Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación

1,808

Published on

El proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación, persigue desarrollar una herramienta adaptada a las PYMES, permitiendo no solo calcular el …

El proyecto, JAKIN II: Transferencia y desarrollo de la herramienta para la evaluación de la formación, persigue desarrollar una herramienta adaptada a las PYMES, permitiendo no solo calcular el impacto de la formación para la competitividad, sino proporcionando una guía y orientación para la planificación de los futuros programas de formación.

Está financiado por la Comisión Europea en el marco del programa Leonardo da Vinci Transferencia de Innovación.

Los objetivos específicos del proyecto son:

- Adaptar la herramienta JAKIN, incluyendo nuevos indicadores e instrumentos, respondiendo a las tendencias más innovadores de gestión y a las necesidades de las empresas pequeñas y medianas empresas.
- Incorporar en la herramienta JAKIN buenas prácticas, experiencias y paradigmas de las empresas europeas, con un énfasis especial en la innovación, la planificación de la calidad y las nuevas tecnologías.
- Convertir JAKIN en una herramienta completa de evaluación de formación, combinando las técnicas científicas, así como no científicas, desde una perspectiva multidisplinaria.
- Generar y transferir a todo tipo de empresas una herramienta completa e innovadora, empíricamente validada y ajustada a la evaluación cualitativa y cuantitativa de la formación formal e informal.
- Proporcionar una dimensión europea a la evaluación de formación, desarrollando una herramienta efectiva y útil para múltiples sectores y territorios.

Más información: http://www.cebek.es/formacion/jakin/

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,808
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. FINAL REPORT ON EVALUATIONMETHODOLOGIES FOR TRAINING INEUROPE
  • 2. 22
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe present report has been prepared within the framework of the JAKIN II project -Transfer and full development of the formal and non formal training assessment tool, withinnew trends and needs of business, ref. 2010-1-ES1-LEO05-21048 in collaboration with:
  • 4. This project has been funded with support from the EuropeanCommission under the Lifelong Learning. Programme. This publicationreflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot beheld responsible for any use which may be made of the informationcontained thereinThis work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy ofthis license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street,Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.”4
  • 5. TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTORY NOTE................................................................................... 7Introduction to JAKI II project and report on evaluation methodologies inEurope......................................................................................................... 7AUSTRIAN NATIONAL REPORT................................................................... 9BELGIAN NATIONAL REPORT ................................................................... 27CZECH NATIONAL REPORT ....................................................................... 49GREEK NATIONAL REPORT ....................................................................... 75SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT ................................................................... 99PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT.......................................................... 121CONCLUSION REMARKS AND LESSONS LEARNT ....................................... 138ANNEX I: Interview guidelines A............................................................ 140ANNEX II: Interview guidelines B .......................................................... 143ANNEX III: Questionnaire C ................................................................... 146
  • 6. 6
  • 7. INTRODUCTORY NOTEIntroduction to JAKI II project and report on evaluationmethodologies in EuropeNowadays companies do not compete in goods and services, but in strategies, which aredefined by more globalised markets. From this premise, the centre of value of companies,switches from the productive processes to the knowledge management, towards a usefulinformation generation, which allows them to obtain knowledge as intellectual capital. AsNorton& Ran (1991) put it, “greater investment in human resources promises to give a“workforce for the 21st century”, highly skilled, productive and capable of restoringcompetitiveness, growth and equity”1. Thereby, employment training is one of the mostimportant bases for the development of the companies’ strategies, which allows them toaccess – even to anticipate them – to the foreseen scene. Besides, “faced with maturingmarkets and global competition, corporate leadership has become extremely critical in itsanalysis of existing business processes and procedures”2. Therefore, training actions, formaland non formal (learning about the working position), are not a short term cost but a longterm investment. On the other hand, technological progress and structural labour – marketchange demand not only anticipating new skill needs, as well as continuously to renew andadapt knowledge, skills and competences for an ageing labour force As underlined in theCEDEFOD research paper nº2 (2010) “Employer – provided vocation training in Europe:evaluation and interpretation of the third continuing vocational training survey”, “continuingvocational training provided by enterprises is at the heart of this process, helping at thesame time to raise productivity, modernize work practices and facilitate innovation”(Cedefop, 2008b)3”. This is why companies have to discover to what training give incentiveto and evaluate it from the perspective of the knowledge management or of other innovativeparadigms.JAKIN tool was a pioneer by introducing qualitative and quantitative training assessmentindicators, which were, at the same time, evaluators of the strategic management and of the1W.Norton Grubb, Paul Ryan, The roles of evaluation for vocational education and training, ILO: 19992ASTD “Info-Line to Training Evaluation: Tips, tools and intelligence for trainers”, ASTD Press: 19993See: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/5502_en.pdf
  • 8. 8capacity to generate intellectual capital (human capital, structural capital and relationalcapital). The main objective of the current project (JAKIN II, ref. 2010-1-ES1-LEO05-21048)is to redesign JAKIN tool in order to incorporate every kind of stages associated to theassessment of the formal and non formal training, to add indicators associated to the newtrends, and finally, to become a management tool for all sorts of companies; specially thesmallest ones and those linked to innovation processes.The project consortium consists of 7 partners with different expertise coming from 5countries: CEBEK – project promoter and coordinator (Spain), INVESLAN (Spain), BEST(Austria), EEDE (Greece), CULS (Czech Republic), CONECT (BELGIUM) and SPI (Portugal).More information about the project can be found at: www.jakin2.euThe present report “Evaluation methodologies in Europe” has been developed within theframework of work package 2 “Analysis of evaluation methodologies in Europe” (henceforth,WP2), that aimed at obtaining an overview of different methodologies intended to evaluatetraining activities and coordinated by INVESLAN (ES). As follows, the report introducesdifferent assessment systems used in Europe for detection of skills and needs anddevelopment of suitable training offer in each system. To more precise, the report presentsAustrian, Belgian, Czech, Greek, Spanish and Portuguese national cases studies respectfully.
