THE SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ONLINE INFLUENCERS:  EVIDENCE FROM THE FOOD INDUSTRY  Riccardo De Vita (r.devita@gre.ac.uk)  Univers...
2/37                                    • The research project  Agenda  Paris, May 3rd 2012                               ...
The research project                           3/37   The research team  • Scientific partners       o Università Cattolic...
The research project                      4/37   Communication and mediaThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
The research project                                                         5/37   Research objectives                   ...
The research project                                                           6/37   The contribution of our study  • Gro...
Theoretical background                                                          7/37   Social media and professional group...
Theoretical background                                               8/37   Influence, a network approach  • Opinion leade...
Theoretical background                                  9/37   The identification of online influencers                   ...
Methodology                                                   10/37   The data collection process     Define              ...
Methodology                                                      11/37   The online questionnaire  • Personal background  ...
Methodology                                                       12/37   The Egonetwork Analysis  • Online ego networks c...
Methodology                                                                         13/37   The face to face interview – I...
Methodology                                                            14/37   The empirical setting/professional groups  ...
Results                                                                   15/37   The presence of foodbloggers online     ...
Results                                                                                                                   ...
Results                                                                      17/37   Online videos – Top channels (videos ...
Results                                                                    18/37   The most commented channel (http://www....
Results                                                                                                                   ...
Results                                                                                        20/37   Twitter – Top 20 ac...
Results                                                                                      21/37      A focus on online ...
Results                                                                                            22/37      Online influ...
Results                                                                             23/37      Online influencers and thei...
10                                                                                                       0                ...
Results                                                                        25/37   Building reputation in the food ind...
A network approach to the study online influence                 26/37   Influencer 1 – Facebook network                  ...
A network approach to the study online influence                 27/37   Influencer 1 – Twitter network                   ...
A network approach to the study online influence                                     28/37   Influencer 1 - The characteri...
A network approach to the study online influence                                                      29/37      Influence...
A network approach to the study online influence                   30/37   Influencer 1 – Facebook network/subgroups      ...
A network approach to the study online influence                  31/37   Influencer 1 – Twitter network/subgroups        ...
A network approach to the study online influence                              32/37   Influencer 1 - Comparing ego network...
A network approach to the study online influence                 33/37   Influencer 1 – Offline networks                  ...
Conclusions                                                               34/37   Implications – based on very preliminary...
Conclusion                                                                   35/37   Limitations and open issues  • Theore...
Conclusions                                                          36/37   The next steps  • Completion of data analysis...
THE SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ONLINE INFLUENCERS:  EVIDENCE FROM THE FOOD INDUSTRY  Riccardo De Vita (r.devita@gre.ac.uk)  Univers...
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Presentationparis 120510035212 Phpapp01

  1. 1. THE SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ONLINE INFLUENCERS: EVIDENCE FROM THE FOOD INDUSTRY Riccardo De Vita (r.devita@gre.ac.uk) University of Greenwich Business School, London Ivana Pais (ivana.pais@unicatt.it) Universita’ Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan Cecilia Manzo (manzo@eco.unibs.it) Universita’ di BresciaThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  2. 2. 2/37 • The research project Agenda Paris, May 3rd 2012 • Theoretical framework • Methodology • The food industry: first results • Conclusions • Q&AsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  3. 3. The research project 3/37 The research team • Scientific partners o Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore o University of Greenwich • Media: o Gummy Industries o La Nuvola del Lavoro (Corriere.it) o Trovolavoro.it (Rcs) • Data management and IT: o Basili.co o Reputation ManagerThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  4. 