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Biosecurity - A Foundational Principle To Poultry Primary Breeders

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By Dr William Stanley, Aviagen.

By Dr William Stanley, Aviagen.

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    Biosecurity - A Foundational Principle To Poultry Primary Breeders Biosecurity - A Foundational Principle To Poultry Primary Breeders Presentation Transcript

    • Bio security - A Foundational Principle to Poultry Primary Breeders Tilapia Workshop 18 June 2009 Bill Stanley Veterinary Health Director DVM, MAM, MRCVS Diplomate ACPV
    • Disease: Clear and Present Danger!
    • BBC Focus December 2005
    • Primary Breeders
    • Current Global Market Shares Other 3% Hybro 3% Hubbard 10% Cobb-Tyson 6% Cobb 26% Aviagen 52% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Total World PS Market- 379 million
    • Markets in the Future…… Growing to Meet Your Needs
    • Future Consumers 362 POPULATION Per Capita 4,500 m (m illions) 50 Consumption 46.3 4,000 45 43.5 3,500 40 3,000 35 28.0 kilograms 30 2,500 352 25 24.9 2,000 m 20 16.4 1,500 14.6 15 1,000 10 7.3 5.5 6.4 7.5 500 5 0 0 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 Asia & Latin USA & Europe Middle Asia & Latin USA & Europe Middle OceanicAm erica Canada East & OceanicAm erica Canada East & Africa Africa “The USA, EU, and Brazil account for only 38% of the world’s population, but account for 63% of global chicken consumption”
    • Main Growth in per capita consumption 2005 2013 Increase Human Increased Population Chickenmeat (2007) required USA 43 kg 47 kg 4kg 303m 1.2m tonnes Brazil 32 kg 38 kg 6kg 191m 1.1m tonnes Mexico 22 kg 28 kg 6kg 109m 0.6m tonnes China 7.8 kg 10.8 kg 3kg 1.3bn 3.9m tonnes India 1.5 kg 3.5 kg 2kg 1.1bn 2.2m tonnes
    • Future Regional Production • Asia is by far the greatest PRODUCTION opportunity for volume growth (m illion m etric tons) 30.0 8.4m 4.1m 2.8m 1.4m 2.3m – China – 3.8 mmt (38%) 45% 26% 17% 13% 43% – India – 2.5 mmt (154%) 25.0 • Latin America 20.0 – Brazil – 2.2 mmt (25%) 15.0 – Mexico – 0.7 mmt (34%) • Europe 10.0 – Western Europe – steady or declining 5.0 – Russia – 0.7 mmt (68%) • MEA 0.0 – MEA high production costs, 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 2004 2013 vulnerable to meat imports Asia & Latin USA & Europe Middle – Africa, high potential - one day! Oceanic Am erica Canada East & Africa
    • Why is biosecurity important? • Disease prevention • Why prevention vs reaction? – Culling – Production losses – Costly medication – Broilers may not be marketable – Product quality suffers – Poultry companies may suffer • Responsibility to supply chain • Loss of income
    • Biosecurity - Production costs Effect of Disease on Breeder Performance (20k Breeders) %Production Consequences Disease Example Pathogenicity Mortality Egg Hatch Category Prod. A ILT Severe +10 -30 -10 B IB Intermediate +5 -15 -5 C MG Mild +1 -5 -1 Adapted from Gifford et al. (1986)
    • Background • Diseases to control/prevent • Diseases of poultry • Avian Influenza • Newcastle Disease • Mycoplasma • Zoonoses of man • Salmonellosis • Avian Influenza • Campylobacter • E. coli • Listeria
    • Industry Structure Genetic Pedigree Improvement Selection GGP Grandparent Stock Parent Stock Broilers Processing Consumers
    • The Consumers Production Process Processing/Retailers/Food Service Broilers Parent Stock Grandparent Stock GGP Improved stock Breeding programme Health 4 years & Interest groups Pedigree Genetic Genes Feedback Selection Improvement Science Resources Control lines Development lines Regulation Research and Development
    • Focus of Prevention in Primary Breeding Vertical Transmission of Diseases GGPs Through Hatching Eggs GPs PS Broilers
    • Potential Sources for Disease Source flocks Other poultry (vertical) & livestock Feed Housing People Rodents Litter Water Insects Wild birds Equipment Hatchery
    • Background • Introduction of modern farming practice – Increase / decrease disease risk by: • All in / all out • No multi-age sites • Large numbers of birds in a small area. • Day old chicks of a high health status • Same Age and antibody status
    • In Practice • Audit (HACCP) – Critical points • Day old chick quality • People carry diseases. • Equipment carries diseases. • Nothing fully protects against a contaminated environment. • Biosecurity is only as strong as the weakest point.
