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A Competency-Based Approach to Managing

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Sustainable competitive advantage derives from strenuous efforts to identify, cultivate, and exploit an organization's core competencies. Opportunities exist in strategy development, management …

Sustainable competitive advantage derives from strenuous efforts to identify, cultivate, and exploit an organization's core competencies. Opportunities exist in strategy development, management techniques, collaboration mechanisms, knowledge sharing and learning, and knowledge capture and storage.


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  • 1. The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank, or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this presentation and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this presentation do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology. A Competency-Based Approach to Managing Olivier Serrat 2014
  • 2. Contents Competence is a specific range of knowledge, skills, or behaviors utilized to improve performance and sustainable competitive advantage derives from strenuous efforts to identify, cultivate, and exploit an organization's core competencies. ADB's Knowledge Solutions series aims to build competencies in: Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration Mechanisms Knowledge Sharing and Learning Knowledge Capture and Storage
  • 3. Contents • Behavior and Change • Emergence and Scenario Thinking • Institutional Capacity and Participation • Knowledge Assets • Marketing • Organizational Learning • Partnerships and Networks of Practice Strategy Development • Branding and Value • Complexity and Lateral Thinking • Linear Thinking • Organizational Change • Talent Management Management Techniques
  • 4. Contents • Collaborative Tools • Communities of Practice and Learning Alliances • Leadership • Social Innovations • Teamwork Collaboration Mechanisms • Creativity, Innovation, and Learning • Learning and Development • Learning Lessons • Dissemination Knowledge Sharing and Learning • Knowledge Harvesting • Reporting • Technology Platforms Knowledge Capture and Storage
  • 5. Behavior and Change • Culture Theory How can a strategy focus on group relationships with appreciation of their distinctive ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge? • The Most Significant Change Technique How can it utilize stories of significant change to monitor and evaluate performance? • Outcome Mapping How might it shift the focus from changes in state to changes in behaviors, relationships, actions, and activities? • Political Economy Analysis for Development Effectiveness Why should it embrace the complex political nature of decision making to investigate how power and authority affect economic choices in a society? • The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach How could you anchor it in understanding of livelihoods and appreciation of the factors that constrain or enhance these as well as their relationships?
  • 6. Emergence and Scenario Thinking • Future Search Conferencing How might futurizing enable diverse and potentially conflicting groups find common ground for constructive action? • Design Thinking Is your strategy the outcome of a human-centered, prototype-driven process for the exploration of new ideas? • From Strategy to Practice Does it maintain a balance between strategizing and learning modes of thinking? • Past Visions of Rural Asia's Future How can one formulate strategic efforts to effect change when they are constantly challenged by emerging forces? • The Premortem Technique Working backward, does it integrate alternatives that emerge from the perspective of future failure? • Reading the Future How emergent is it? Does it consider other scenarios? • Theories of Change How can one navigate the complexity of social change to intended results?
  • 7. Institutional Capacity and Participation • Building Institutional Capacity for Development How does a strategy promote participation at requisite levels? • On Resilient Organizations How might investments in leadership and culture, networks, and change readiness build resilience to survive and thrive in turbulent times?
  • 8. Knowledge Assets • Auditing Knowledge Is your strategy for knowledge management enriched by regular knowledge audits? • Enhancing Knowledge Management Strategies Does its practice integrate the need to systematically review, evaluate, prioritize, sequence, manage, redirect, and if necessary even cancel strategic initiatives? • Linking Research to Practice Is your approach to dissemination underpinned by policy, strategy, planning, and tactics? How can your knowledge products be made available in a flexible range of formats in recognition of the varied needs of consumers? • A Primer on Intellectual Capital How might you realize your organization's true value?
  • 9. Marketing • The Future of Social Marketing How does a strategy apply a custom blend of the four Ps and other marketing techniques to transform communications with stakeholders and improve performance? • Marketing in the Public Sector How might it draw on marketing principles to effect changes in the behavior of individuals or groups?
