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  • 1. Tilapia - a global commodity The ‘aquatic chicken’ comes of age Eric Roderick Executive Director Fishgen Ltd CEFAS October 2009
  • 2. What is Fishgen? A Swansea University Spin-out company, set up in collaboration with the UK government’s Department for International Development (DFID) and dedicated to supplying quality tilapia stocks for aquaculture worldwide We have exported to over 40 countries Identified with Genetically Male Tilapia (GMT®), a product unique to Fishgen Continuous R & D programme for development of new and better fish
  • 3. What are tilapia?  A tropical freshwater fish species originating in Africa (over 100 species, but Nile tilapia - Oreochromis niloticus most common) and farmed by the ancient Egyptians over 4000 years ago to feed the Pharaohs.  Eggs hatched and fry reared on the International Space Station and just a few weeks ago another space launch carried tilapia fry into orbit.  Well suited to aquaculture – Hardy, adapts to a wide range of culture systems from freshwater to highly saline conditions – Easy to breed and fast growing, replacing over-fished local species – Introduced worldwide for aquaculture ranging from traditional extensive to modern intensive systems – Known as the “aquatic chicken”
  • 4. Female Tilapia mouthbrooding eggs. A typical clutch varies from 500 to 1500 eggs, depending on the size of the female. Tilapia eggs (rich in yolk)
  • 5. Pictures from inside one of the Stepped pyramids in Saqqara, Egypt. The pyramid was constructed in the 27th Century B.C. and the reliefs depict fishing for Tilapia using nets and bottles to store the catch.
  • 6. Typical tilapia pond harvest in Egypt
  • 7. Tilapia production Currently second in volume to carps Prediction: Tilapia will become most important aquaculture crop in this century (3 million Mt by 2010) Widest demand, no religious/cultural concerns, few environmental concerns More genetic potential Greatest variety of production systems
  • 8. Tilapia Culture Systems Tilapia harvesting in Thailand Ivory Coast fisherman Intensive raceway Tilapia farm in Brazil Cage farm in Zimbabwe
  • 9. Genetics in Aquaculture An embryonic science? (Adapted from Gjedrem, 1997)
  • 10. Fishgen’s ultimate goal!
  • 11. World Tilapia Production of Others 2,348,656 mt in 2006 Americas Africa Asia
  • 12. Honduras Malaysia World Tilapia Production of Costa Rica United States 2,792,498 mt in 2008 Vietnam Others Ecuador Cuba Colombia Bangladesh Indonesia China Brasil Taiwan Thailand Mexico Egypt Philippines
  • 13. Tilapia the “Green” farmed fish  Herbivore / omnivore, low trophic level feeder  Algae, bacteria, and detritus (bioflocs) are important food sources  Prepared feeds are mostly cereals and agriculture by-products such as rice bran.  Promoted by aid agencies and NGO’s  Disease resistant and tolerant of poor water quality. Anti-biotics and chemicals are not needed for commercial farming.
  • 14. Global production of tilapia Aquaculture Fishery 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 Metric tons 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 2010(est) 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
  • 15. According to SOFIA 2008 (State of the World’s Fisheries and Aquaculture) released by FAO, Aquaculture produces almost 50% of all fish eaten around the world, amounting to 52 million tonnes worth $78.8 billion. This is a massive rise from just 9% in 1980. The report also shows continuing declines in yields of capture fisheries, along with a rise of 80% in the number of fisheries that are fully or over exploited. 43.5 million people are directly employed in capture fisheries and aquaculture, with 86% of them living in Asia. Tilapia global sales for 2009 are predicted to be worth $5 billion.
