Friday, December 6, 2013
Racism in
American Policing
Cecelia GonzalesWright

Friday, December 6, 2013
Statement by the Creator

After studying Criminal Justice for a few years I noticed the issue of racism and the
effects th...
Police Racial Bias in our Past

Friday, December 6, 2013
Police Racial Bias in our Past

•

Since policing was introduced in America, racism has always been
present and with time ...
30 years later...

Cases of racism in our policing system still exist today...
Friday, December 6, 2013
Racism Evolution in our Policing System

Eugene “bull” Connor

30 years later...

Rodney King

Cases of racism in our poli...
Racism Evolution in our Policing System

In the spring of 1963, a peaceful protest was organized
by the Southern Christian...
On January 1st, 2009, at a Fruitvale Bart Station, a fight was broken up. Amidst several
camera phones and recording device...
"Get back on the train! They just shot that guy...they just shot him..."

On January 1st, 2009, at a Fruitvale Bart Statio...
Racially biased policing occurs when law enforcement in- appropriately considers
race or ethnicity in deciding with whom a...
Racially biased police practices

Racially biased policing occurs when law enforcement in- appropriately considers
race or...
Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

In a study conducted by Ronald Weitzer in March 2005, it wa...
Consequences of the Issue
If a substantial part of the population comes to view the justice system as unjust,
they are les...
Friday, December 6, 2013
What can we do to create change?

Friday, December 6, 2013
What can we do to create change?

•

NAACP initiates peaceful protests to end illegal law enforcement
practices in it’s ma...
Friday, December 6, 2013
Reforming Police Use-of-Force

•

Congress enacted the Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act of 1994, it
gave the De...
References