  • 10. Organizational Learning • Building a Learning Organization How can a strategy support and energize organization, people, knowledge, and technology for learning? • Learning Lessons with Knowledge Audits How might it integrate evaluation results to support policy, strategy, and operational changes? • Overcoming Roadblocks to Learning How could it distinguish roadblocks to make them part of the solution instead of part of the problem? • Seeking Feedback on Learning for Change How would you gauge perceptions of competencies to learn for change?
  • 11. Partnerships and Networks of Practice • Creating and Running Partnerships Does your strategy leverage partnerships and recognize their drivers of success and failure? • Social Network Analysis How might it make out social networks and analyze the actors and the relationships between them?
  • 12. Branding and Value • Managing Corporate Reputation Why, in knowledge-based economies, should high- performance organizations reconceptualize notions of corporate reputation? • New-Age Branding and the Public Sector How might we embrace branding to drive organizational behavior and behavioral change? • Value Cycles for Development Outcomes Do value cycles maximize the potential of knowledge services and knowledge solutions through delivery platforms?
  • 13. Complexity and Lateral Thinking • The Five Whys Technique How might we investigate deeply the cause-and- effect relationships underlying problems? • On Decision Making If decision making is a stream of inquiry, not an event. how might one move toward decision-driven organizations? • The Reframing Matrix Do you enable different perspectives to be generated and applied in management processes? • The SCAMPER Technique How might one brainstorm to resolve a problem, meet an opportunity, or turn a tired idea into something new and different? • Seeding Knowledge Solutions Before, During, and After By what effective questioning might you reap insights into strategy development, management techniques, collaboration mechanisms, knowledge sharing and learning, and knowledge capture and storage? • Understanding Complexity Why should management practices encompass sense and decision making in multiple contexts?
  • 14. Linear Thinking • Crafting a Knowledge Management Results Framework How can we manage for results with a coherent framework for strategic planning, management, and communications? • Focusing on Project Metrics How does one focus on time, cost, human resources, scope, quality, and actions as common parameters of project performance? • Output Accomplishment and the Design and Monitoring Framework Do you make use of logic models for objectives- oriented planning that structures the main elements in a project, highlighting linkages between intended inputs, planned activities, and expected results? • The Perils of Performance Measurement What are some pernicious effects of performance measurement and how might one improve the state of the art?
  • 15. Organizational Change • Business Model Innovation What are business models and how might they enable organizations to capture, create, and deliver value to meet explicit or latent needs? • Engaging Staff in the Workplace In what ways do organizations benefit from staff engagement and how might that be driven? • Fast and Effective Change Management How do organizations overcome resistance to change and secure as much discretionary effort as possible? • Forestalling Change Fatigue If transformation change rarely succeeds, what rationale is there for bottom-up approaches? • Innovation in the Public Sector How might the public sector innovate to be competent in the present and ready for the future? • Knowledge as Culture How might knowledge management initiatives impact an organization's social reality to drive change?
  • 16. Organizational Change • Managing Knowledge in Project Environments If a project exists only for its duration, how might project-based organizations reconcile the project- centric nature of their work to also promote organizational learning? • Moral Courage in Organizations What is moral courage and why is it so often constrained in organizations? • Notions of Knowledge Management How do we get the right knowledge to the right people at the right time, and help them (with incentives) to apply it in ways that strive to improve organizational performance? • Picking Investments in Knowledge Management How might you prioritize investments in knowledge management? • A Primer on Corporate Governance Why do organizations need direction and control and based on what principles and practices might boards of directors better provide that?
  • 17. Organizational Change • A Primer on Organizational Culture What are the components of organizational culture and what is the role of organizational learning for change? • A Primer on Organizational Learning How do organizations learn? • The Roots of an Emerging Discipline How do new knowledge management paradigms compare with the old, and what new structures and managerial attitudes do they require? • Sparking Innovations in Management Why should we drive management innovation? • The Travails of Micromanagement Why is micromanagement mismanagement?
  • 18. Talent Management • Conducting Effective Meetings Do you manage meetings before, during, and after, with appreciation of their different kinds, to make them productive and fun? • Growing Managers, Not Bosses Should one spend more time, integrity, and brainpower on selecting managers than on anything else? • Leading Top Talent in the Workplace Is your organization attractive to people who already know how valuable they are? • Managing Knowledge Workers Why should you empower knowledge workers to make the most of their deepest skills and perform best?