  • 9. AUSTRIAN NATIONAL REPORTI. INTRODUCTIONIn this national report we aim to outline the results of the desk and field research conductedby BEST Institut für berufsbezogene Weiterbildung und Personaltraining GmbH ("BESTInstitute of Continuous Vocational Qualification Training and Personnel Training Ltd") forJAKIN II.BEST is a private institute that has been providing its customers with effective support inpersonnel-related matters for more than 20 years now, with special emphasis on "Training &Continuous Training" as well as on "Training & Coaching". In cooperation with more than150 different European organisations we have developed innovative solutions for adulteducation and vocational training and provided BEST practice methods in more than 60international projects so far. In these projects, BEST operates as initiator, coordinator andproject partner. Our international project work is designed to improve our offer for differenttarget groups and delivers new models of personal and vocational education and training.In our field research for JAKIN II we interviewed 10 participants from small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs) in different branches in Austria in May 2011 following semi-structured interviews. Two interviewees were responsible for Human Resources, three weregeneral managers, one of them also was the owner of the company. Five respondents wereinterviewed as a focus group of trainers, teachers or guidance counsellors as well as HRcounsellors. The results of the interviews are outlined in chapter II.6. The questionnaires areincluded in the annex of this document.In our desk research we found several interesting documents and reports on training needsassessment and quality assessment in Austria which are going to be presented in this report.First of all we are going to provide a brief overview of the Austrian educational system andelaborate on formal, non-formal and informal learning in Austria. Moreover, evaluation
  • 10. 10tendencies and standards are presented. A comprehensive study on regional training needsassessment conducted by the Austrian Federal Ministry Agriculture, Forestry, Environmentand Water in 2009 is going to be introduced in this context. Additionally we are going tooutline best practice examples of training needs assessment and knowledge management inAustrian enterprises and in vocational education and training (VET) and present the findingsof the field research. Our findings are summarized in the conclusion.II. MAIN FINDINGS2.1 National training system and European qualification standardIn this chapter the main structure of the educational system in Austria is explained. TheAustrian education system can be divided into three main categories: formal, non-formal andinformal learning.2.1.1 Formal educationThe Austrian educational system comprises the following schools: Primary schools(Volksschulen, grades 1-4), secondary schools (Hauptschulen, grades 5 to 8), special schools(Sonderschulen, grade 1 to 8), the pre-vocational year (Polytechnische Schulen, grade 9),secondary academic schools (Allgemeinbildende Höhere Schulen, grades 5 to 12), part-timevocational schools (Berufsschulen, starting in grade 9, combined with apprenticeshiptraining), as well as technical and vocational schools and colleges (Berufsbildende mittlereund höhere Schulen, grades 9 to 12 or 13)4.2.1.2 Non-formal educationAll kinds of trainings and further education apart from the state educational system arereferred to as non-formal education. The most important key actors in this field are theVolkshochschulen (adult education centres) in Austria. Lifelong learning is being consideredas a main issue in the educational policy. There is a wide range of continued trainingproviders in Austria:4http://www.arbeiterkammer.at/www-192-IP-2264.html
  • 11. Adult Education Centres (Volkshochschulen)Additional courses for pupils with special educational needs at lower secondaryschool level; courses for subsequent secondary school certificates (offered byprivate or public institutions, e.g. BFI)Training and qualification institutes ofChamber of Commerce, Industry BoardTraining institutions of the Trade UnionsPrivate and public institutions working for the labour market administration forimplementation of the active labour market policy, for vocational education andtraining, vocational guidance and for integration into the labour market. Theactual number varies depending on the volume of courses which, in turn,depends on the respective budget. From our (BEST) experience over the last 15years, we can state that there is a core group of approximately 150 to 250institutes, companies and non-profit organisations.2.1.3 National qualification framework in AustriaIn 2008, the European Union agreed on establishing the European Qualifications Framework(EQF) which acts as a translation device to facilitate the comparison of national qualificationsacross Europe which shall lead to greater mobility of workers and learners betweencountries and support lifelong learning. European countries were encouraged to relate theirnational qualification systems to the EQF. Austria decided to follow this invitation and beganto develop a national qualification framework (NQR). Already in 2007, the Austrian FederalMinistry for Education, Arts and Culture (BMUKK) and the Austrian Federal Ministry forScience and Research (BMWF) introduced a consultation paper which contained more than270 statements of stakeholders of the Austrian educational system. In 2008, revisedrecommendations for implementing the NQR were presented. In 2010, pilot projects wereconducted, which exemplified the classification of qualifications according to the NQR. In2006, a NQR project group was established as contact point for all institutions andstakeholders involved. Since 2007, there is a special national committee which consists ofthe most important representatives of the Austrian education system. In 2011, a handbookfor training providers is going to elaborated and further implementation strategies will bepresented. Until 2013, the entire education system shall be classified according to the eightlevels of the NQR. Detailed information on the Austrian qualification framework, its
  • 12. 12implementation and progress can be found on the Austrian platform of adult education5.2.2 Informal training implementationIn the 1970s, planners and economists of the World Bank started making a distinctionbetween non- formal and informal learning and formal education as a response to the formaleducation system being considered too slow to adapt to the socio-economic changes of thattime. Implementation of informal training in Austria shall be considered in this section. Thenotions of formal, non-formal and informal learning/training and the diverseinterpretations of them lead to the research of informal training implementation in Austria.Informal learning is defined as follows:Being not or lessorganized and structured (than formal or non-formal ones) related to learningobjective(s) and duration, being not necessarily intentional from the learner’s perspectiveand not leading to a qualification.Some examples of places / situations in Austria, where informal learning takes place are:Youth & leisure centres: Youth and leisure centres provide a wide range ofpossibilities for young people to spend their free time. They can e.g. play games,watch movies, use computers and the internet, make parties, do sports, or live outtheir creativity. All these things can be done together with other young peoplesharing their interests.Public places: People getting in touch with knowledge at places where they spendtheir leisure time, during holidays, e.g. in parks or public baths.Holidays abroad: A lot of organisations are offering holidays abroad, where youngpeople as well as adults have the possibility to combine fun and learning within anew, mostly very motivating environment.Magazines: Reading magazines and newspapers contributes to learning in aninformal way. Some Austrian magazines publish articles e.g. in different languages,targeting at evoking the readers’ interest.5http://erwachsenenbildung.at/themen/nqr
  • 13. Up-to-date there are no legal regulations of informal education in Austria. Since 2007, aworking group on informal learning exists which publishes annual reports on the situation ofinformal learning in Austria. An emphasis is laid on the validation of informally acquiredcompetences. The reports can be downloaded online (in German).62.3 Evaluation tendencies and standards (assessment tools usedand prevailing evaluation methodologies and techniques)Evaluation tendencies and standards considered in the Austrian research tried to cover bothaspects, formal/ non-formal, as well as informal training. Informal learning outcomes may bevalidated and certified in the framework of recognition within other learning. However, forinformal training assessment there were no descriptions of practices found. Therefore, thefollowing section covers evaluation trends and standards in formal and non-formaleducation.Training needs assessment is an instrument to assess the qualification needs of employeesin a structured manner. The target situation (“what should be”) and the current situation(“what is”) are analyzed. Then, improvement and development strategies are developed.The comparison of existing qualifications and competences of employees with (new)institutional requirements of enterprises helps to identify individual training needs ofemployees and workers. In the context of more globalized markets, awareness of theimportance of training needs assessment is growing. One comprehensive study on trainingneeds assessment was provided by the Austrian Institute for Adult Education and theFederal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water (Lebensministerium) inDezember 2009. Both institutions organized a conference on “Regional training needsassessment – contexts and methods for application”. Training needs assessment wasintroduced as an instrument of systematized research on initial positions, educational needsand barriers of inhabitants and organizations of a certain region. A detailed handbook on thetopic was elaborated in the context of the program “learning regions”. This programcombines the idea of lifelong learning with independent regional development and wasinitiated by the Lebensministerium in the framework of the European regional developmentprogram 2007-2013. On 118 pages, the handbook provides extensive information aboutdifferent methods of training needs assessment, including:6http://erwachsenenbildung.at/service/publikationen/publikationen_bmukk.php#nqr
  • 14. 14Group work (workshops, open space)Dialogue techniques (structured, semi-structured and open interviews with learnersand experts, group discussions and focus groups)Other instruments of analysis (analysis of documents, vacancies, positionrequirements, etc.)The authors of the report opt for an combination of methods.The report outlines that the most difficult element within training needs assessmentprocesses are the latent training needs which are difficult to identify. In order to succeed inmaking hidden needs transparent, it is crucial to involve the addressees of the measuresdirectly in the planning process. Additionally, the training needs assessment should beconducted rather permanently than punctually.In seven modules, the structure of a regional training needs assessment analysis is outlined.The following table gives an overview of the modules, which are explained in detail in thereport.77http://www.oieb.at/upload/3567_handbuch-regionale-bildungsbedarfserhebung.pdf, page 55.
