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Charleston Conference 2012: Climbing the Digital Everest
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Charleston Conference 2012: Climbing the Digital Everest


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At the 2012 Charleston Conference, Associate Publisher Ray Abruzzi, accompanied by Simon Bell, Head of Strategic Partnerships & Licensing, The British Library and Caroline Kimbell, Head of Licensing, …

At the 2012 Charleston Conference, Associate Publisher Ray Abruzzi, accompanied by Simon Bell, Head of Strategic Partnerships & Licensing, The British Library and Caroline Kimbell, Head of Licensing, The National Archives, UK, provided background and insight into the strategy and creation of the Nineteenth Century Collections Online.

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  • 1. Climbing the Digital Everest:The Journey to Digitize theNineteenth Century2012 Charleston Conference
  • 2. Speakers• Caroline Kimbell, Head of Licensing, The National Archives, UK• Simon Bell, Head of Strategic Partnerships & Licensing, The British Library• Ray Abruzzi, Director of Strategic Planning, Gale | Cengage Learning
  • 3. Discussion AgendaIntroduction• Gale’s Approach to “Digitizing the Nineteenth Century”— • Collections and Content—provide the mountain • Researchers and Students—provide the reason• Negotiating the Terrain • Advisors/Sherpa• What’s in Gale’s Backpack: • Technology—Ropes and Crampons• Partners• Flags on the Summit • The View from the British Library • The View from The National Archives
  • 4. Sizing up the Mountain: how do the centuries compare?Book publishing Book publishing in 18C UK in 19C UK (ECCO) (based on NSTC and BL estimates) 185K titles 1M+ titles ~ 33M pages ~ 315M pages Book publishingBook publishing in 19C USA in 18C USA (est. based on NSTC and S-S) (Evans) 33,000 titles 360K titles ~ 2M pages ~ 100M pages As well as journals, newspapers, pamphlets, and other documents……. 4
  • 5. Why NCCO?—”Because it was there…”• After releasing ECCO many of our customers asked us, “When will you do the same thing for the 19th century?”• But what did that really mean? • The NSTC isn’t comprehensive in the same sense as the ESTC • Printing (along with literacy rates) exploded during the 19th century • Beyond the publishing world, shipping, railroads, and other improvements in transportation and communication created a more inter- connected world, commercially and politically, but also in an academic sense
  • 6. More ClimbersTwice as many faculty specialize in the nineteenth century as in the eighteenth,indicating a greater need for institutional investment in teaching and research: 19th Century vs. 18th Century Faculty (US) Category 18th C 19th C 19C/18C Factor American Studies 1,523 2,393 157% British Studies 794 2,356 297% Source: MDR’s Other Disciplines 351 1,448 413% College Universe TOTAL 2,668 6,197 232%Similarly, there is significantly greater scholarly output on the nineteenthcentury than on the eighteenth century : Scholarly Publishing through 2010: Academic Articles Source: Chicago 18th C Articles 19th C Articles 19C/18C Factor Journals/JSTOR 12,564 21,937 167% 6
  • 7. User-Driven Product Design-The Climbers
  • 8. Many paths tothe summit
  • 9. Global Advisors--The GuidesGeorge Mallory (upper left) and Sherpas on Everest, 1922
  • 10. Global Advisory Board• John Merriman, Charles Seymour • Dominique Kalifa, Professor at the Professor of History, Yale University of Paris 1 Pantheon- University Sorbonne, Head of the Doctoral School of History and Director,• Dr. H.K. Kaul, Director, DELNET, Centre of 19th Century History India (ad hoc role) • Tatiana Holway, Independent• Joris Van Eijnatten, Professor of Scholar, Author, Researcher, and Cultural History, Chair of the Editor, specializing in 19th-century section ‘History of Culture, social sciences Mentalities and Ideas since 1500’, Utrecht University, Department of • Damon Jaggars, Associate History and Art History University Librarian, Columbia University Libraries• Hilary Fraser, Geoffrey Tillotson Professor in Nineteenth-Century • Jerome McGann, Professor of Studies, Birkbeck University of English, University of Virginia, London: Founder and Director of NINES
  • 11. Global Advisory Board• Kathleen Banks Nutter, Archivist, Smith College• John Wright, Director, Arts & Culture, Libraries and Cultural Resources, University of Calgary• William Miller, Dean of University Libraries, Florida Atlantic University Edmund Hillary and his guide, Tenzing Norgay
  • 12. Subject Matter Experts for NCCO Archives 2013 (5-8)—Local KnowledgeScience, Technology, and Medicine Photography: The World through the • Dan Lewis, Ph.D., Dibner Senior Curator Lens of the History of Science & Technology, • Professor Elizabeth Edwards, De The Huntington Library, Art Collections Montfort University, Research & Botanical Gardens Professor in Photographic History and Director of Photographic History Research CentreEurope and Africa: Commerce, Women: Transnational Networks Christianity, Civilization, and Conquest • Kathleen Banks Nutter, Archivist, Smith College • Charlie Reed, History Department, ECSU • Richard N. Price, History Department, Univ of Maryland
