Raising the Bar(and Support) to Get Desired Academic     Outcomes  Christine Harrington Ph.D.  Middlesex County College ww...
POLL QUESTION      What do you think leads to the best outcome?      a.       Difficult goals      b.       Moderate goals...
Agenda   Power of High Expectations     • Research     • Challenging Goals   Current Practices     • Faculty Expectations ...
THE POWER OF  HIGH EXPECTATIONSCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.   1|4
Goal Setting: What Works?          Challenging          Goals, Better            Results              Locke and Latham (20...
Students Generally Do What is                       Expected                                                     Kuh, Lair...
Goal Theory             ―The more difficult a valued goal,           the more intense our effort to attain it,           a...
Depression: Is there a Downside              to Challenging Goals?                                                        ...
Goal Attainment?                                                        Reynolds & Baird (2010)                           ...
Results…              Go Ahead Challenge Yourself                                                                     • No...
Challenging but                                         NOT out of reach                                                  ...
Goals Need to be                        Specific and Measurable                                                        Ron...
Call for Challenge is Not New                                                      Chickering and Gamson 1987           7 ...
BUT….          WHAT ARE OUR CURRENT          PRACTICES?Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. ...
A Lack of Learning at College?                                                            Roska & Anum 2011     The Bad Ne...
Are Students Reading?                                                  Clump, Bauer, & Bradley (2004)                     ...
Reading Compliance is                                Decreasing                                            Direct from Bur...
Any Good News?                                                           Roska & Anum 2011     YES!     • Students with pr...
What We Say and What We Do…              Two Different Stories    2-3 hours                                               ...
Another Example                                                Wyatt, Saunders, & Zelmer (2005)       30                  ...
POLL QUESTION      Most students walk into college expecting it to be      challenging. What percentage of first year     ...
Student Expectations Drop After                Starting College                                                 (Meyer, Sp...
An Unfortunate Relationship                          • More likely an activity                            facilitates crit...
The First Semester Really                                Matters!       ―What is required of      students in their first ...
POLL QUESTION      In your classes, do you ask students to complete      an assignment that will be graded the very first ...
Why Aren’t We Challenging                         Students?                                                   •     Fear o...
GETTING BACK ON TRACK           WITH HIGH EXPECTATIONS           (AND SUPPORT!) …Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learn...
A Call for Support to                                   Accompany Rigor                                                   ...
Starting with our Syllabus                                                       (Smith & Razzouk, 1993)                  ...
The Results: Students DO Use               the Syllabus Regularly!     Syllabus                           Frequency     Us...
The Results!       Course Objectives                                             Percent Recalled       One objective     ...
What Messages are you                                Sending?                                                             ...
High, Clear Expectations:Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.   1 | 33
The Message that Should be                         Sent…         Get Ready to Work!                                       ...
Challenging Activities that Promote            Productive, Critical Thinking…                 • Critique of articles, webs...
Scaffolding Assignments Low-High Stakes to Build                                            Breaking Down Assignments Self...
Need for Accountability:      Helping Students Master ContentCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights rese...
Mastering Content: Retrieval Practice is a Memory Tool!                                                      Roediger & Ka...
More Retrieval Ideas…          • Quizzes or Use of Clickers          • Publisher Technology Tools such as Aplia or        ...
POLL QUESTION      How many quizzes do you give to your classes?      a.       I don’t use quizzes- I only give exams.    ...
An Alternative to the “Pop Quiz”-                   Random Quizzing Works!                                                ...
Random Quizzing      How?                                                           Results?      • Emphasize need to come...
Quizzing Research     • Weekly quizzing                                               • Test until you get it       leads ...
Homework: Focused Worksheets                                                                     Ryan (2006)              ...
Focus Worksheet                                                          Direct from Ryan (2006)Copyright 2013 Harrington ...
The Results!         84         82         80         78                                                                  ...
Positive Feedback and Goals     Positive Feedback Leads                                         Repeated Success Leads    ...