  • 15. Module 1: Formulating needs assumptionsThe following questions should be answered for each assumption:-What are the aims of the training?-Who formulates the training needs? Whose aims have to be met?-Who can provide more information on training needs? (find contact persons)Module 2 Communicating with relevant stakeholders-Find out about stakeholders’ aims-Define target groups-What kind of training needs exist (reactive, proactive, strategic)Module 3 The target competences: What should beStakeholders, experts and learners identify the target competences ina collective discussion process.Module 4 Identifying of actual performances, educational barriers andvation-What competences do learners already have in a given field? What basis isthere to draw on?-What are potential educational barriers (financial, time, lack of appropriatetraining offers, lack of motivation and self-esteem, etc.)-How can learners be motivated? How can the learners’ interest in learning andtraining can be fostered?Module 5 Analyzing the variance-Which competences have to be developed?-How could concrete measures look like given that it is possible to draw onexisting competences?-Are there similar measures and approaches already existing? If yes, whycouldn’t they meet the training needs?Module 6 Detailed planning of training needs within a measureTrainers and learners discuss the specific adjustments of the topic.Module 7 Evaluating the measure (short-term, long-term)and assessment of assumptions-Could the target groups be reached?-Were the participants content?-Did the educational measures lead to the planned results? Are thestakeholders content?
  • 16. 162.4 Innovating experiences: quality plans, models of excellence, newtechnologies, value sensitive design of evaluation, expectedinnovative proceduresQuality management systems originally were developed within the industrial and businesssectors, yet in the 21st.century this topic has become ever more subjective within theeducational framework in order to ensure sustainability of training provisions. Especially invocational education and training the discussions concerning how quality assurance can befurther implemented have been relevant since the Copenhagen congress where improvingand developing educational objectives and training systems in Europe was discussed. On acommon level, Austria is seen to implement many different measures to ensure qualitycontrol and sustainability awareness in VET; this however is not only in education but alsoon a broader nationwide level.2.4.1 Examples of quality plans in vocational education and training (VET)in AustriaThe “Austrian Reference Point for Quality Assurance in Vocational Education andTraining” (ARQA-VET) is an information channel for educational institutions, social partnersand operations within further VET which provides information regarding the Europeaneducation network. It is also in charge of developing certain measures to support qualityassurance and quality development within Austrian VET policies.QIBB is a comprehensive quality assurance model launched by the BMUKK that followssimilar principles of the European recognized quality assurance models “Common EuropeanQuality Assurance Framework” (CQAF) and the “European Quality Assurance ReferenceFramework” (EQARF). The key process is the implementation of a comprehensive qualitymanagement system in Austrian VET as well as further implementing the CQAF, which wasdeveloped on a European level in conjunction with the Copenhagen process. QIBB is closelyrelated to the “Quality in Schools” (QIS) initiative which was set up by the “AustrianMinistry of Education” to support schools that monitor and develop continuous training andself-development.The mechanisms which are implemented in Austria include awards which are presented at anational level to ensure and enhance the quality provided by VET institutions in Austria. One
  • 17. of the most renowned is the “Austrian Quality Award”. This award is presented to bothprofit and non-profit organizations and is a symbol which demonstrates good care has beentaken of customers, employees, suppliers and shareholders with society- and this over manyyears. To be nominated for this award the VET organization must prepare a reportdescribing their current situation based on the EFQM Model.2.4.2 Models of excellence and new technologiesMany good practices in regard to training needs assessment and further education in Austriadraw on new technologies. An easy way for enterprises to conduct training needsassessment online is e.g. provided by virtual education centre, a project supported by TirolerBildungszentrum and ESF. The website contains a “qualification matrix” in order to supportcompanies in identifying existing competences as well as training needs of their employees.8The methods outlined in the study “training needs assessment for the Austrian environmentand energy technology sector” which was conducted in 2009 by Florian Brence of ACT(Austrian Clean Technology) are strongly based on new technologies: Online questionnairesare an important component of the training needs assessment.9In general it can be stated that new technologies as instruments for learning and knowledgemanagement have found their way in Austrian companies and VET providers and are nowintegral components of every business. E-Learning in the form of online learning platformssuch as Moodle or Fronter are getting more and more popular especially in VET contexts.Knowledge Management Systems (KM Systems) as well as Business Intelligence (BI)became indispensable in daily work flows. Also mobile learning i.e. learning with mobiletelephones and corresponding applications is tested in pilot projects in Austria. At a school inGraz, Styria, a respective pilot project takes place at the moment which is supported by theAustrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture. The German InternationalTechnology Learning Centre published a useful handbook on implementing and using E-Learning in companies.10Several Austrian universities deal with the successfulimplementation and evaluation of E-Learning in companies, e.g. the Johann KeplerUniversity of Linz in their E-Learning Blog. It is outlined that 97% of big companies use8http://content.tibs.at/advotrain/index.php?menu=1146&con_id=174339http://www.act-center.at/de/servicebox/ACT_090530_Auswertung_BefragungBildungsbedarfsanalyse.pdf10http://www.infofarm.de/datenbank/medien/314/eLearning_leitfaden.pdf