4. The research project 4/37 Communication and mediaThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  5. 5. The research project 5/37 Research objectives Characteristics of influential Background, actors online motivations, use of social media Overall network structure (different approaches) Online Professional networks of group influential actors Egonetwork analysis on different SNSThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  6. 6. The research project 6/37 The contribution of our study • Growing theoretical and empirical evidence of the topic • Emphasis on online “large networks” and overall network structures o Deep analysis of limited number of selected actors • Conflicting and not standard approaches in the literature o Empirical approach to the identification of prominent actors online and subsequent analysis of their characteristics • Prevalence of quantitative studies, limited presence of mixed- method approaches o Integration of different research techniques Bellotti, 2008; Fuhse and Mützel, 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  7. 7. Theoretical background 7/37 Social media and professional groups • Sociology of professional • Technological development groups:  online social capital o Problematic, rising or hybrid • Social network sites as groups intentional organizations vs o Work activities appropriable social organisations (Coleman, • Professionalism: 1990) o Expansion of knowledge- based work and occupations o Organizational/occupational • Social media as a new space professionalism where professional groups o Changing conditions of can build their identities and trust, discretion, cooperation can achieve social visibility and competence • Social media as a new • Social visibility  social setting for studying network professional groups • Discourse of…  social media Demazière and Gadéa 2009; Evetts and Svensson, 2010The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  8. 8. Theoretical background 8/37 Influence, a network approach • Opinion leaders as intermediaries between the mass media and society  influence is not an atomistic process (Katz and Lazarsfeld, 1955) • Opinion leaders as brokers across groups (Burt, 1999) o Contagion by cohesion, information to groups o Contagion by equivalence, adoptions within the group. • Relevance of easily influenced actors instead of influential actors • Influence as local, dynamic process which can then result in global transformation (Watts and Dodds, 2007) • However different processes exist to identify opinion leaders (Valente and Pumpuang, 2007)The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  9. 9. Theoretical background 9/37 The identification of online influencers Social Networks Linkedin Twitter Facebook Connections ContentsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  10. 10. Methodology 10/37 The data collection process Define Search Rank F2F Social Network Online interview Analysis QuestionnaireThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  11. 11. Methodology 11/37 The online questionnaire • Personal background • Professional activity • Use of the web • Online networks • Objectives and achievements through the use of social media • Reputation and influence in the professional groupThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  12. 12. Methodology 12/37 The Egonetwork Analysis • Online ego networks collected through an online application o Facebook o Twitter o Linkedin • Ego to alter connections and alter to alter connections • When available alters’ basic attributes collected (e.g. Age, location, bio) • Ego network measures: size, subgroup, densityThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  13. 13. Methodology 13/37 The face to face interview – Influential actors’ social networks • Relevant professional networks o Online o Offline • Data interpretation and sense making of online networks o Facebook o Twitter o LinkedIn • Importance of a mixed method approach to the interpretation of social networks Bellotti, 2008; Fuhse and Mützel, 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  14. 14. Methodology 14/37 The empirical setting/professional groups Formal Construction Law/Legal professional groups Engineers - TBC professions Informal professional Food Finance groups Product Service Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  15. 15. Results 15/37 The presence of foodbloggers online • Main characteristics of influential actors o Foodbloggers o Women o Interest/experience in the communication industry o Care for the visual aspect of their dishes o From hobby to profession o Passion for cooking, link with values such as family and tradition Reputation Manager, December 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  16. 16. Results 16/37 Online videos - Top 20 on YouTube 530 videos online, made available by 236 YouTube channels generated 10.5 M. visits and more than 11K comments Titolo Visualizzazioni Commenti Preferiti Durata -min Utente Ricetta:Decorare con semplicita una torta 756728 446 454 00:04:30 Greedyweb Impasto per la pizza, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 576910 238 791 00:02:46 GialloZafferanoTV Tiramisù, la ricetta di Giallozafferano. 479750 157 730 00:02:55 GialloZafferanoTV Le zeppole fritte graffe napoletane dalle ricette di Nonna Anna semplici, economiche, gustose. 