  • 19. Talent Management • Managing by Walking Around How does one manage by walking around to emphasize the importance of interpersonal contact, open appreciation, and recognition and build civility and performance in the workplace? • A Primer on Talent Management How can one give talent strategic and holistic attention to make it happen? • Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence Do you have the ability, capacity, skill, or self- perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of yourself, of others, and of groups?
  • 20. Collaborative Tools • Collaborating with WikisHow do you harness the power of collaborative minds to innovate faster, cocreate, and cut costs? • Drawing Mind Maps How does one represent, link, and arrange concepts, themes, or tasks under a central topic? • Wearing Six Thinking Hats How can we actualize the thinking potential of teams?
  • 21. Communities of Practice and Learning Alliances • Building Communities of Practice How do you build a community of like-minded, interacting people to ensure more effective creation and sharing of knowledge in a domain? • Enriching Knowledge Management Coordination Through what collaboration mechanisms can one decentralize the span of knowledge coordination? • Improving Sector and Thematic Reporting How can communities of practice report better? • Learning in Strategic Alliances Why should strategic alliances manage the partnership, not just the agreement, for collaborative advantage?
  • 22. Communities of Practice and Learning Alliances • On Networked Organizations Why are hierarchy, market, and network forms of organization not mutually exclusive? • A Primer on Social Neuroscience How does social neuroscience foster more comprehensive theories of the mechanisms that underlie human behavior? • Surveying Communities of Practice How might one design and analyze a survey of communities of practice?
  • 23. Leadership • Building Trust in the Workplace How should we earn, develop, and retain trust for superior results? • Distributing Leadership How can one distribute leadership if it is an outcome, not an input to business processes and performance? • Exercising Servant Leadership Why would you support people who choose to serve first, and then lead, as a way of expanding service to individuals and organizations? • Leading in the Workplace What is the new context for leadership in the public sector?
  • 24. Social Innovations • Appreciative Inquiry By what process can one unearth what works to facilitate positive change in organizations? • Fighting Corruption with ICT: Strengthening Civil Society’s Role How might development agencies strengthen civil society-led, ICT -driven anticorruption initiatives? • Sparking Social Innovations How can you generate good ideas that meet pressing unmet needs and improve people's lives to foster smart, sustainable globalization?
  • 25. Teamwork • Action Learning How do you enable small groups to work regularly and collectively on complicated problems, take action, and learn as individuals and as a team while doing so? • Bridging Organizational Silos How might one bridge silos to promote effective cross-functional teams? • Conflict in Organizations What are the roots of organizational conflict and how might complexity thinking help capitalize on its functions and dysfunctions? • Delegating in the Workplace Why, in organizations, is it better to understand delegation as a web of tacit governance arrangements? • Informal Authority in the Workplace How can reciprocity intensify mutual influence in organizations?
  • 26. Teamwork • Managing Virtual Teams How can we organize and coordinate with effect a group whose members are not in the same location or time zone, and may not even work for the same organization? • On Organizational Configurations What configuration does your organization have and what does that tell you? What might you do to enhance the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of its structure? • A Primer on Corporate Values What role can corporate values play in guiding behavior and decision-making? • Working in TeamsHow does one develop a successful team?
  • 27. Creativity, Innovation, and Learning • Building Networks of Practice What are the forms and functions of networks of practice and how do you monitor and evaluate performance? • Dimensions of the Learning Organization How do you harness, individually or in association, useful models of learning and change to reflect on the dimensions of a learning organization? • Drawing Learning Charters How can an organization demonstrate commitment to learning, against which provision and practice can be tested and serve as a waymark with which to guide, monitor, and evaluate progress? • Harnessing Creativity and Innovation in the Workplace What are the stimulants and obstacles to creativity and innovation that drive or impede enterprise in organizations?
  • 28. Creativity, Innovation, and Learning • Learning in Conferences How might event planners shine a light on learning outcomes? • On Internal Knowledge Markets Why is intrinsic motivation necessary to drive internal knowledge markets? • On Knowledge Behaviors Why must motive, means, and opportunity be aligned to invest resources productively across the knowledge-sharing landscape? • Social Media and the Public Sector How can the public sector use Web 2.0 applications to forge, build, and deepen relationships? • Toward a Library Renaissance Challenged by the internet, how might libraries worldwide reconsider the products and services they offer?
