Aquatic Animal Health Directive and the Fish Health Inspectorate


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By Dr Kevin Denham

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Aquatic Animal Health Directive and the Fish Health Inspectorate

  1. 1. The New Aquatic Animal Health Directive Towards a Sustainable Aquaculture Industry for England 14 October 2009 Kevin Denham Cefas, Weymouth laboratory
  2. 2. Fish Health Inspectorate • The Fish Health Inspectorate is the competent authority for the diagnosis and control of notifiable diseases of fish and shellfish in England and Wales • Notifiable diseases are generally untreatable, and are likely to have a significant economic impact on aquaculture, and/or wild fish populations.
  3. 3. FHI Core Responsibilities • Surveillance and control of RG notifiable diseases PBM • Authorisation/registration of NA NJT APB’s NO SJB • Ensuring compliance with DA JJH statutory requirements CE RA KRJ • Provision of advice to Defra RA and other Government NJC SO SO SO AM AM AM agencies PRW NT LT LT LT LT UT • Provision of industry US AK AN production data. AC LS • Application of trade controls SH SH AE NE NE on live aquatic animals WA NE SL • Contingency planning NW HA SP KT SW SX • Investigations and DE enforcement CW • Work on behalf of Jersey, Isle of Man & other government bodies e.g. VMD. FSA.
  4. 4. CEFAS Investigations and Enforcement Illegal import of 1 Tonne of large carp from France Nov 2006 Transport tanks in rear of van The Cost! Humanely slaughtered consignment
  5. 5. Whole Farm Approach • The FHI provides a field service for research projects in Cefas • Also undertakes non-disease work – ILFA (licensing non-native species) – Aquaculture advice • In addition we work for other Government Agencies: – Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) – Food Standards Agency (FSA) – GM Inspectorate
  6. 6. New Aquatic Animal Health Legislation
  7. 7. Diseases of Fish Acts 1937 & 1983 • Introduced restrictions on fish imports – Imports of live fish of the salmon (Salmonidae) family prohibited – Imports of salmonid eggs and other species only permitted under licence • Introduced powers to control fish diseases (notifiable diseases) – Specific diseases prescribed by statutory order (Infected waters) – Attributed responsibility for notification – Powers to place statutory controls (TDN and DAO) – Register of fish farms
  8. 8. The EC Fish Health Directive A single European market measure • EC Directive 91/67: Concerning the animal health conditions governing the placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products – Established fish health rules at Community level for rational development of European aquaculture – Principle that the completion of the internal market must not cause the spread of infectious disease – Recognised that aquaculture animal health status is not the same throughout Europe.
  9. 9. New Aquatic Animal Health Directive Council Directive 2006/88/EC • 91/67 was in response to single European market initiative 15 years ago and 15 member states; now 27. • Wider emphasis from salmonid to Mediterranean marine and cyprinid cultivation. • Addresses threats to the new cultivated species and cover the trade practices in the larger community. • Directed at aquaculture by design but also protects the health status of wild and fishery stocks. • In preparation for nearly 10 years and was enacted into law through The Animal Health (England and Wales) Regulations 2009
  10. 10. New Features • Covers fish, molluscan and crustacean health and also includes control in the same directive • Risk based approach to monitoring • More emphasis on disease prevention rather than control – Biosecurity measures plans • Disease listing now includes exotic and non-exotic diseases of fish, molluscs and crustaceans • Much wider scope of businesses included in the Directive
  11. 11. New Features • Contingency plans required for all exotic diseases • New legislative powers for FHI including: – controls on emerging disease – FHI responsible for all statutory actions (ID’s and CD’s) – Enforcement notices prior to moving to prosecution – Controls on equipment, people and vehicles on infected sites – Powers to seize equipment used in illegal activities e.g. fish smuggling.
  12. 12. New Requirements Authorisation • Authorisation of aquaculture production businesses (APB’s) including: – Fish, shellfish and crustacean farms – dealers – importers – depuration and dispatch centres and sites processing infected aquaculture animals APB’s have conditions of authorisation and enforcement notices can be applied
  13. 13. Authorisation of APB’s • Authorisation will have conditions applied such as:  Keeping records in a prescribed format  Movement records to include both live and dead fish whether for food or disposal as waste  Recording of places visited and mortalities during transport  A requirement to notify the FHI in advance of any changes to business practices (e.g. species held)  Have an approved biosecurity measures plan • Legislation allows removal of authorisation should a business persistently breach conditions
