The Aquavision concept of organic carp & backyard fish farming With reference to applying a holistic approach to developing aquaculture sustainably Jimmie Hepburn Aquavision www.aquavisiononline.com email@example.com
MSc in Human Ecology….How canaquaculture inScotlanddevelop towardsustainability?
Our remit today is to sketch out a map which could help …….Towards aSustainableFinfishAquacultureIndustry forEngland
The “S” word SUSTAINABILITY! We need a direction – we need a map
Where will our protein come from in 50 years time? The arrival of the third millennia – when people realised that the world has finite resources and it is our responsibility to manage these resources for future generations We need to avert the collapse of global fisheries through developing a comprehensive sustainable development strategy We will need to develop sustainable aquaculture systems on a massive scale – to feed the world’s population and it’s growing affluence
How sustainable is a fish farm? COMMUNITYDEVELOPMENT PROCESSES SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTUREENVIRONMENT ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES
Ecosystem Processes Ecosystem Structure – boundaries & integration Ecosystem Function Cycles and feed back- input / output balance Ecosystem Management within the farm to produce fish products – ecological intensification or diversification
Community Processes – how people organise themselves Community processes outside the farm General / global issues on sustainability Sustainability issues Community Specific/ local sustainability processes inside issues the farmPractical The work of sustainable Developing &Solutions development applying theory
Intensive or extensive ? Characteristics Extensive Intensive Aquaculture AquacultureInputs Low HighSelf-sufficiency Closed system Open systemWaste Useful - recycled HazardousNo. of Spp. Several OneEnergy input Low HighMarket Near to farm Far away from farmEconomy Subsistence Capital intensiveDiversification Considerable scope Limited scope
Semi intensive- the answer?Extensive Semi - intensive Intensive
Effective communication We need to speak to the ‘right’ people Information flow in one direction e.g. trade association and regulator Stakeholders not fully integrated People can change there minds e.g. the development of a furunculosis vaccine A question of attitude…knowledge function
Effective networking Value of networks Action Centred Networks to reach a decision through consensus – which are characterised by: Stake holder equity Multi disciplinary team Participation / learning essential Committed to the specific task Link pin organisation – to drive the initiative through Example: Soil Association development of an organic aquaculture standard
How do we put theory into practice? Ideas Feedback Theory NETWORKS Practice Feedback Deeds
Organic Regulation 35 certification standards in the world (19 in Europe) 28 are independent organisations (e.g. Soil Association) Problems of harmonisation and dilution of standards
Global production of organic aquaculture 2008 America Europe Asia Africa Aust/ NZNo. of 47 123 752 1 12producersVol. (T) 7,000 24,500 19900 2000 <1000Trend X X XXX XX X
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 0 Ch ina U Ire K l Ec and ua Vie dor tn No amMa r da w ay gas Hu car ng a Gr ry eec Fra e n Au ce Ho stria nd ura s Sp ain Ita l Bra y zi Isr l Ge a rm el D e a nySw nmar itz erl k Th and aila nd Pe Ind r on u esi Cro a ati a Certified production 2008 t/yr
20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 Ch ina UK Ire la Ec nd uad Vie or tn a No mMa rw da a gas y Hu car ng ar Gr y eec Fra e nc Au e Ho stria nd ura s Sp ain Ita ly Bra zil Isr Ge ael rm D e a ny nSw mark itz erl a Th nd ail an d Pe Number of operations Ind ru on esi Cro a ati a No. of operations per country
Organic Aquaculture Production UK – current certified fish/shell fish Salmon Trout Charr Bivalves Carp
Why carp? Not to make a quick buck! Globally carp is farmed and eaten widely A relatively easy species to farm the whole system – sustainably We need to move on from ‘Stone Age’ aquaculture
More questions than answers! Is it possible to fulfil the current organic standard? Adequate and cost effective protein supplements DO levels affecting productivity How to boost productivity of ponds Develop appropriate markets Processing challenges Economic viability of semi intensive carp culture
Carp for the table – a future? It can be done and there is a potential market There is a need for enthusiastic producers and researchers to give semi insensitive carp (& other spp.) serious consideration Small scale production?
Backyard Fish Farming (BYFF) 2 million garden ponds in the UK A nation of fish keepers or hunters Until now aquaculture has been left to the professionals Is there an opportunity? Definition Existing BYFF
Similarities between ornamental fish culture and table fish culture Could be similar sized systems Basic components are the same whether at pond scale or within a recirculation system People are already ‘farming’ fish Can be intensive or extensive grown Must be relative easy to do (yet to be proven by BYFF)
Differences between ornamental fish culture and table fish culture Bio mass Water quality criteria Management intensification – e.g. water flows, water use, Aesthetic e.g. – herbaceous border versus the vegetable patch
Two approaches to BYFF Intensive: recirculation system – tank or small pond (up to 35000l) requiring active filtration Extensive: large pond for rearing fish – (above 50m ) 2
Species which could be considered for growing in a BYFF system Carp Tilapia Sturgeon Grass carp Tench Catfish Trout Eel Perch Zander
Small is beautiful Will not fill the fish protein gap Could be a valuable education tool to raise awareness of the issues & change behaviour? Rising interest – courses at Upper Hayne – people wanting to do a wide range of projects, could this help to solve the problem?
Has the problem been solved? Not yet! For aquaculture in England to develop sustainably, a holistic approach is needed in all the main spheres (e.g. social, economic, ecological etc.) and in addition, must be driven by committed effective networks – all for the benefit of our future generations The aquaculture of the future will likely play an increasingly wider role – farming our still freshwaters or growing fish in our back garden are just two such examples!