  • 13. 14
  • 14. Gale’s Backpack
  • 15. Backpack: Technology, Expertise, and ScaleTechnology: Vendor relationships, state-of-the-art scanners and OCR engines, proprietary quality assurance processes, and an Agile development methodology.
  • 16. Backpack: Technology, Expertise, and ScaleExpertise• Working with over 300 libraries and institutions both large and small, Gale has curated and published over 250 archival products and collections spanning over 900 years of history
  • 17. Backpack: Technology, Expertise, and ScaleScale• Gale has digitized and made searchable/discoverable over 130 million pages of primary sources, ranging from Medieval manuscripts to the archive of the Financial Times:
  • 18. 19 19
  • 19. Backpack: CramponsHead notes contextualize the collections for undergraduates and researchers, providing information on:• provenance and arrangement of the material;• the topics and events which the content describes; and• some of the key areas of research that might be explored using the materials
  • 20. Backpack: Climbing Ropes• Textual Analysis tools enable researchers to discover connections between documents, events, movements, and people.
  • 21. Climbing Routes: Tags and Annotations• Named-user features allow researchers to tag and annotate content, guiding students and like-minded researchers to documents and building on collective knowledge.
  • 22. Shared Accounts—Never Climb Alone• Students and Faculty can create and share accounts for class-wide instruction or for specific study groups/projects• Researchers can also work together on joint projects across locations
  • 23. Flags at the Summit--List of current NCCO partners• British Library • Canterbury Christ Church University• Library of Congress • Victoria and Albert Museum, London• U.S. National Archives • Royal Collection, Windsor• The National Archives (UK) • National Portrait Gallery, London• Cornell University Libraries • Huntington Library• Bodleian Library, University of Oxford • Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester• General Commission on Archives and History, United • National Library of Medicine, NIH, Bethesda, MD Methodist Church • Library of the Society of Friends• London Metropolitan Archives • Divinity School Library, Yale University• Manchester Statistical Society • International Museum of Photography• World Microfilms • George Eastman House• Pusey House Library, St. Giles • London School of Economics and Political Science• Working Class Movement Library Library
  • 24. A View from the Summit—The British Library
  • 25. A View from the Peak—The British LibraryDigitising the 19th Century – overview:• No comprehensive catalogue for the 19th Century, unlike ESTC for early printed material (up to 18th Century)• Explosion in publishing output in 19th Century• Vast holdings of 19th Century material in the BL, but many of them are also held in other libraries in the UK and in the US  What has already been digitised (e.g. Google Books/Hathi Trust etc.)  What is unique?  What has scholarly/research value?  How can we add value/bring collections together?  Who are the other partners –  what do they have which complements our holdings?
  • 26. A View from the Peak—The British LibraryDigitising the 19th Century – challenges:• What do we have? Focus on unique material of scholarly value (lots of manuscript material)• What metadata is available and to what level of granularity?• Manuscript material – condition/preservation checking – all material unique, no uniformity in terms of size, condition etc – a challenge for workflows• Setting up digitisation studio – conservation training, material handling, throughput• Managing the workflows – balancing conservation/repair etc with a desire to make material accessible in the shortest possible timeframe
  • 27. A View from the Peak—The British LibraryNCCO – Benefits for the British Library• Increased access to collection globally• Metadata creation for collection – aids discovery• Conservation and preservation of key British Library manuscripts• Increased scholarship as cross-searchable with other BL collections as well as those from other institutions, particularly the National Archive• New methods of scholarship – value adds of NCCO (e.g. tags and annotations etc.)• Digital images for the British Library• Fits the BL’s 2020 Vision
  • 28. A View from the Summit—The National Archives
  • 29. Archives and Libraries in one collectionArchival Sources Library CollectionsFirst drafts of history Published, considered analysisReal-time HindsightMostly manuscript or visual – transcribe Print - OCR Both – posters, illustrations, ephemera
  • 30. Midget Prince Mignon (Gerrit Keizer) 1891 COPY 1/405/7132
  • 31. The Rocket Locomotive, 1881 (COPY 1/53/434) 33
  • 32. Q&A—and Conversation
  • 33. Thank you! Ray Abruzzi, Director, Strategic Planning NCCO