Many Learning Opportunities                                        Feedback should                                        ...
Characteristics of Effective                                  Feedback                             (Wlodkowski, 2008):   •...
A Word of Caution       ―Comforting‖ feedback                                         When giving feedback,           that...
Using Technology to Support                   Student LearningCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights res...
POLL QUESTION      Do you make your Power Point Slides available to      your students?      a. I don’t use Power Point.  ...
Power Point Slides or OutlineCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.   1 | 53
Power of Visual Aids                                                            Austin & Carr 1994                Traditio...
Results:                 Critical                                       Examples   Extra Points                 Points    ...
Visual Aids should…                                                                 Mayer (2009)                     •Only...
POLL QUESTIONS      Have you used Adobe Pro before?      a. Yes      b. No      Have you used Screencasting tools such as ...
Narrated PDF DocumentsCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.   1 | 58
Screencasting     Digital Story-telling-     Screen Capture with     Narration                                            ...
A Model: Freshman                                Seminar                                                                  ...
THE OUTCOMECopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.   1 | 61
Productive Thinking!         • Students interpreting,           questioning, and making           sense of the findings   ...
Assessment Data                 100                  90                  80                  70                  60       ...
For an instructor copy of the text, visit  www.cengage.com/community/harrington        Visit Dr. Harrington’s website     ...
References      Austin, J. L., Lee, M., & Carr, J. P. (2004). The effects of guided notes on undergraduate students’      ...
References      Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New     ...
References      Landrum, R. (2007). Introductory psychology student performance: Weekly quizzes followed by a             ...
References      Meyer, M. E., Spencer, M., & French, T. (2009). The Identity of a "College Student": Perceptions of       ...
References      Rattan A, Good C, Dweck C. ―Its ok — Not everyone can be good at math‖: Instructors with an entity        ...
References      Ruscio, J. (2001). Administering quizzes at random to increase students reading. Teaching Of              ...
References      Smith, M. F., & Razzouk, N. Y. (1993). Improving classroom communication: The case of the course          ...
Personal Learning Experience      7Presentation title (Edit inCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights res...
Begins with textbook content                     App-based                     Linked seamlessly with useful software     ...
Linked seamlessly with useful software!Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.   1 | 74
increasing online engagement with                                                                      &                  ...
increasing online engagement with                                                                     &                   ...
increasing online engagement with                                                     collaborationCopyright 2013 Harringt...
increasing online engagement withGoogle Drive: a cloud-based drive that allows you to host share and co-create documentsCo...
increasing online engagement withConnectYard: a two-way communication app  that effectively embraces social mediaCopyright...
increasing online engagement with Evernote: cloud-based note taking available   on any device and now within MindTapCopyri...
Access the                      Learning Path                       at any time!                                      Mind...
Content is easily added to the Learning Path!
Stay Tunedfor a live demonstration of       mindtap@cengage.com
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Cengage Webinar: Raising the bar & support to achieve desired academic outcomes

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View this one-hour, interactive webinar to learn how increasing expectations and support can lead to amazing results. Participants will walk away with several easy-to-implement ideas about how to further support student learning. You'll learn strategies to use during and outside of class, including:
• Using a model of scaffolded assignments that begin where students are and bring them to a new level of achievement (no stakes, low stakes, moderate stakes, and higher stakes assignments)
• Learning how technology tools such as screencasting and Adobe Pro can be used to provide narrated "walkthroughs" of challenging readings
• Discovering how integrating several brief but powerful review strategies into lectures can lead to increased learning.