    • BACTERIOLOGY LIMITS Hatcheries Limits Good Acceptable Unacceptable Per metre cubed Per metre cubed Per metre cubed Bacterial Air Counts 0-200 201-500 >501 Fungi 0 >1 Surface counts per 100cm^2 0-200 201-400 >401 Box rooms / wash rooms 0-300 301-500 >501 Setters Surface counts per 100cm^2 0-100 101-200 >201 Water per ml tvc Good Acceptable Unacceptable Mains 0-100 101-300 >301 After Uv must be<before UV 0-300 301-500 >501 Ecoli 0 1 Pseudomonas 0 1 Pedigree Cleanouts per 100cm^2 Petri films Good Acceptable Unacceptable Walls,stanchion fanshafts 0-1200 1201-2000 >2001 Floors 0-2000 2001-4000 >4001 Nestboxes 0-1000 1001-2000 >2001 Pedigree eggrooms Good Acceptable Unacceptable Evaluate with previous sampling Achieved below previous 20% increase 40-100% increase Petri control sterile >1 GP Cleanouts per 100cm^2 Good Acceptable Unacceptable Hylite Walls floors stanchions <3000 3001-5000 >5001 Fanshafts <5000 5001-10000 >10000 Nestboxes <1500 1501-3000 >3001 Swab control 0-100 >101 Gp Eggrooms per 100cm^2 Good Acceptable Unacceptable HYLITE Wall ground height <10000 10001-12000 >12001 Floor <10000 10001-12000 >12001 cooler fan <10000 10001-12000 >12001 swab control 0-100 >101
    • In Practice • Components – Physical Barriers – Biological Barriers • Vaccines • Probiotics – Pharmacological Controls • Antibiotics • Coccidiostats
    • In Practice • Physical Barriers – Farm location – How isolated – Local concentration poultry farms – Fencing – Internal organisation – Controlled access – Footwear/clothes
    • UK Facilities Newbridge Office Scotland DUNDEE Veterinary Laboratory PERTH Elite Hatchery Elite & Trials GLASGOW EDINBURGH DUNBAR Farming Sites GP Farms Egg Depot DUMFRIES England CARLISLE
    • In Practice • Physical Barriers – Farm size – small farms / large farms – barrier (showers, etc) – House design – Other farm livestock – Insects – Wild birds – People
    • In Practice • Biologicals (Vaccines) – Not 100% protection – Mistakes in storage/ administration – Changes in challenge (IB variants) – New or emerging diseases – Immunosupressive effects of vaccine – Vaccinal stress – Reduced uniformity
    • In Practice • Pharmaceuticals • Antibiotics. • Coccidiostats – Limited by • Resistance patterns • Risks of residues • Consumer concerns • Legislation
    • In Practice • Feed and Water – Continual input – Raw material selection, decontamination – Some pathogens are difficult to kill – Feed handling – Drinking water • 2ppm chlorine ( Cl- ) • UV treatment • Chlorine dioxide ( ClO2) – Drinking systems must be clean
    • Rodent Prevention • Build rodent-proof houses • Eliminate harborage areas • Dispose of mortality and feed spills • House management and sanitation • Inspection, baiting, and trapping
    • Monitoring – To ensure diseases are not present – To ensure vaccines work – Effectiveness of Biosecurity – To trigger an effective investigation
    • Monitoring – Biosecurity – Monitoring system should be more sensitive than the diseases of concern. – Good monitors are micro- organisms that have no effect on health status. – REV seroconversion – CAV seroconversion – TVCs after clean out
    • Monitoring • Effectiveness – Mortality – Production – Processing plant – Health Status – Serology – Bacteriology – Virology – Inputs – Feed – Water – Staff
    • App B/Age GGP/GP Sample type Tests Performed Cleanout Farm Cleanout check ( Farm general hygiene check) Hylite ( detects live or dead bacteria) issued 15/05/06 Water taken from mains, before and after UV Total Viable Counts walls/floors/weighing stations/stanchions Salmonella At Hatch 5 merconium / 6chicks/ 1fluff per hatcher/ per code Salmonella per supply premise 50 dead in shells per supply premise per week PFBHO 1993 DEFRA Salmonella On Arrival chick box liners max 60 / dead on arrival max 60 Salmonella 1-4 days All mortalities Salmonella 60 vents per strain in 2 tubs/2 dust/6 drag in 2 tubs per house/boot 6w samples Salmonella 60 vents per strain in 2 tubs/2 dust/6 drag in 2 tubs per house/boot 14w samples Salmonella 