  • 18. 18E-Learning whereas only a minority of small and medium sized enterprises draw on thistechnological tool for training purposes.112.4.3 New business paradigms (management styles)In our field research, we conducted interviews with general managers of SMEs, knowledgeexperts, HR specialists as well as with teachers and trainers. One interview took place in afocus group of five teachers, trainers, guidance counsellors and HR counsellors. It can bestated that all interviewees acknowledged the importance of knowledge management andhuman capital and were aware of the necessity of continuous training implementation.We interviewed three general managers of SMEs. All three companies were founded in the1990s. One company operates in the education sector, whereas two companies are involvedin other service activities. In regard to management styles and new business paradigms theinterviews showed the following results: Two of the general managers stated that theirmanagement style was integrative, whereas one general manager described hismanagement style as directive. All interviewees claimed that the organizational chart of theircompany was flat. The quality management indicators implemented in the respectivecompanies range from audits and reviews to standards set by official bodies and regularfeedback sessions and polls among customers. All companies have carried out trainingactions during the last three years. The number of workers who took part in these trainingactions ranged from less than 20% to over 60%. However, the difference can be explainedwith the total number of workers employed in the respective companies. Whereas 20% ofworkers participated in training actions in a company with more than 250 employees in total,over 60% employees attended training actions in a company with a overall number of onlynine employees (or less). All interviewees stated that continuous training was part of thestrategic management of the company; two general managers added that training actionswere also initiated on demand by workers. One interviewee outlined that training actionswere also dependent on the job profile and e.g. necessary certificates. All companiesconduct some sort of training needs assessment before implementing training measures,however, the methods and approaches used in order to assess the training needs in detailwasn’t specified by the interviewees. All training actions are financed by own funds andorganized internally. None of the companies engaged an external training provider forcarrying out the training. Two companies evaluate the training actions internally, whereas11http://elearn.jku.at/wiki/index.php/Einsatz_von_E-Learning_in_Unternehmen
  • 19. one company additionally draws on external evaluation. It is striking that all intervieweesemphasized the importance of informal learning in their company. Informal learning takesplace in regular brainstorming sessions outdoors, after work but also during breaks. In onecompany mixed teams from different competence areas meet for social, cultural and know-how exchange; regular fetes are organized to meet and exchange news. We also asked theinterviewees about their strategies to create and innovate knowledge and received a widerange of answers on this point. The answers include going to trainings, meeting otherpeople in the same area of work, work rotation, regular staff meetings and discussions onnext steps and procedures and the fact that all employees of the company are involved in allactivities.Our interviews with the focus group of teachers, trainers and guidance counsellors as well aswith an expert in knowledge management showed that training actions were as importantfor SMEs as for large companies as it was important to keep knowledge up-to-date andanswer business need. Another important component highlighted was the motivating factorof training actions for employees. Thus, training always includes a social and a economicalaspect. Training is a strategic element of knowledge management (KM). KM can be definedas managing knowledge (save, store, share, provide, transfer, create new). The pre-designof training actions should include diagnostics, the selection of appropriate contents as wellas methods, media and info sections. The criteria for selection should range from theappropriateness of the methods, the contents, the trainer, costs and duration (for in-housetrainings). Is the training held by an external course provider the distance is an additionalcriterion for selection. Quality indicators to evaluate training actions depend on the type oftraining and the situation; however they should include integrity, professionalism, businessethics and diversity management in all cases. During the training satisfaction, userfriendliness and the achievement of learning objectives are important evaluation indicators.In order to measure the impact and profitability of the training, the focus group mentionedthe following methods: 5s, Norton, Kirkpatrick evaluation model, assessments and ROIcalculations. The KM expert also outlined ROI as one of the most important parameters tomeasure the impact of training actions and knowledge management in SMEs. In order toidentify workers achievements it is important to allot activities to outcomes; a system ofbuddies or mentoring is of advantage to coach and support.What benefits does a company have through the application of knowledge management?The KM expert named four: innovation, customer-orientation, satisfaction and retention.However, these benefits only apply if knowledge management is carried out in anappropriate way.
  • 20. 202.5 Challenges to respond toIn our interviews with the general managers of SMEs the interviewees named severalchallenges to respond to when organizing training actions for the staff. Among the mostfrequently mentioned were time constraints (trainings take time which is not always easilyaffordable) and financial challenges. All general managers finance training measures withown funds; they don’t receive financial support from external sources. In one case, 1% ofthe annual profit was spent on the implementation of training actions, in another case theamount was 3% of profit. The costs of training measures may be one of the reasons whytrainings are organized internally without consulting an external expert or training provider.The evaluation of the training actions’ costs were thus considered definitely or veryimportant by the interviewees. Also the evaluation of the impact and the knowledge transferwere highlighted as crucial. Summing up, it can be stated that time constraints and financialissues are the most important challenges mentioned by our interviewees.Our desk research showed that knowledge management is an integral aspect of Austrianbusinesses; however, compared to SMEs big companies have more possibilities and a widerscope of action. When it comes to knowledge management and new technologies (although– as mentioned by the expert on knowledge management- there isn’t necessarily a relationbetween KM and new technologies), especially small enterprises tend to struggle with theimplementation of innovative technologies such as E-Learning or mobile learning. When itcomes to training needs assessment, more and more Austrian companies acknowledge itsimportance; however, there are not many reports and studies available which could serve asbest practices for SMEs. Austria seems to have some catching up to do. There is oneinteresting project dealing with business skills development for small enterprises and start-ups. It aims at conducting comprehensive research on the special situation of SMEs andalready provides some important information and checklists for general managers of SMEsonline (only in German)12.12http://www.ooe.wifi.at/detailbild.aspx?newsID=474&groupID=