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Cengage Webinar: Raising the bar & support to achieve desired academic outcomes

  1. 1. Raising the Bar(and Support) to Get Desired Academic Outcomes Christine Harrington Ph.D. Middlesex County College www.drchristineharrington.org
  2. 2. POLL QUESTION What do you think leads to the best outcome? a. Difficult goals b. Moderate goals c. Easy goals d. ―Do Your Best‖ goalsCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|2
  3. 3. Agenda Power of High Expectations • Research • Challenging Goals Current Practices • Faculty Expectations • Faculty Practices Getting Back on Track- A Challenge and Support Model • Challenging Assignments • Providing SupportCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|3
  4. 4. THE POWER OF HIGH EXPECTATIONSCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|4
  5. 5. Goal Setting: What Works? Challenging Goals, Better Results Locke and Latham (2002) Wicker, Hamman, Reed, McCann, & Turner (2005)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|5
  6. 6. Students Generally Do What is Expected Kuh, Laird, & Umbach (2004) Expect Students to: • Write • Read • Think Critically And they will!Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|6
  7. 7. Goal Theory ―The more difficult a valued goal, the more intense our effort to attain it, and the more success we experience following attainment.‖ Latham & Locke, 2006, 337Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|7
  8. 8. Depression: Is there a Downside to Challenging Goals? Reynolds & Baird (2010) • Ages 14-22 1979 • 12,686 participants • 9,016 participants 1992 Highest • 4,892 participants DegreeCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|8
  9. 9. Goal Attainment? Reynolds & Baird (2010) Percentage 60 50 40 30 Percentage 20 10 0 Fell Short of Goal Achieved Goal Exceeded GoalCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1|9
  10. 10. Results… Go Ahead Challenge Yourself • No evidence of ―emotional cost‖ (depression) for unrealized goals • Higher expectations were associated with lower levels of depressionCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 10
  11. 11. Challenging but NOT out of reach Moeller, Theiller, & Wu, 2012,168; Schunk (1990)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 11
  12. 12. Goals Need to be Specific and Measurable Roney & Connor (2008) ―Do Your Best‖ Goals DON’T Work Locke & Lathum (2002)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 12
  13. 13. Call for Challenge is Not New Chickering and Gamson 1987 7 Principles for Undergraduate Education ―Expect more and you will get more. High expectations are important for everyone -- for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated.‖Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 13
  14. 14. BUT…. WHAT ARE OUR CURRENT PRACTICES?Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 14
  15. 15. A Lack of Learning at College? Roska & Anum 2011 The Bad News… Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses- 1st 2 years of college • Critical thinking, analytical reasoning and writing skills only increased by .18 SD • 45% of students made no gains at all • Less than half of the students reported being required to engage in substantial reading and writingCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 15
  16. 16. Are Students Reading? Clump, Bauer, & Bradley (2004) Read Textbook 80 69.98 70 60 50 40 30 27.46 Read 20 Textbook 10 0 Read BEFORE Class Read BEFORE ExamCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 16
  17. 17. Reading Compliance is Decreasing Direct from Burchfield and Sappington, 2000Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 17
  18. 18. Any Good News? Roska & Anum 2011 YES! • Students with professors who expect significant reading and writing DO spend more time on task each week (2 more hours per week)- this increases skills! • Students who reported having professors with high expectations also had higher scores!Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 18
  19. 19. What We Say and What We Do… Two Different Stories 2-3 hours Not per class really! hour! ―Clearly, there is a mismatch between what institutions say students must do to be successful and what students’ actual experience with the institution has taught them is really necessary.‖ (Schilling & Schilling, 1999, 6)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 19
  20. 20. Another Example Wyatt, Saunders, & Zelmer (2005) 30 Interestingly…. 25 Student expectations 20 were related to grade! 15 Faculty 10 Students So…. 5 Faculty not requiring 0 students to engage in Hours for Hours for effort they expect "A" "B"Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 20
  21. 21. POLL QUESTION Most students walk into college expecting it to be challenging. What percentage of first year students report that that their experience matched their expectation? a. 5% b. 17% c. 48% d. 79%Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 21