  • 29. Learning and Development • Coaching and Mentoring How can we coach and mentor to inspire and empower employees, build commitment, increase productivity, grow talent, and promote success? • E-Learning and the Workplace Can better understanding of organizational environments and design principles improve e- learning interventions? • Learning and Development for Management What are the five functions of managers toward which learning and development can be extended to improve their insights, attitudes, and skills? • Learning in a Flash How can we provide a social context to motivate learners and improve cognition and recall?
  • 30. Learning Lessons • Asking Effective QuestionsHow do you know what question to ask when? • Conducting After-Action Reviews and Retrospects When a critical milestone has been reached, why should we discuss successes and failures in an open and honest fashion? • Conducting Successful Retreats How does one step back from day-to-day activities to think about the future? • Conducting Peer Assists How can individuals come together to share their experiences, insights, and knowledge on an identified challenge or problem? • Embracing FailureIs failure a way to an opportunity?
  • 31. Learning Lessons • Identifying and Sharing Good Practices How can one suggest that a process or methodology that has been shown to be effective in one part of an organization and might be effective in another too? • Learning from Evaluation How might evaluation serve as a foundation block in learning organizations? • Learning Histories How might one surface the thinking, experiments, and arguments of actors who engaged in organizational change? • Storytelling What is the potential of stories or narratives as a communication tool to value, share, and capitalize on the knowledge of individuals?
  • 32. Dissemination • Communications for Development Outcomes How can strategic communications explain activity and connect to purpose in more instrumental ways? • Conducting Effective Presentations How can an ordinary presentation become a lively and engaging event? • Disseminating Knowledge Products By what interactive process does one communicate knowledge to target audiences to lead to change? • Enriching Policy with Research How can we enrich the definition, design, and implementation of policy research? • Posting Research Online How do you employ the internet to disseminate research findings? • Using Plain English How do we save time in writing, make writing far easier, and improve understanding?
  • 33. Knowledge Harvesting • Conducting Exit Interviews How do you garner feedback on why employees leave, what they liked about their job, and where the organization needs improvement? • The Critical Incident Technique How can the study of critical incidents help solve practical problems? • Critical Thinking By what process can one analyze and evaluate thinking to improve it? • Glossary of Knowledge Management What, in simple terms, are the most common concepts in knowledge management? • Harvesting Knowledge How do you draw out and package tacit knowledge to help others adapt, personalize, and apply it; build organizational capacity; and preserve institutional memory?
  • 34. Knowledge Harvesting • On Second Thought Why might groups and organizations benefit from social reminiscing? • Showcasing Knowledge Why should one cut information overload and showcase knowledge? • Staff Profile Pages How do we build dynamic, adaptive electronic directories that store information about the knowledge, skills, experience, and interests of people? • Taxonomies for Development How might taxonomy work become strategic work?
  • 35. Reporting • Assessing the Effectiveness of Assistance in Capacity Development How can one garner feedback from executing agencies on the effectiveness of assistance in capacity development? • Monthly Progress Notes By what simple feedback mechanisms might you promote learning before, during, and after to document accomplishments as well as bottlenecks?
  • 36. Technology Platforms • Writing Weblogs How can groups discuss electronically areas of interest and review different opinions and information surrounding a topic?
  • 37. Further Reading • ADB. 2008–. Knowledge Solutions. Manila. Available: www.adb.org/knowledgesolutions • ADB. 2008–. Knowledge Solutions. Manila. Available: www.adb.org/publications/series/knowledge-solutions • ADB. 2010. Compendium of Knowledge Solutions. Manila. Available: www.adb.org/publications/compendium- knowledge-solutions
  • 38. Olivier Serrat Principal Knowledge Management Specialist Regional and Sustainable Development Department Asian Development Bank knowledge@adb.org www.adb.org/knowledge-management www.facebook.com/adbknowledgesolutions www.scribd.com/knowledge_solutions www.twitter.com/adbknowledge