  • 21. 2.6 New indicators to considerWhen targeting SMEs, we should consider the special needs and requirements of thesecompanies. Financial possibilities are limited and time constraints represent a serious barrierin organizing training actions. The hierarchical structure of SMEs tends to be flat; so manypeople should be involved in knowledge management and the planning and carrying out oftraining measures. The original JAKIN tool was mainly focused on evaluating completeContinuous Training programs, that is, programs that have included diverse training actionsaimed at impacting in all the elements of a company’s performance and functioning ingeneral. In our findings we gained the impression that SMEs tend to be more attracted toflexible and easily applicable ways of assessing training needs and organizing trainingactions than to wide-ranged, cost intensive and time-consuming measures. We recommendto take this into consideration for JAKIN II. When it comes to knowledge management andnew technologies, it should be considered that tools like E-Learning are often not verysuitable or attractive for small enterprises. However, as there lies great potential in thesetools, possibilities could be considered to make these new technologies more attractive toSMEs.III. SELECTED BEST PRACTICESThe relevant best practices found in Austria related to the project’s topic are the following:Best practice Nr.: 113Country: AustriaPromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous)Institute for Business Formation andDevelopment (Institut fürUnternehmensgründung undUnternehmensentwicklung) of the JohannesKepler University Linz;WIFI Unternehmer-Akademie;Economic Chamber of Upper AustriaTitle of the programme/initiative (if any)“Betriebliche Kompetenzentwicklung für Klein-und Jungunternehmen” (EN: „Business skillsdevelopment for small enterprises and start-ups”Description of the trainingcourse (when, hours, trainingprovider etc) n/a13http://www.ooe.wifi.at/detailbild.aspx?newsID=476&groupID=
  • 22. 22Target group (groups ofemployees)Young entrepreneurs, owners and employees ofsmall and medium sized enterprises, trainersand guidance counselors involved in humanresourcesObjectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesDevelop innovative methods of training needsassessment for SMEs, develop checklists forgeneral managers of SMEsMethodological instrumentsused for evaluation processStructured and non-structured interviews,participant observation, moderated discussionsEvaluated contents and stagesof evaluationThe training needs assessment is structuredaround the following questions:(1) What is the field of activity of the targetgroup?(2) Does this field of activity change in thefuture (e.g. because of new businessobjectives, new technologies, etc.)?(3) What skills and competences are necessaryin this context (professional know-how,practical knowledge, methodologicalcompetences, social and communicativecompetences)?(4) Which competences already exist, which aremissing, which should be developed?Results obtained (throughevaluation practices - impact) n/aBudget assigned and sources offinancing n/aPossibilities to "export" to othercontextsThis project is very useful for JAKIN II as italso targets SMEs.Special features of theevaluation methods (innovationdimension)The methods of training need assessmentdeveloped in this project are specificallytargeted at SMEs and their needs.OTHER OBSERVATIONS:Be aware of copyright issues! It is stated at theproject website that the contents cannot beused by others.
  • 23. Best practice Nr.: 214Country: AustriaPromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous) ACT (Austrian Clean Technology)Title of the programme/initiative (if any)Training needs assessment for the Austrianenvironment and energy technology sectorDescription of the trainingcourse (when, hours, trainingprovider etc) n/aTarget group (groups ofemployees)Enterprises in the Austrian environment andenergy sectorObjectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesThe aim of the study was to identify futurecompetences and skills which are important inthe environment and energy technology sectorMethodological instrumentsused for evaluation processScreening of job descriptions, expert interviews,background research on the Austrian labourmarket, online questionnaires, round tablediscussions and analysis of ACT formationprogramsEvaluated contents and stagesof evaluation n/aResults obtained (throughevaluation practices - impact) n/aBudget assigned and sourcesof financing n/aPossibilities to "export" toother contexts n/aSpecial features of theevaluation methods(innovation dimension) n/aOTHER OBSERVATIONS: n/a14http://www.act-center.at/de/servicebox/ACT_090530_Auswertung_BefragungBildungsbedarfsanalyse.pdf
  • 24. 24Best practice Nr.: 315Country: AustriaPromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous)Commissioned by the Austrian EconomicChamberConducted by Helmut Dornmayer of ibw –Institut für Bildungsforschung in der Wirtschaft(Institute for Educational Research in theEconomy)Title of the programme/initiative (if any)“Bildungsbedarfserhebung im Fachverband UBIT(Unternehmensberatung und IT)” (EN: “Trainingneeds assessment in the professional associationUBIT - management consultancy and IT“)Description of the trainingcourse (when, hours, trainingprovider etc) n/aTarget group (groups ofemployees)The study focuses on three occupational groupswhich are organized in the professionalassociation UBIT: information technology,management consultancy, accountancyObjectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesIdentifying the educational background, trainingneeds and educational awareness of employeesin the above mentioned sectorsMethodological instrumentsused for evaluation processSocio-economical analysis, online survey ofemployees (questionnaires sent by e-mail)Evaluated contents and stagesof evaluation n/aResults obtained (throughevaluation practices - impact)The study concludes that the training needs varygreatly depending on the occupational group,e.g. in the field of management consultancy“process skills” are more important than“professional know-how.”Budget assigned and sourcesof financing n/aPossibilities to "export" toother contexts n/aSpecial features of theevaluation methods(innovation dimension) n/a15http://www.ibw.at/html/buw/bw36.pdf
  • 25. IV. CONCLUSIONSDuring our desk and field research we were able to gain valuable insights into knowledgemanagement and training needs assessment in Austria. There is already a lot of knowledgeon different methods and approaches available, but only a few projects and studies focus onSMEs in particular. A tool which systematizes and gathers all knowledge on the topic alreadyavailable and adds new dimension in regard to changing business paradigms (such as JAKINII) seems to be of great for SMEs in Austria. Our literature review showed that it isimportant to involve the addresses of training measures in the planning process. This isespecially true for SMEs which tend to have a flat organizational chart. The generalmanagers interviewed suggested that they didn’t want to “control” their employees and thatmany decisions were taken jointly. In SMEs there is also great potential for informal learningas our interviewees reported of good atmospheres during work, in lunch breaks and afterwork when employees spend time together learning from each other in an informal way.Last but not least every KM and TNA measure should be aware of cost and time restrictionsSMEs have to deal with in order to offer customized and easily applicable solutions forexisting training needs.