90 BLOODS GGP / 60 BLOODS GP PER HOUSE MG/MS Elisa 20 per house CAV / IBV 18w 90 BLOODS GGP / 60 BLOODS GP PER HOUSE MG/MS Elisa 20 per house AE ( URGENT) DEFRA PULLORUM TEST RSAT on farm 21w 90 BLOODS GGP / 60 BLOODS GP PER HOUSE MG/MS Elisa 16 dry throat swabs per house MG/MS PCR To be tested if suspects on serology 24w 2 dust/ in 2 tubs/5 paired boot swabs in 2 tubs Salmonella eggroom Hylite ( detects live or dead bacteria) water: mains and post UV Total Viable Count 90 BLOODS PER HOUSE MG/MS Elisa 16 dry throat swabs per house To be tested if suspects on serology 30 bloods per house AI/EDS Elisa 20 per house ART/IB/ND/IBD/REO 10 per house Adeno virus If not pos test every three weeks until pos 27w/33w/39w/45w/51w 90 BLOODS PER HOUSE MG/MS Elisa 16 dry throat swabs per house To be tested if suspects on serology 5 paired boot swabs in 2 tubs Salmonella 30w/36w/42w/48w/ 2 dusts in 2 tubs/ 5 paired boot swabs in two tubs Salmonella eggroom Hylite ( detects live or dead bacteria) 90 BLOODS PER HOUSE MG/MS Elisa 16 dry throat swabs per house To be tested if suspects on serology 30 bloods per house AI/EDS Elisa 54w 2 dusts in 2 tubs/ 5 paired boot swabs in two tubs Salmonella 20 Bloods per house ART/IB/ND/IBD/REO 30 bloods per house AI/EDS Elisa 8-10 bloods per house REV/BLS 57w 90 BLOODS PER HOUSE MG/MS Elisa 2 dust/6 drags in two tubs Salmonella
    • In the majority of poultry disease outbreaks people are the main culprits!
    • People • All Employees • Education and Discipline • Part of the daily routine • Control of movement
    • AVIAGEN LTD – BIOSECURITY MATRIX All visits by all non-Aviagen Ltd employees must follow the visitor protocols. After contact with livestock, poultry or other potential sources of contamination, all clothing and footwear must be cleaned before it is worn on or to an Aviagen Ltd site. Vehicles transporting people and equipment between facilities should 1 follow this schedule with appropriate cleaning and disinfection between visits. G Hogarth & B Thorp must be notified prior to visits , plus the following:- Pedigree Facilities - A Thomson Grandparent Facilities - R Mackie Veterinary Laboratory - G Domingue GGP/Trials Farms - T G Taylor Cupar Feed Mill - R. Sanderson (ABN) Hatcheries & Egg Depot - A Rushby 2 2 Pedigree Facilities Production Facilities Trials Broiler Farms Other TO Feed Mill (GGPS, GPS, PS) FROM 4 Pedigree Farms Commercial Hatcheries Eaglesfield 4 3 Barnton 1 Vet Lab Pedigree Hatchery Egg depot , Arbor France, (See in red above) Cupar (Bio-secure Area) CE (Carcase) Unit Cratewash Ross EPI Avian Influenza areas 7 nights 7 nights 7 nights 7 nights Non-Aviagen poultry, Asenby, Barnton, BUT, Quarantine Farms, Aviagen Trials Broiler Farms, CE 5 nights 3 nights Overnight Same Day Unit Aviagen owned chickens of known high health status (GPs) 3 nights 2 nights Overnight Same Day Feed Mills, Other Intensive 4 Livestock, Inside Vet Laboratory Aviagen Ltd Farms (GGPS, GPS, 4 2 nights PS), Commercial Hatcheries , Egg Overnight Overnight Same Day 3 Depot 2 Aviagen Ltd Pedigree Farms Pedigree Hatchery, Overnight Overnight Overnight Same Day Crate Wash Feed delivery, egg collection, internal stock transfer vehicles plus, emergency maintenance, company and government veterinarians (LVIs and Veterinary Officers) are permitted multiple site contacts in strictly managed and agreed sequence. 1 Visitors to Quarantine farms, Barnton Farm and Asenby Hatchery are only permitted only after special authorisation from GSH/BHT. 2 The sharing of transport to drop off and collect farm staff from more than a single Aviagen Ltd pedigree facility is forbidden 3 The Egg Depot may be visited after a farm visit provided that farm is in production and supplying the Depot routinely 4 After visiting a production site samples may be dropped off and collected at hatcheries and the vet lab. Visitors may enter reception and other designated areas but not the main part of facility. A restriction notice from the vet department will take precedent over the above schedule.