  • 16. Top Ten Seafoods (U.S.) per capita (lbs) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Tuna 3.5 Shrimp 3.4 Shrimp 3.7 Shrimp 4.0 Shrimp 4.2 Shrimp 4.1 Shrimp 4.4 Shrimp 4.1 Shrimp 4.1 Shrimp 3.2 Tuna 2.9 Tuna 3.1 Tuna 3.4 Tuna 3.4 Tuna 3.1 Tuna 2.9 Tuna 2.7 Tuna 2.8 Pollock 1.6 Salmon 2.0 Salmon 2.0 Salmon 2.2 Salmon 2.2 Salmon 2.4 Salmon 2.0 Salmon 2.4 Salmon 1.8 Salmon 1.5 Pollock 1.2 Pollock 1.1 Pollock 1.7 Pollock 1.7 Pollock 1.5 Pollock 1.6 Pollock 1.7 Pollock 1.34 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.1 Catfish 1.0 Tilapia 1.0 Tilapia 1.14 Tilapia 1.19 Cod 0.8 Cod 0.6 Cod 0.7 Cod 0.6 Tilapia 0.7 Tilapia 0.8 Catfish 0.97 Catfish 0.90 Catfish 0.92 Clams 0.5 Clams 0.5 Crabs 0.6 Crabs 0.6 Cod 0.6 Crabs 0.6 Crabs 0.7 Crabs 0.68 Crabs 0.61 Crabs 0.4 Crabs 0.4 Clams 0.5 Tilapia 0.5 Crabs 0.6 Cod 0.6 Cod 0.5 Cod 0.47 Cod 0.44 Flatfish 0.4 Flatfish 0.4 Tilapia 0.4 Clams 0.5 Clams 0.5 Clams 0.4 Clams 0.4 Clams 0.45 Flatfish 0.43 Scallops 0.3 Tilapia 0.4 Flatfish 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Scallops 0.3 Flatfish 0.32 Clams 0.42 Tilapia 0.3
  • 17. US Consumption of tilapia from domestic and imported sources 500,000 450,000 400,000 Tilapia (000's of kg of live weight) 350,000 300,000 250,000 Domestic Imports 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
  • 18. A major new initiative set up in July 2007 is the formation of the American Coalition for Tilapia (ACT) made up of producers representing almost 100% of the fresh tilapia fillets currently sold in the USA. “ The unifying purpose of the group is to promote the image, benefits and quality of fresh tilapia fillets produced in the Americas.” This is a direct result of the FDA report restricting some farmed fish imports into the USA from Asia. A priority for ACT is the Carbon Monoxide used in China to enhance shelf life and fresh appearance of frozen tilapia fillets.
  • 19. Tilapia situation in Latin America Early in year, fresh sales from Central and South America increased Late in year, severe problem with letters of credit Importers cannot borrow to buy fish Slumping exports to the US Only biggest firms with cash can continue buying
  • 20. Tilapia situation in Latin America Decreased fresh sales from Ecuador and Peru Increased fresh sales from Brazil, Nicaragua, Honduras, Colombia, Costa Rica
  • 21. Fishgen’s partner in Costa Rica, Til-Gen A new totally biosecure hatchery supplying broodstock to Central America. Individual fry rearing units allow different strains to be reared separately.
  • 22. Fishgen’s partner in Brazil – Sta Isabel
  • 23. Tilapia situation in Asia Huge decrease in frozen sales from China in early part of year due to winter kill Increased frozen sales from Indonesia and Thailand By end of year, China equaled 2007 sales volume, but large increase in value
  • 24. December 18, 2008  Government of China proposes to ban use of CO for treatment of tilapia (and other fish and meat products).  Final decision to be made in 2009.  Production costs in China rose 20% last year. Expect 10%+ increases in coming years.
  • 25. Tilapia processing in Hainan, China Above – Hand filleting to produce the fillets (seen left)
  • 26. Hapas and concrete tanks used for genetic studies in Fishgen’s production centre in the Philippines
  • 27. Tilapia (2008), Tesco, UK) 
  • 28. Tilapia – the UK market. Early 80’s - 1 farm, ( very small production on an eel farm in Devon) then in the late 80’s, a much larger operation in Derby, utilising waste heat from Courtalls Textile Factory. Early 90’s - several new high tech indoor recirculation units built specifically to grow tilapia. Lots of early problems which are now being overcome. Today 11 tilapia farms in the UK, one UK hatchery, and 5 academic research facilities, + another 12 small buyers of tilapia fry for backyard operations or integrated aquaponics units. Total production for the UK (under optimum conditions and based on the farm sizes) should be 800 tonnes, but due to some teething troubles, actual production at the moment is nearer 300 tonnes. The previous slide gave a price of £8.99 / kilo, in early 2008. Actual price today in Tesco is £3.00 per fish (around 500g) equating to £6.00 / kilo. UK farm gate prices range from £2.34 to £4.00 per Kg for Whole Round fish depending on the volume and purchaser. Imported Chinese frozen fillets cost £1.11 landed cost!