  • 26. 26
  • 27. BELGIAN NATIONAL REPORTI. INTRODUCTIONThis national report provides an analysis of training evaluation methodologies in Belgium. Itgives an overview of the new paradigms in the business management, as well as newchallenges and practices of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Main subjectsoutlined and analysed in this report are:1. Current methodologies and trends of the training evaluation within the national context ofBelgium.2. Identification of good practices.3. Innovating experiences: quality plans, models of excellence, new technologies.4. New business paradigms: knowledge management, human capital.The analysis of evaluation methodologies has been based on a twofold method: qualitativemethodology and desk-research.In order to gain and investigate the background knowledge of the subject and to extract thebest practices on the evaluation methodologies, a literature review and bibliographicresearch has been conducted.The method of expert interviews has been chosen in order to look at the evaluationmethodologies in details and to assess their impact on companies and employees, as well asto identify good practices on evaluation techniques. The interviews, supported by semi-structured questionnaires, took place between May and June 2011. Responses’ reviewallowed to collect comprehensive information and to get spontaneous feedback from expertsactive in the following fields: human resources managers (2); Training/evaluation experts(2); Knowledge management experts (1).In addition, online questionnaires has been designed and distributed via email to directorsand managers of selected SMEs (around 120) from the different Belgium’s communities. This
  • 28. 28approach was preferred to gain a better insight on the evaluation impact and applicability, aswell as to approach and get closer to the target group of the project – the SMEs.Regrettably, the SMEs contacted by email didn’t react or reacted only partially to the requestof filling the questionnaire. Despite the attempt to make the questionnaire more user-friendly (translations, briefing notes, website), only a limited number of managers filled inand sent back the questionnaire. The narrow amount of responses received via email doesnot allow making a quality analysis in terms of representativeness. For this reason it hasbeen decided to focus this report primarily on the findings from the desk research and theexpert interviews.II. MAIN FINDINGS2.1 National training systems and European qualification standardsIn order to fully understand the training and education system in Belgium, it is fundamentalto provide some general knowledge on its complex political and socio-economic context.Belgium, which became a unitary State in 1831, is a parliamentary democracy in the form ofa constitutional monarchy and, following successive amendments to the Constitution (1970,1980, 1988-89, and 1993 and 2001), Belgium has become a federal State.Under the reform of the state, the pyramid of the unitarian state made way for a morecomplex three-level structure [1]. The leadership of the country is now in the hands ofvarious partners, who independently exercise their authority within their domains. Forinstance, the communities became responsible for education, while the regions areresponsible for some aspects of vocational training, such as social advancement,redeployment and retraining.At the top level, there are the Federal State, the Communities and the Regions, allthree of which are equal from the legal viewpoint. They are on an equal footing but havepowers and responsibilities for different fields.
  • 29. The next level down is still occupied by the provinces. Before the state reform of 1993, theprovinces were only under the supervision of the central state. Now they are supervised byall the higher government authorities, in the context of the federal, community or regionalpowers.At the bottom of the pyramid, we find the communes, which is the level of administrationthat is closest to the people. Like the provinces, they are under the supervision of the higherauthorities. Depending on the powers exercised, they are supervised by the Federal State,the Community or the Region. In general, they are financed and audited by the Regions.2.1.1 National training systemsA comprehensive Lifelong Learning (LLL) strategy has been developed and implemented inBelgium in the latest years. Several policy briefs, notes and action plans have beenproduced, such as the skills and competences agenda in Flanders and the Marshall plan inWallonia. The aim is to meet the twin challenges of efficiency and equity by involving all keystakeholders: public authorities as well as social partners, education and training providersand the public employment service. As from 2002, agreements (covenants) were alsoconcluded between the Minister of Employment and the social partners of different sectorsof economic activity (both industry and services). In these agreements, arrangements aremade concerning the improvement of the connection between education, the labour marketand the LLL strategy in different sectors of economic activity.Vocational placement and vocational training are organised by regional or Communityorganisations. These public services provide information on all types of training available.Here are the public services operating in each region [1]:FOREM (in French): is the public service for employment and vocational training inWallonia [2]. Among other activities, the FOREM provides small and medium enterprises(SMEs) with professional support in order to: identify and improve the right skills andcompetences at work; organise training activities for the employees; make companiesbenefit from the support mechanisms for recruitment; and give strategic advice on humanresource management.
  • 30. 30Bruxelles Formation (in French) is responsible for the vocational training ofFrench speakers in the Brussels-Capital Region [3]. As far as SMEs are concerned, BruxellesFormation offers different options for workers to upgrade their skills particularly in the fieldof new technologies, communication, human recourses management and labour legislation.In addition, specific training can be arranged upon request of one or more enterprises.VDAB (in Dutch) provides services in Flanders as well as for Dutch speakers living inBrussels [4]. It offers training courses, counselling and support to the enterprises in severalsectors.The Employment Agency (Arbeitsamt) (in German) is responsible for the areasof employment, vocational guidance and vocational training in the German-speakingCommunity [5]. Its role is two-fold: on one hand job seekers and employers in developingtheir career (through job placement, vocational guidance, vocational education and training,temporary work) and support other companies in managing their staff (such as processing ofvacancies, training and employment support and training of personnel).2.1.2 European qualification frameworks and other developmentsIn the field of European tools, latest developments in Belgium [6] include:a) The application of the European qualification framework to simplify andmake the various European qualifications understandable. In Belgium, Flanders is in theapplication phase (Decree of 30 April 2009 on the Flemish Qualification framework), whereasWallonia is in the design phase and should be completed by the end of 2011.b) Implementation of a National Qualifications Framework (NQF): there isneed for information on the qualifications and competences regarding career guidancecounsellors. The Flemish qualification structure has been developed as a common tool foreducation, training and work. At this moment there is a growing need for professional skillsand the risk of skill mismatching and how to respond to this situation; - environmentalchange, new energy sources, green jobs are high on the competence and qualificationagenda. The future relation of the Qualifications Structure to the EQF will facilitatetransnational mobility. Six pilot projects were started to gain experience with the process ofdeveloping qualifications and relating them to a particular level of the structure. At the sametime, the developmental process towards a qualifications databank was initiated. 