  14. 14. Biosecurity measures plans • All APB’s require an approved biosecurity measures plan • Guidance has been provided to relevant industry sectors • Including a template for less well informed businesses • FHI available to APB’s for advice • Objective is to improve aquatic animal health status across country • FHI striving for a long term improvement in biosecurity
  15. 15. Risk Based Surveillance COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2006/88/EC requires that (18) … risk-based animal health surveillance should be applied in all [such] farms and mollusc farming areas.
  16. 16. Risk ranking of farms
  18. 18. Council Directive 2006/88/EC Annex IV: Disease list
  19. 19. Health Status of Zones and Compartments • Category I – Declared disease free • Category II – Not declared disease free but subject to surveillance programme • Category III – Not known to be infected but not subject to a surveillance programme • Category IV – Infected and subject to a control and eradication programme • Category V – Known to be infected
  20. 20. Exotic Diseases: Fish • Epizootic ulcerative syndrome – Fungal infection – Aphanomyces invadans – Clinical signs include lesions on the body with fungal hyphae present. – Large range of freshwater and estuarine species susceptible – Found across S-E Asia, India and more recently Africa • Epizootic haemorrhagic necrosis – Causative agent a Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae – Clinical signs include haemorrhaging at base of fins and gills, darkening of skin and distended abdomen – Virus antigenically and genetically similar to viruses found in amphibia in Europe – Disease is endemic to Australia
  21. 21. Non-Exotic Diseases: Fish • Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) • Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) • Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) • Koi herpesvirus disease (KHV)
  22. 22. Non-Exotic Diseases: koi herpesvirus disease Gill Necrosis
  23. 23. Shellfish Listed Diseases • Exotic • Non-exotic – Bonamia exitiosa • Marteilia refringens – Perkinsus marinus • Bonamia ostreae – Microcytos mackini
  24. 24. Shellfish Health Status in England and Wales • Whole coast is an Approved Zone for Marteilia • We are an Approved Zone for Bonamia, except for 4 Controlled Areas where Bonamia is present • We have not identified any other notifiable shellfish diseases
  25. 25. Exotic Diseases: Crustacea • Taura Syndrome and Yellowhead disease – Viral infections of Penaeid shrimp – Found throughout the Americas and Asia – Exotic to the EU – Horizontal and vertical transmission – Both cause up to 100% mortality in shrimp farms
  26. 26. White Spot Disease (WSD) • Viral infection, all decapod crustacea potentially susceptible (marine and freshwater) • Causes disease within European water temperature range • Currently found in parts of Asia and Americas • Unknown ‘official’ status in Europe • Possible global spread via live and frozen animal movements • Some 3rd Countries are already requesting proof of disease status for imports • Causes up to 100% mortality in shrimp farms
  27. 27. National Control Measures Article 43 • Article 43 of 2006/88 EC provided provisions for limiting the impact of diseases not listed in the Directive • GB has National Control measures under Commission Decision 2004/453/EC for SVC, BKD and G.salaris. • National controls on these diseases, which are considered of high importance, will continue under the the new Directive
  28. 28. Spring Viraemia of Carp • Present throughout much of Europe • Largest outbreak in UK occurred in 1988. Since then there have been several smaller sporadic outbreaks • Disease does not appear to persist in UK environmental conditions, and so can be controlled by movement restrictions. • Source of infection in most cases can be linked to newly introduced fish, often illegally imported.
  29. 29. Bacterial Kidney Disease • Systemic bacterial infection found in fish of the family Salmonidae in freshwater and seawater • Caused by a gram-positive coryneform bacteria Renibacterium salmoninarum • Fastidious, slow growing organism, disease development is slow. • Widespread distribution • Currently no effective licensed treatment or vaccines in Europe
  30. 30. Gyrodactylus salaris • Difficulty in identification with over 400 species described • Problem for wild fish rather than farms. • Potentially devastating to wild Atlantic salmon populations Absent from British Isles
  31. 31. England & Wales: Fish Health Status 2009 Outbreaks Infected Sites Exotic diseases EUS 0 0 EHN 0 0 Non-exotics ISA 0 0 KHV 10 32 VHS 0 0 IHN 0 0 National G. salaris 0 0 Controls BKD 1 1 SVC 0 1
  32. 32. The Future • Need to consolidate and embed legislation • Ensure approach is proportionate and fit for purpose • Improve legislative controls in some areas e.g. emerging diseases • Budgetary constraints likely – doing more for less • Need to work in partnership with stakeholders and other organisations