  • 29. In 2008 all Tesco’s fish were imported from Jamaica which has historically been the only source of whole tilapia to all the UK supermarkets. Tesco’s tilapia label today states that the fish are sourced from Indonesia, Ecuador, Honduras, Zimbabwe and the UK. In July, Fish Farming International published interviews with the three largest global tilapia production companies: Regal Springs (60,000 mt in 2008, 71,000 predicted in 2009 with farms in Honduras, Indonesia and Mexico), AquaChile (22,000 mt in 2008 with farms in Chile, Costa Rica, USA and Panama) and Tropical Aquaculture Products Inc (10,200 mt for 2008 with farms in Ecuador Costa Rica, Columbia and Brazil) and they were all increasingly targeting European markets where prices are higher than their main market in the USA. Belgium’s Vitafish, the largest recirculation farm in Europe built a few years ago at a cost of £15 million, with a target production of 4000 tonnes of tilapia, has just gone into receivership, due to massive disease issues brought about by importing cheap tilapia fry from Thailand. Importing fry caries significant risks.
  • 30. Fishgen’s Partner in Spain - Valaqua Fishgen’s USA Partner – Til-tech
  • 31. Demands on farmers and processors  Demand for even more food safety, high quality, “organic” or “green” tilapia products. - Reduce or eliminate use of methyl-testosterone hormone. - No anti-biotics or other chemicals - Reduce environmental impacts - More integrated, re-use water for farming crops - Re-use processing waste products  More value-added tilapia products  More demand for all forms, especially frozen meals  Rapidly increasing demand from Europe
  • 32. Developing countries improved quality control: Required for US, EU, and Japan markets  Samples checked for bacterial and chemical contamination  Follow HACCP procedures, ISO, and EU guidelines  Many plants are using ozone dips to reduce surface bacteria
  • 33. Improvements in packaging
  • 34. IQF Fillets in re-sealable packages
  • 35. Industry by-products  Formed fish products  Fertilizer  Fish meal  Leather goods and pharmaceuticals from skins  Biodiesel (Honduras farm produces 300,000 gallons annually using fish waste from the processing plant).
  • 36. Organic Tilapia There is no globally accepted Organic Certification for tilapia, and currently only 2 farms worldwide are producing organic tilapia. HQ Sustainable Maritime Industries, a big USA company grows its 40,000 tonnes of tilapia in Hainan Island, in China and the Chinese government certify that 5000 tonnes is produced organically under the “TiLove Ya” brand. Regal Springs – another US company with tilapia production in Honduras and Indonesia markets 2% of its Honduran production as Organic, certified by Natureland and Biosuisse. Regal Springs gets 100% premium prices for its organic fish.
  • 37. New product forms Smoked tilapia Sashimi grade tilapia
  • 38. Tilapia Orange Juice
  • 39. Flowers made from Tilapia scales
  • 40. Leather goods made from Tilapia skin, produced in Brazil
  • 41. Global Aquaculture Tilapia Sales For year 2000 =US $ 1,744,045000 (FAO FishStat 2007) 2005 sales = $ 2,457,312,000 (FAO FishStat 2007) 2010 sales >$ 5,000,000,000
  • 42. Future Trends  Additional processing in producer countries  Need to meet stricter food safety, quality, and environmental criteria  More demands for food safety, quality assurance, improved packaging, and environmental safeguards (with little if any increase in price)  Farmers and processors will need to meet these demands by increasing efficiency, not price
  • 43. Metric tons (000) 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 0 500 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009(est) 2010(est) 2011 (est) Future global tilapia aquaculture
  • 44. Conclusions  Global tilapia production will exceed 3,000,000 metric tons in 2010.  Constantly improving production systems with demands for more sustainability.  More demands for food safety, quality assurance, improved packaging, and environmental safeguards (with little if any increase in price)  ISO, HACCP and NGO certifications will be a fact of life.
  • 45. Our Fishgen tilapia come fully trained! Thank you