    • PROTOCOLS FOR CONTACT WITH CHICKENS • Entry to Farms, Hatcheries, and facilities restricted: – Farm and Hatchery Staff – Health Monitoring Team & Vets – Genetic Selection Team – Area Farms Managers – Company Tradesmen – Hatchery staff and sexers – Approved Visitors
    • VISITOR ENTRY TO FARMS • Advance approval from management • Only one farm or hatchery visit per day • Stool samples no Salmonella isolation • No contact with livestock previous week • Pre-visit questionnaire/ Passport system • Shower, change into clothes, hat and shoes provided • Visitor Book Farm managers turn away any visitor failing to meet criteria.
    • PROTOCOLS FOR CONTACT WITH CHICKENS: Essential Personnel • Staff monitoring – Weekly Samples – Reporting Sickness – Reporting Foreign Travel • Restrictions on the ownership of birds
    • Salmonella philosophy • No Salmonella sero-type tolerated • Continual monitoring - legislation • Additional monitoring to limit effects if a breakdown in biosecurity • No assumptions on status – inputs – barriers • Everything and Everyone tested
    • Feed Processing
    • FEED DECONTAMINATION • Heat Treatment – Mixed feed: 85 C for 12 minutes – Post pelleting oil: 90 C holding temp. • Dedicated, enclosed production area
    • FEED BIOSECURITY - after production • Enclosed dedicated production and outloading area • Dedicated transport vehicles and drivers • Agreed route planning • Vehicle hygiene programme • Staff training on biosecurity
    • FARM HYGIENE PROTOCOLS • Cleanout – Equipment removal – Litter removal • Washing – Pressure washing • Disinfection- Government-approved disinfectants • Fumigation - formaldehyde – Building, equipment – Water System - 140 ppm free Chlorine – Feed Bins - dismantle/brush/fumigate
    • FARM HYGIENE PROTOCOLS • Pre-placement Inspection – Environmental Samples • swabs • feed bins • personnel • farm water samples – Must conform to laid down targets Floor 5000 - CFU/100 cm2 TVC Walls 500 - CFU/100 cm2 TVC • No Salmonella
    • Monitoring - Salmonella • Hatchery • Testing every placement/every order/ • every hatch/ every day/every farm – Plenum – Hatcher tray paper liners – Cull chicks • Sanitation Effectiveness Testing – vaccine injectors, walls, floors, drains, air handling units, incubators & water supply • Personnel Monitoring
    • Salmonella monitoring - farm • Legal requirements • Aviagen – Dead on arrival – Cloacal swabbing (Max.60) every 3 weeks (5%- – Box liners 100%) ( 10/500) – Dust ( 2) – First week – Drag swab ( 6 in 2 mortality ( Max. 60) tubs) – 60 cloacal swabs – Egg room hygiene and 3 dust per house every 6 • 50000 weeks to 22 weeks samples/month 15000 samples/month
    • Monitoring - Salmonella • Results to date • Consistently supply Salmonella free day old chicks. • Salmonella testing our biosecurity all the time. • Assisting in investigating Salmonella monitoring problems in customers.
    • Summary • Set practical targets for biosecurity – Decide what diseases to control – Apply an audit – Decide how – Design effective Monitoring system – Ensure Training – Ensure Authority
    • Compartmentalization Initiative • Aviagen Compartment • Recognized by OIE • Recognized by customers and country of import officials • Would allow shipments to go forward in the face of a UK exotic disease challenge
    • Disease: Clear and Present Danger!
    • Thank You!