  22. 22. Student Expectations Drop After Starting College (Meyer, Spencer, & French 2009) Before Starting College…. First Year Students Percent • Almost everyone 70 60 expected college to 60 be a lot of work 50 40 30 20 17 10 Percent 0Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 22
  23. 23. An Unfortunate Relationship • More likely an activity facilitates critical thinking skills • Less likely it will be used by faculty! Lawrence, Serdikoff, Zinn & Baker (2008)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 23
  24. 24. The First Semester Really Matters! ―What is required of students in their first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in academic work by students in their last semester of their senior year.‖ (Schilling & Schilling, 2006, 8)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 24
  25. 25. POLL QUESTION In your classes, do you ask students to complete an assignment that will be graded the very first week of school? a. Yes- always b. Yes- most of the time c. Sometimes d. Not usually e. NeverCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 25
  26. 26. Why Aren’t We Challenging Students? • Fear of negative evaluations or student complaints if we go beyond what other faculty do • Discouraged by prior attempts not resulting in desired product- need to learn how to get better outcomes • Increased workload • Lack of support by administration; teaching and high expectations not valued by institution (Stewart & Schlegel, 2009; Lei et al., 2010; Lawrence, Serdikoff, Zinn & Baker, 2008)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 26
  27. 27. GETTING BACK ON TRACK WITH HIGH EXPECTATIONS (AND SUPPORT!) …Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 27
  28. 28. A Call for Support to Accompany Rigor Campbell (2009) Types of Support: • Emotional- belief in their ability • Instrumental- time teaching skills • Informational- how to access information • Appraisal- useful feedbackCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 28
  29. 29. Starting with our Syllabus (Smith & Razzouk, 1993) Completed 152 Upper Questionnaire Level College On Syllabus Students Content and Use 72 Males 80 Females Surveyed at 3 weeks or 7 weeksCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 29
  30. 30. The Results: Students DO Use the Syllabus Regularly! Syllabus Frequency Usage Every day 20% Once a 57% weekCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 30
  31. 31. The Results! Course Objectives Percent Recalled One objective 60% Two objectives 8% More than 2 objectives 3% No objectives Almost 30%!!!Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 31
  32. 32. What Messages are you Sending? An Example…Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 32
  33. 33. High, Clear Expectations:Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 33
  34. 34. The Message that Should be Sent… Get Ready to Work! But… I’ll be there to Support You!Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 34
  35. 35. Challenging Activities that Promote Productive, Critical Thinking… • Critique of articles, websites, or other readings • Debates • Case studies • Research papers or presentations • On-line or in-person discussions •Copyright 2013 HarringtonEdmund (2008) All rights reserved. © Cengage Learning. 1 | 35
  36. 36. Scaffolding Assignments Low-High Stakes to Build Breaking Down Assignments Self-Efficacy to Benefit from Feedback No Stakes Topic Low Stakes Sources Moderate Stakes Outline/Draft Higher Stakes PaperCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 36
  37. 37. Need for Accountability: Helping Students Master ContentCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 37
  38. 38. Mastering Content: Retrieval Practice is a Memory Tool! Roediger & Karpicke (2006)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 38
  39. 39. More Retrieval Ideas… • Quizzes or Use of Clickers • Publisher Technology Tools such as Aplia or Mind Tap • Dusting off the Cobwebs Exercise • Think, Pair, Share • Jeopardy ReviewsCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 39
  40. 40. POLL QUESTION How many quizzes do you give to your classes? a. I don’t use quizzes- I only give exams. b. I give 5 or fewer quizzes in a course. c. I give 6-10 quizzes in a course. d. I give more than 10 quizzes in a course.Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 40
  41. 41. An Alternative to the “Pop Quiz”- Random Quizzing Works! Ruscio (2001)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 41
  42. 42. Random Quizzing How? Results? • Emphasize need to come • Students Read! to class prepared – Students in 4 sections • Coin toss at beginning of passed average class to determine if quiz of 74% of the will be given quizzes • 1-2 open ended – 85.7% of the students read questions at least 50% of the time • Counts as 15% of final – Students in upper level grade courses read more than students in introductory coursesCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 42