449499 117 548 00:06:37 kayenna Mozzarella in Carrozza, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 416397 211 754 00:02:03 GialloZafferanoTV Salame di Cioccolato, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 400494 230 796 00:02:55 GialloZafferanoTV Crepes, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 395017 203 720 00:03:14 GialloZafferanoTV Lasagne alla Bolognese, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 285366 223 431 00:03:56 GialloZafferanoTV Propone una ricetta con il gatto, Bigazzi licenziato dalla Rai 276383 1745 108 00:01:04 ristotv La Video Ricetta Passo-Passo della Focaccia Genovese 251595 168 544 00:04:51 vittorioviarengo Pollo alla cacciatora, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 245895 56 358 00:02:16 GialloZafferanoTV Penne allArrabbiata, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 201231 66 316 00:02:04 GialloZafferanoTV La ricetta della crema Chantilly HD 187547 77 122 00:02:53 blogdolci Ragù alla Bolognese, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 169675 176 346 00:04:08 GialloZafferanoTV Ricette:Involtini impanati alla siciliana 147225 167 217 00:05:55 lacucinaitaliana Pollo al Curry, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 124677 60 226 00:02:46 GialloZafferanoTV Video ricetta: Un menù di antipasti al sapore di mare 124614 63 146 00:10:08 sitcomitalia Gnocchi di Patate, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 120456 41 218 00:02:28 GialloZafferanoTV Besciamella, la ricetta di Giallozafferano 117075 45 206 00:02:27 GialloZafferanoTV Video ricetta: muffin per colazione? 105372 42 156 00:11:45 sitcomitalia Reputation Manager, December 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  17. 17. Results 17/37 Online videos – Top channels (videos generated and comments received) Reputation Manager, December 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  18. 18. Results 18/37 The most commented channel (http://www.youtube.com/user/thecrazycacke) • Name: thecrazycake • Video published: 90 • Channel views: 192.164 • Video views: 1.849.402 • Comments to channel: 1381 • Comments to videos: 8640 • Strategy based on the active Sono un Ingegnere, ma la mia involvement of visitors, also passione è sempre stata la cucina e adoro fare torte,potete dare uno with constant links to the sguardo alle mie creazioni sul facebook profile profilo di Facebook!!!!!!!!!!!! Reputation Manager, December 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  19. 19. Results 19/37 Facebook – Top 20 fan pages 53 Fan Pages identified, followed by more than 125K users, who generated about 7K posts and 8.5K comments INTERAZIONE- INTERAZIONE- TOTALE POST COMMENTI INCREMENTO FAN NOME FANPAGE NUMERO FAN COMMENTI AI POST COMMENTI AI POST LIKE TOTALI TOTALI MESE% AMMINISTRATORE FAN Viva la Focaccia 60.733 6.319 405 899 431 468 1% Ricette - Le Gioie del palato 10.619 5.378 244 574 574 0 8% Sorelle in Pentola 10.480 3.596 330 358 319 39 3% Cake show 5.929 4.487 259 1.208 1.015 193 2% Dolce Mania per la Pasticceria 3.512 255 48 90 71 19 1% La cuochina sopraffina 3.489 2.461 516 1.075 948 127 5% Francesca Sugar Art - Le torte di Francesca 2.418 1.607 383 676 252 424 9% Delizie da Gustare 2.346 340 168 150 113 37 4% FANTASTICARE IN CUCINA 2.313 1.212 74 273 273 0 2% Juls Kitchen 1.804 1.974 485 552 487 65 4% L Arte nelle Mani (di Giuli) 1.770 289 76 66 58 8 2% La cucina di Virginie 1.444 319 276 120 85 35 5% Fiordifrolla 1.408 1.036 150 243 243 0 2% La CuCiNa Di MaMMiNa GiOvI 1.216 129 55 47 28 19 3% Mamma Paperas blog 1.015 1.390 480 632 584 48 4% il Blog di Flora 992 247 148 120 63 57 1% Cucinando in casa 966 281 123 108 104 4 3% Un Pizzico Di Cannella 943 133 54 37 33 4 0% Chef Laura at Home 890 230 74 63 47 16 2% Reputation Manager, December 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  20. 20. Results 20/37 Twitter – Top 20 accounts Screen name N° Follower N° Following N° Tweet PinchMySalt 99646 1210 15829 RecipeGirl 14241 1155 32300 CannelleVanille 14196 336 10786 DineandDish 12033 7433 22300 browneyedbaker 10559 4259 11537 • 92 accounts identified TwoPeasandPod 9695 2019 33620 atablefortwo 8270 414 6750 foodblogallianc 8043 1508 113 runwithtweezers 6181 1196 8569 • Followed by almost 340K chrispople 6138 793 31692 chowandchatter 5992 4325 71472 followers kalynskitchen 5818 786 14294 userealbutter 5769 469 16316 cookincanuck FoodforMyFamily 5314 5132 2590 2253 10836 5958 • Generated 860K tweets toccodizenzero 5009 1169 32686 GoodBite 4806 2179 1842 TheLittleKitchn 4715 3342 18334 eatlivtravwrite 4702 1846 34761 JuliaParsons 4613 1174 8455 Reputation Manager, December 2011The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  21. 21. Results 21/37 A focus on online influencers (N=10, r.r. 50%) 4 Food is… 3 2 1 0 The only The main One of the The industry in An hobby NA industry in industry in industries in which I would which I operate which I operate which I operate like to operate • Age range from 24 to 47, with 5 respondents aged 31-39 • Two influential actors living abroad • Only one man Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  22. 22. Results 22/37 Online influencers and social media 6 4 2 0 Less than 2 years From 2 to 5 years From 6 to 10 More than 10 NA years years How long have you been active in the food industry? How long have you been using the web to maintain or develop professional relationships? 3 Hours per day on 2.5 social media 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Facebook (N=8) Twitter (N=7) LinkedIn (N=7) Other Social Blogs (N=8) Networks (N=2) Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  23. 23. Results 23/37 Online influencers and their online activities Which contents do you publish Sense of belonging to online? communities 7 • 8 respondents declared to 6 feel part of at least one professional community 5 online (5 of at least two) 4 • Only one declared to be part 3 of one (and only one) offline professional community 2 • Online communities 1 facilitate access to 0 information, overcoming the Often about Only about NA problem of physical distance food, but food sometimes • Online influencers say a lot about other about themselves online issues Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  24. 