  • 31. c) Quality assurance mechanism: a team of inspectors monitor the quality ofschools. The system of school reviews is currently being scrutinised with the objective toimprove their efficiency and impact. High quality assurance stands also for high equality andaccess for anyone to start developing its talents in any school. A framework for general andautomatic recognition of degrees and qualifications based on recognition of the qualityassurance system could be found in the Decrees on the Structure of Higher Education.Another important measure was the authorization of the accreditation body to recognizeforeign accreditations and quality judgements provided that they comply with the BergenStandards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. In 2007-2008, in the French-speaking Community, several pilot projects were launched todevelop a Qualification Framework. One of the objectives of these projects is to matcheducation offer and skill needs of the professional sectors. The creation of a newQualification Agency is decided mainly to cope with the connection between education andvocational training; and its main goal is to create more flexible pathways for the citizen.Validation process is based on an orientation memorandum by the social partners andemployment services, who are deciding for which jobs; validation would create added valuefor the employers. All higher education programmes were transformed into the Bachelor-Master structure.d) Geographical mobility in Vocational Education and Training (VET): inBelgium, there are three official languages. Therefore, Belgium has three National EuropassCentres (NEC). Each NEC is responsible for the promotion in its specific languagecommunity.In Flanders, the Europass Diploma Supplement is compulsory for higher education from2007 (although it has no reference to Europass on it). Until 2008, Flanders had no EuropassCertificate Supplement. Europass Certificate Supplements have an added value foremployers if they contain relevant information (demand-driven manner and useful for theemployer).The French-speaking Community is making efforts to promote Europass to educationalactors (schools, adult education, higher education) by integration in learning programmes,especially those who participate in the Lifelong Learning Programme. A report has been
  • 32. 32provided to the Ministers proposing an increasing use of Europass in connection with theEQF process.Several common measures were adopted: the organisation of language modules; languageexchanges for trainees; trans-regional training courses; and cooperation on ad hoc eventssuch as job fairs and recruitment following collective redundancies. In 2008 and 2009 theRegions and Communities continued the development of competence profiles, defining theset of skills (qualifications) required for each occupation. This was used as the frame ofreference for drafting module type of training paths. All projects are EQF conform.Furthermore, the Public Employment Services cooperate to ensure that these skill sets arecomparable in order to promote inter-regional mobility.2.2 Informal training implementationThe lifelong learning strategies in Belgium are covering all levels of education and trainingwhether formal, informal or non-formal.In order to encourage job growth, more and better training opportunities have beenprovided. In fact, only those who manage to develop their knowledge satisfactorily can keepand improve their chances in the job market. To finance this part of the programme, it isnecessary not only for workers but also employers and the authorities to contribute. Withthis in view, the regions and the communities offer training vouchers. Employers for theirpart have committed themselves to contributing 1.9% of the total wage bill to the training oftheir workers.Addressing participation of low-skilled people and immigrants in continuous learning iscritical to enhance their employability. As part of the Skills Agenda, a comprehensiveapproach towards early school leavers is being developed. A better cooperation betweeneducational partners and the VDAB is foreseen as part of the competency Agenda in order toimprove qualifications of this vulnerable group of youngsters.
  • 33. The agenda maps the needs for competence development and makes policyrecommendations to tackle the skills gaps. During round tables the different stakeholderscommunicate their points of view. The Walloon Marshall plan and the Skills Agenda are toenhance employability and to increase the employment rate and economic growth.Moreover, an action programme for competence development of individuals and enterpriseshas been drafted, which will strengthen workers as well as enterprises to cope withtransitions towards and changes in the labour market.The designing of an overarching qualifications framework with effective integration ofsystems of recognition of informal and non-formal learning is another challenge, via theexperience certificate, recognition of prior competencies via sector covenants, acquisition ofa professional title.2.2.1 French-speaking community [6]:Since 2003, two main entities are in charge of the implementation of training activities forsmall and medium enterprises: one covering the territory of the Brussels-Capital Region, theother of the Walloon Region:1) the SME Training Department (Service Formation PME or SFPME), under the tutelage ofthe Brussels-Capital Region; and2) the Walloon Institute of dual education and training for small and medium enterprises(Institut wallon de formation en alternance des indépendants et des petites et moyennesentreprises, IFAPME), under the tutelage of the Walloon Government.A structure called the ‘Continuing Training Institute’ (Institut de formation permanente) alsoexists, retaining the tasks related to the issuance of apprenticeship certificates and companymanager training diplomas.Continuing training for the self-employed and for small and medium-sized enterprisesincludes:Basic training that enables the acquisition of the skills required to exercise anindependent profession. It comes in different forms, depending on the learners’ age andcompetencies. The apprenticeship contract, for which the duration is generally 3 years (thiscan be reduced based on previous knowledge acquired by the youngster or even extended
  • 34. 34by one year in the event of failure during the promotion examinations or at the end of thetraining).The company manager training, which lasts for 2 or 3 years depending upon theprofession, is organised for one part, as 8 hours of theoretical courses per week most oftensplit over two evenings and, for the other part, as 4 days a week of practical training in acompany. It is centred on the management of a company and the acquisition of professionalknowledge. During this training, the candidate receives a progressive training allowancewhich varies according to level of qualification at the start of the agreement and need tofollow a preparatory year or not.Extended training: further training consisting of a regular adaptation to newproblems arising in a company; recycling, aimed at in-depth training of new and complextechniques. This can also be an update of knowledge for someone who has progressivelybeen able to start learning about the problems covered in further training.Reconversion: to allow a company manager to acquire, through appropriate training,the skills necessary to exercise another self-employed profession.Assistance in the creation of a company offers everybody that wishes to undertakean independent activity a framework in the process.2.2.2 Dutch-speaking community [7]:Through its entrepreneurial training, SYNTRA Flanders seeks to organise high-quality andspecific vocational training for youngsters and adults who intend to become self-employed orwho are seeking a career in the small and medium-sized enterprise sector and thereforefoster entrepreneurship as an essential factor of socio-economical development. At variouslevels, these vocational-training programmes are organised in a modular fashion where workalternates with training so that participants can compile the package most suited to them.SYNTRA Flanders organises various types of entrepreneurial training:Apprenticeships;Entrepreneurial training takes 1 to 3 years and comprises theoretical training(vocational technical training and business administration) which may be combinedwith an internship of no less than 6 months in which the course participant receiveshis practical training in a company, either on a full-time or part-time basis.