  43. 43. Quizzing Research • Weekly quizzing • Test until you get it leads to higher final correct quizzing exam performance, method leads to especially for lower higher exam performing students performance (Landrum, 2007) (Di Hoff, Brosvic, and Epstein, 2003; Epstein, Epstein, and Brosvic, 2001).Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 43
  44. 44. Homework: Focused Worksheets Ryan (2006) 124 Psychology students Classes were 25% of Grade randomly assigned to: Planned Quizzes Focus Worksheets Focus Worksheets (10-12 Multiple with Check, Check with Feedback Choice Questions) Plus, Check MinusCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 44
  45. 45. Focus Worksheet Direct from Ryan (2006)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 45
  46. 46. The Results! 84 82 80 78 Quiz 76 Worksheet 74 72 Worksheet Plus 70 Feedback 68 66 Midterm Exam Final ExamCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 46
  47. 47. Positive Feedback and Goals Positive Feedback Leads Repeated Success Leads to Higher Goals to Higher Personal Goals • Having several successful experiences (as compared to a single success or repeated failures) lead to higher goals West & Thorn, 2001, 55 Spieker & Hinsz (2004)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 47
  48. 48. Many Learning Opportunities Feedback should be given early and often!Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 48
  49. 49. Characteristics of Effective Feedback (Wlodkowski, 2008): • Connected to a ―standard‖ (i.e. rubric) • Informs the student • Specific and constructive • Prompt and frequentCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 49
  50. 50. A Word of Caution ―Comforting‖ feedback When giving feedback, that encourages be sure to focus on ―acceptance‖ of internal, changeable limitation (ex. ―It’s okay- factors such as effort not everyone is good at (Mueller & Dweck, 1998) math‖) can lower motivation! (Rattan, Good, & Dweck, 2012)Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 50
  51. 51. Using Technology to Support Student LearningCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 51
  52. 52. POLL QUESTION Do you make your Power Point Slides available to your students? a. I don’t use Power Point. b. Yes, I make them available before class. c. Yes, I make them available after class. d. No, I do not make my slides available to students.Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 52
  53. 53. Power Point Slides or OutlineCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 53
  54. 54. Power of Visual Aids Austin & Carr 1994 Traditional Slides Slides Plus Lecture Visual Aid Guided Notes No Visual Aid Used Visual Aid Slides not Used No Notes Provided Most of Slide Information ProvidedCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 54
  55. 55. Results: Critical Examples Extra Points Points • Traditional: • Traditional: • Traditional: 62% 13% 9 • Slides: • Slides: • Slides: 7 97% 26% • Guided • Guided • Guided Notes: 29 Notes: Notes: 100% 60%Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 55
  56. 56. Visual Aids should… Mayer (2009) •Only include key information •Include IMAGES •Use visual signals to draw attention to important pointsCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 56
  57. 57. POLL QUESTIONS Have you used Adobe Pro before? a. Yes b. No Have you used Screencasting tools such as Jing before? a. Yes b. NoCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 57
  58. 58. Narrated PDF DocumentsCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 58
  59. 59. Screencasting Digital Story-telling- Screen Capture with Narration Free Versions: • How to access course materials • Jing • How to search library • Screencast-o-matic databases • Walk through Paid Versions: websites, articles, etc. • Camtasia • How to create powerful • Adobe Captivate Power PointsCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 59
  60. 60. A Model: Freshman Seminar • Professor Selects Peer Reviewed Article and Explains Why Skills are Important • Teach students about research articles • Students use reading, critical thinking, and note-taking skills • Supports provided- Models; Narrated ―walk-throughs‖ • Increasingly Challenging Tasks- Student selects articles for learning activityCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 60
  61. 61. THE OUTCOMECopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 61
  62. 62. Productive Thinking! • Students interpreting, questioning, and making sense of the findings • Applying the findings to their lives in a productive way • Focusing on the value of research based information • Identifying areas for further inquiry and studyCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 62