24. 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Meeting interesting people Results Accessing useful Information Establish new relations Tell the others about my daily life Communicate my feelings Be considered influential Spend my time without getting bored Be up-to-dateThe Social Capital of Online Influencers Maintain relationships with acquaintances Have fun Objective Meeting influential people Achievement Communicate my ideas Maintain relationships with my closest friends Be considered an The objectives and the results achieved by using social media interesting person Meeting knowleadgable people Find collaborators Be considered knowledgeable Find a job Find customers Elaboration of the Authors 24/37
  25. 25. Results 25/37 Building reputation in the food industry • The influencers identified • Clear consensus on the communication and identification of the most technical skills as the most important influencers online important factors to develop a positive reputation in the • Lack of consensus and professional group information of people perceived influential offline • Long presence in the industry and reputation offline or recommendations are not perceived as relevant Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  26. 26. A network approach to the study online influence 26/37 Influencer 1 – Facebook network Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  27. 27. A network approach to the study online influence 27/37 Influencer 1 – Twitter network Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  28. 28. A network approach to the study online influence 28/37 Influencer 1 - The characteristics of online networks Connections Density N. groups N. isolates Facebook 237 0.05 8 14 Twitter 1117 0.10 31 1 LinkedIn 12 Age (avg) Connections Location Study Industry (avg) F 28 542 60% Lombardy, University 9% food 11% abroad (86%) Tw 1082 21% Lombardy, 4% abroad L 133 83% Lombardy University 8% food (100%) Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  29. 29. A network approach to the study online influence 29/37 Influencer 1 - Comparing ego networks online Twitter Facebook Degree Info Degree Info (n.connectios= 1117) (n.connectios= 237) 1 687 food - interviewed 43 her professional profile 2 653 food 35 friend 3 601 food - interviewed 32 relative 4 538 food 28 university 5 537 food 28 university 6 527 food 27 university 7 524 food 27 university 8 506 food 27 university 9 498 food - interviewed 26 university 10 482 food 25 friend Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  30. 30. A network approach to the study online influence 30/37 Influencer 1 – Facebook network/subgroups Friends (dance) University Food Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  31. 31. A network approach to the study online influence 31/37 Influencer 1 – Twitter network/subgroups Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  32. 32. A network approach to the study online influence 32/37 Influencer 1 - Comparing ego networks online Subgroups in Facebook Subgroups in Twitter • Number of subgroups: 8 • Number of subgroups: 31 • Clear clustering based on the • More difficult interpretation. nature of the relationship. The interviewed does not Mainly friendship ties know all her followers. developed in different However all the subgroups environments, only one which were identified are subgroup is “food” related “food related” Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  33. 33. A network approach to the study online influence 33/37 Influencer 1 – Offline networks Elaboration of the AuthorsThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  34. 34. Conclusions 34/37 Implications – based on very preliminary results, more to come! • For theory development o Importance of openness, honesty and trust  deeper analysis of reputation (at least in the food industry!!) o “Online born influencers”? o Differences in on and offline interactions • For industry actors o Technological specialization (on SNS or by profile) o Different SNS are sources of different types of resources (from emotional support to information) • For methodology o Complexities associated in analysing online network data o Importance of a qualitative interpretation of online networksThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  35. 35. Conclusion 35/37 Limitations and open issues • Theoretical o We focus on “potential influential actors”, but influence analysis would require a dynamic analysis • Data analysis o Size of networks and data coding o Technical problems in the mapping of LinkedIn networks o Multiplexity and homophily cannot be explored at this stage o A fourth dimension of influence: multiple profilesThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
  36. 36. Conclusions 36/37 The next steps • Completion of data analysis • Comparison across professional groups • New measures, e.g. for subgroups • Integration of SNA and qualitative analysis with simulation techniques Tubaro and Casilli, 2010The Social Capital of Online Influencers
  37. 37. THE SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ONLINE INFLUENCERS: EVIDENCE FROM THE FOOD INDUSTRY Riccardo De Vita (r.devita@gre.ac.uk) University of Greenwich Business School, London Ivana Pais (ivana.pais@unicatt.it) Universita’ Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan Cecilia Manzo (manzo@eco.unibs.it) Universita’ di BresciaThe Social Capital of Online Influencers
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