Friday, December 6, 2013
References
Cole, D. (2012). The Usual Suspects. Nation, 294(27/28), 4-6.
Lasley, J. R. (1994). Ethnicity, Gender, and Poli...
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  1. 1. Friday, December 6, 2013
  2. 2. Racism in American Policing Cecelia GonzalesWright Friday, December 6, 2013
  3. 3. Statement by the Creator After studying Criminal Justice for a few years I noticed the issue of racism and the effects this has on the relationship between the community and our police. My work speaks on many volumes as racism is present everywhere in our policing system. Racial profiling and injustice is a staple in our criminal justice system still. It is important for people to know that racism hasn’t dwelled- it has just evolved over time. Where is racism present in our policing system? How does this effect us? What can we do to stop it? My work speaks to the young population. I feel that we are the future and it is important for us to realize these issues in our country so that we may be inspired to change it for the sake of ourselves and the sake of our children. My vision is to create a brief and informative slideshow that clearly addresses issues in our Criminal Justice system by choosing media and statistical facts. Enough racial biases in our policing system. It is time for a change... Friday, December 6, 2013
  4. 4. Police Racial Bias in our Past Friday, December 6, 2013
  5. 5. Police Racial Bias in our Past • Since policing was introduced in America, racism has always been present and with time it has evolved into what it is today. This ongoing issue deeply effects our country and threatens the crucial relationship between the police and our community. Friday, December 6, 2013
  6. 6. 30 years later... Cases of racism in our policing system still exist today... Friday, December 6, 2013
  7. 7. Racism Evolution in our Policing System Eugene “bull” Connor 30 years later... Rodney King Cases of racism in our policing system still exist today... Friday, December 6, 2013
  8. 8. Racism Evolution in our Policing System In the spring of 1963, a peaceful protest was organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Coalition. Eugene “bull” Connor Commissioner of Public Safety, (and segregationist) Eugene "Bull" Connor ordered the use of high-pressure fire hoses and police dogs to control the non-violent protestors and their children. 30 years later... The night of March 3rd, 1991. A swarm of police officers Rodney King surrounded civilian Rodney King, they began to administer one blow after another. The officers went without punishment...Riots ensued. Cases of racism in our policing system still exist today... Friday, December 6, 2013
  9. 9. On January 1st, 2009, at a Fruitvale Bart Station, a fight was broken up. Amidst several camera phones and recording devices, a struggle between civilian and officer took place, officer Johannes Mehserle drew out of .40-caliber handgun and shot civilian Oscar Grant in the back. Witnesses were shocked and stunned. Many asked “would this have happened if Grant was white?” Although these are a few cases among the many, these are the examples of racism in American policing. This calls for change. This is the issue. Friday, December 6, 2013
  10. 10. "Get back on the train! They just shot that guy...they just shot him..." On January 1st, 2009, at a Fruitvale Bart Station, a fight was broken up. Amidst several camera phones and recording devices, a struggle between civilian and officer took place, officer Johannes Mehserle drew out of .40-caliber handgun and shot civilian Oscar Grant in the back. Witnesses were shocked and stunned. Many asked “would this have happened if Grant was white?” Although these are a few cases among the many, these are the examples of racism in American policing. This calls for change. This is the issue. Friday, December 6, 2013
  11. 11. Racially biased policing occurs when law enforcement in- appropriately considers race or ethnicity in deciding with whom and how to intervene in an enforcement capacity. Stop-and-Frisk Friday, December 6, 2013 - Immigration Laws - Racial Profiling
  12. 12. Racially biased police practices Racially biased policing occurs when law enforcement in- appropriately considers race or ethnicity in deciding with whom and how to intervene in an enforcement capacity. Stop-and-Frisk Friday, December 6, 2013 - Immigration Laws - Racial Profiling
  13. 13. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions In a study conducted by Ronald Weitzer in March 2005, it was discovered that race structures citizens views of police racial bias. The study states that Hispanics and blacks are more likely than whites to believe that police bias is a problem due to personal experiences. Stating that they are viewed with a higher degree of suspicion and they are also treated more harshly in police encounters. This belief is consistent with data of street observations of police-citizen interactions, and data on police officers themselves. The perception of police practices as unfair or as racially motivated may lead to more frequent and severe confrontations between police and citizens and to greater distrust of the police. Friday, December 6, 2013
  14. 14. Consequences of the Issue If a substantial part of the population comes to view the justice system as unjust, they are less likely to be cooperative with police. The loss of moral authority could do permanent injury to the legal system, and deprive all of society of the protection of the law. Strong relationships between the community and the police results in effectiveness of formal and informal behavioral controls and decreased criminal activity. According to a study performed by J.R. Lasley- contrary to belief that hiring more minorities in the police department would improve police-community relationsit was discovered that replacing traditional police concept of power with citizen involvement makes for successful community policing. Friday, December 6, 2013
  15. 15. Friday, December 6, 2013
  16. 16. What can we do to create change? Friday, December 6, 2013
  17. 17. What can we do to create change? • NAACP initiates peaceful protests to end illegal law enforcement practices in it’s many forms. • “The more soldiers we have in this war against police brutality and racial profiling the better off we’ll be at the end of the day.” • NAACP proposes the idea of closely investigating claims of abuse and rigorous training to ensure that police officers refrain from conducting unreasonable practices. • “There have been occasions when popular sentiment supported brutal police tactics as a way of curbing crime and giving swift punishment to criminals. This is not the american way of justice...No police officer may be put in a position of acting as law enforcer, judge, jury, and executioner”- NCAAP Assistant General Counsel Victor Goode Friday, December 6, 2013
  18. 18. Friday, December 6, 2013
  19. 19. Reforming Police Use-of-Force • Congress enacted the Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act of 1994, it gave the Department of Justice (DOJ) a powerful tool for correcting unconstitutional practices in state and local police agencies. The Cincinnati Police department was one of these agencies. • After the shooting of an unarmed black teenager, Timothy Thomas, The DOJ quickly announced a formal investigation, which ultimately revealed problems with CPD’s use-of-force policies, reporting, and data management, and found a lack of accountability both inside and outside the department in a formal findings letter. • Crucially, the CA established the Cincinnati Problem-oriented Policing Program (“CPOP”). This program increased positive interactions between police officers and the public, community leaders, and city residents in each precinct. This program also implements behavioral training and periodic auditing. Friday, December 6, 2013
  20. 20. References Friday, December 6, 2013
  21. 21. References Cole, D. (2012). The Usual Suspects. Nation, 294(27/28), 4-6. Lasley, J. R. (1994). Ethnicity, Gender, and Police-Community Attitudes. Social Science Quarterly (University Of Texas Press), 75(1), 85-97. Mayer, L. (2007). NAACP Creates New Program to Combat Police Brutality. Crisis (15591573), 114(3), 45-46.  Weitzer, R., & Tuch, S. A. (2005). Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions. Social Forces, 83(3), 1009-1030. SCHATMEIER, E. (2013). Reforming Police Use-of-Force Practices: A Case Study of the Cincinnati Police Department. Columbia Journal Of Law & Social Problems, 46(4), 539-586. Fridell, L., R. Lunney, D. Diamond, and B. Kubu. <http:/ / www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/IRJ_docs/RaciallyBiasedPolicing.pdf>. Friday, December 6, 2013
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