  63. 63. Assessment Data 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 Fall 2011 30 Spring 2012 20 10 0 Direct- Direct- Indirect- Indirect- Library Peer Evaluate Summarize Database Reviewed Information Information Research Scores went up on every item with exception of staying the same on 1 itemCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 63
  64. 64. For an instructor copy of the text, visit www.cengage.com/community/harrington Visit Dr. Harrington’s website www.drchristineharrington.orgor e-mail her at charrington@middlesexcc.edu
  65. 65. References Austin, J. L., Lee, M., & Carr, J. P. (2004). The effects of guided notes on undergraduate students’ recording of lecture content. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(4), 314 –320. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman Bosch, W., Hester, J., MacEntee, V., MacKenzie, J., Morey, T. T., Nichols, J., & ... Young, R. (2008). Beyond lip-service: An operational definition of ―learning-centered college‖. Innovative Higher Education, 33(2), 83-98. doi:10.1007/s10755-008-9072-1 Brusso, R. C., Orvis, K. A., Bauer, K. N. & Tekleab, A. G. (2012). Interaction among self-efficacy, goal orienttation and unrealistic goal-setting on videogame-based training performance. Military Psychology, 24, 1-18. Retrieved from Psyinfo database. Campbell, M. (2010). Academic and social support critical to success in academically rigorous environment. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review, 76(1), 61-64. Cheung, E. (2004). Goal Setting as Motivational Tool in Students Self-Regulated Learning. Educational Research Quarterly, 27(3), 3-9. Chickering, A. W., and Gamson, Z. F. ―Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education.‖ AAHE Bulletin, 1987, 39(7), 3–7. Retrieved from: http://www.aahea.org/articles/sevenprinciples1987.htmCopyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 65
  66. 66. References Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. Dihoff, R. E., Brosvic, G. M. & Epstein, M. L. (2003). The role of feedback during academic testing: The delay retention effect revisited. Psychological Report, 53(4), 533-548. Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review Of Psychology, 53(1), 109-132. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153 Epstein, M. L., Epstein, B. B., & Brosvic, G. M. (2001). Immediate feedback during academic testing. Psychological Reports, 88(3), 889. Forgeard, M. C., & Seligman, M. P. (2012). Seeing the glass half full: A review of the causes and consequences of optimism. Pratiques Psychologiques, 18(2), 107-120. doi:10.1016/j.prps.2012.02.002 Gormely, K., & McDermott, P. (2011). Do you Jing? How screencasting can enrich classroom teaching and learning. Language And Literacy Spectrum, 2112-20. Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying Achievement Goals and Their Impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 541-553. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.541 Kuh, G. D., Nelson Laird, T. F., & Umbach, P. D. (2004). Aligning faculty activities & student behavior. Liberal Education, 90(4), 24-31. Retrieved from Academic Search Premiere database.Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 66
  67. 67. References Landrum, R. (2007). Introductory psychology student performance: Weekly quizzes followed by a cumulative final exam. Teaching Of Psychology, 34(3), 177-180. doi:10.1080/00986280701498566 Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Enhancing the Benefits and Overcoming the Pitfalls of Goal Setting. Organizational Dynamics, 35(4), 332-340. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2006.08.008 Lawrence, N. K., Serdikoff, S. L., Zinn, T. E.,, & Baker, S. C. (2008). Have we demystified critical thinking? In D. Dunn, J. S. Halonen, & R. A. Smith (Eds.), Teaching Critical Thinking in Psychology: A Handbook of Best Practices, 11-22. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Lee, S., Palmer, S. B., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2009). Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring for Students with Disabilities: Practical Tips and Ideas for Teachers. Intervention In School And Clinic, 44(3), 139-145. Retrieved from Academic Search Premiere. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717. doi:10.1037/0003 066X.57.9.705 Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90(1), 125-152. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.90.1.125 Lynch, D. J. (2006). Motivational strategies, learning strategies, and resource management as predictors of course grades. College Student Journal, 40(2), 423-428. Retrieved from Academic Search Premiere database.Copyright 2013 Harrington © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 | 67
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