t break older browsers• BUT you have to ensure any critical functionality doesn’t rely on HTML5/CSS3
  • 34. Browser usageResearch browser statistics for targetaudience to determine which browsers youneed to support • statcounter.com • clicky.com • w3counter.com
  • 35. Browser statistics• Jan 2013: est. 11-14% of page views worldwide on IE7 or IE8
  • 36. Graceful Degradation• Test on older browsers you need to support• Notice which parts of your code aren’t rendered the same (or at all) in an older browser• Ensure everything you need convey is still conveyed in older browsers
  • 37. Helpful Script Libraries• Script libraries like modernizr can detect whether a browser supports a given feature, and let you specify different styling in older browsers.
  • 38. 4. What’s the future of HTML? image all over the Internet; attribution not readily apparent
  • 39. The W3C and WHATWG• Both groups worked together to shape HTML5.• WHATWG has moved to a continuous, rather than iterative, process. Their product is now known simply as HTML.• W3C seems to be sticking with major version numbers, planning “HTML.next”.• Upshot? Unclear, but not a showshopper.
  • 40. HTML5 vs XHTML• Some organizations still use XHTML, and it remains an active specification.• HTML5 can be written to conform to XHTML specifications, or written more simply.
  • 41. The future is mobile• Desktop browsers will be with us for a while, but mobile web consumption is exploding.• Both HTML5 and CSS3 will likely continue to evolve to let developers and users take advantage of new possibilities presented by mobile, handheld, and touch-enabled devices.
  • 42. HTML5 & CSS3 resources• caniuse.com browser support guide• quirksmode.org browser support guide• diveintohtml5.info HTML5 and CSS3 free entry-level HTML5 book Illustrated Introductory• developers.whatwg.org HTML5 specs in an accessible format• css3.info approachable guides to CSS3 properties and usage HTML5 and CSS3 Illustrated Complete