  • 35. The course business administration takes 1 year and leads to the certificate(getuigschrift) business administration basics, a prerequisite for anyone seekingto obtain a business licence; the course business management for SMEs isaimed at managers and people in senior positions and requires a higher level ofprior education.Certified advanced training programmes which lead to a specific Flemishgovernment diploma or certificate (getuigschrift).There are well over 350 different uncertified advanced training programmes,aimed at the self-employed, SME managers and their senior staff.Tailor-made training programmes where training consultants develop an overalltraining plan on a step-by-step basis which dovetails as closely as possible withthe personal needs and ambitions of the (head of) the company.Moreover, employees working in the private sector can avail of paid educational leave andtraining vouchers. For training and advice, SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises andthe liberal professions) can avail of “SME-portfolio support" (KMO-portefeuille-steun).Companies cover 50% of the service provision themselves.2.2.3 German-speaking community [8]:In the German community the ZAWMs (Centres for initial and continuing training in themiddle-class and in SMEs) provide general education and profession-related technicalqualification courses. For both there are 180 hours scheduled in the 1st year and 160 hourseach in the 2nd and in the 3rd year of apprenticeship. General education subjects are:German, French, arithmetic/mathematics, economics, rights/legislation, civics, SMEs. Thecore subjects for the technical qualification courses vary from one profession to the other.The practical portion of the training is provided in a company that has been accredited fortraining of apprentices. The master craftman coaching an apprentice engages himselfcontractually with the ZAWM Centre to impart a certain amount of profession-relatedminimum standards.The concerned professional organisations take part in decision-making as to the content ofthe applicable curricula. The latter are submitted by IAWM for the ministers approval andafterwards transmitted to the ZAWMs for application. Curricula bring as an introduction an
  • 36. 36abstract of a job-description, then the actual teaching programme (Lehrprogramm) andfinally a table with the distribution of number of lessons and points for the apprenticeshipperiod.2. 3 Evaluation tendencies and standards2.3.1 Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS)One of the most comprehensive and reliable tool on the prevailing evaluation methodologiesof training activities in the Belgian SMEs is the Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS)[9], which is part of a European project aiming at taking stock of the training efforts ofEuropean companies.The survey, implemented since 2005 on a five-year basis, is conducted by the DirectorateGeneral Statistics and Economic Information (FPS Economy). It addresses Belgianenterprises employing at least 10 employees and working in most sectors present in Belgium(excluding public sector). It is also an important tool for policy makers in Belgium to assessthe training efforts of Belgian companies to meet a number of concrete objectives.The method of data collection is a mixed (mail survey or online survey) sampling Method,i.e. a stratified random sample by region, firm size and sector.The most recent available data relate to the year 2005. The next reference year is 2010,which means that data have been collected in 2011 and the final figures will be madeavailable in fall 2012.One of the key instruments adopted to evaluate the efforts of private sector’s companiesinto continuing training and education is the Social Audit. The data provided by thisassessment are used to calculate various indicators [9]:Financial effort as percentage of payrollParticipation rate of workersHours spent in training activities as a percentage of hours workedDuration of training per participantHourly cost of training activities
  • 37. Based on the CVTS’ results, latest trends of the Belgian enterprises’ investment in trainingactivities are as follows:Out of all Belgian companies with at least 10 employees, 62.5% organise traininginitiatives for its employees. The bigger is the company, the more likely it is that it providestraining.Four out of ten employees participate in further training. To this end, companiesinvest an average of 1.6% of their payroll in training activities. Figures increase accordinglyto the size of the company.Areas where investment in staff training are the most important, and whereemployees have the greatest chance of participating in training activities, are the financialsector, post and telecommunications, and the chemistry industry. In contrast, the woodindustry, construction, textile, hotel and catering industry as well as the retail sectors are, inrelation to these training indicators, those with the lowest scores.The men benefit from five more hours of training in respect to women.The age groups for which the need for training is probably the most keenly felt are,paradoxically, those who receive the least. Indeed, young people and over 55 have lessopportunity to undergo further training.Compared with previous years, companies now opt for more in-service training ratherthan external.2.3.2 Assessment tools for Knowledge managementMany assessment tools and techniques have been produced in the latest years to helpBelgian enterprises evaluating the knowledge management processes and the trainingimpact.The Personnel and Organisation Unit of the Federal Public Service’s Directorate General forInternal Communication and Knowledge Management [10] (see also section 5 in this report),offers a series of methodological tools for knowledge management (KM). These tools are theresult of extensive discussions led by federal experts in knowledge management, enrichedwith experience and projects implemented on the ground.Originally addressed to managers and staff of the Belgian federal government, theKnowledge Management tools are available online [11] to all managers, human recourses /
  • 38. 38KM experts as well as employers wishing to ameliorate and strengthen their skills andcompetencies at work.One of the latest publications of this series is the “Assessment tool Knowledge managementin team work. Analytical framework and improvement plan” (May 2010) [12].This tool provides an analytical framework to be completed by team members who regularlycollaborate. The analysis focuses on knowledge management on a daily basis; the sharing ofexpertise between colleagues, document management, mentoring of new staff members,etc.Overall goal is to help the team make a diagnosis on how it manages its knowledge, toidentify possible areas for improvement and define an action plan. The tool comes in theform of a booklet supported by an IT application online: the brochure explains themethodology for step by step in the performance analysis and planning; the IT applicationcan automatically calculate and display the results graphically in a readable and attractiveway.The team managers are encouraged to use this tool during the planning meetings and teamfunctioning, e.g. as part of the development circles (see also section 5 in this report).2.4 Innovating experiencesThe national LLL strategies in Belgium are implemented through the following initiatives[13]:A new educational pathway called “higher professional education” willenable early school leavers to obtain an official diploma of secondary education while theyare studying to obtain a qualification at EQF-level 5. As part of the Skills Agenda, acomprehensive approach towards early school leavers is being developed, for instance, itfocuses on a better co-operation between educational partners and the VDAB (the FlemishExternal Autonomous Agency for Employment and Vocational Training) in order to improvequalifications of this vulnerable group of youngsters.
  • 39. Improving workplace skills: within the department of Education and Training, anew unit was established: the Project Strategic Education and Training Policy. It deals withthe implementation of the LLL policy and involves several policy domains and the main goalis to implement policy priority 1: “better linkages between education and the labour market”.Improving workplace skills amongst pupils, students and the labour force is a majorobjective.An umbrella training databank is accessible on the website www.wordwatjewil.be.This is a joint initiative between Education, the VDAB, the Flemish Agency forEntrepreneurial Training or SYNTRA Flanders and social/cultural work. An expansion toinclude private training providers is included. Via the Strategic Plans “Activitiescreation” in Wallonia, an enhanced cooperation is created between the stakeholders andmany actions are taking place, but communication to the citizen still has to be improved.Encouraging entrepreneurship in order to achieve a more flexible labour market.The average Belgian has not yet sufficiently developed the reflex to create his own job bybecoming self-employed. European employment policy is increasingly concentrated onsupply side solutions (like training, counselling and “flexicurity”) for helping the labour forceadapt to a rapidly changing environment created by globalisation and an ageing population.Encouraging Entrepreneurship starts already at school. Accordingly, this has been givenextra attention in education over the last years.Training for in-demand jobs: Brussels focused its efforts to offer training on in-demand jobs; the employers’ federations and other organisations were regularly consultedfor their input. Flanders introduced a bonus to encourage training for in-demand jobs andWallonia developed a plan to better fill indemand jobs. This plan consists of the analysis ofthose jobs for which the supply of workers is inadequate; the improvement of the detectionof such jobs; the screening of jobseekers for their skills; and the development of specifictraining courses. The aim is too achieve the best individual match between supply anddemand.Operational plan enhancing literacy in the three communities: the use oftraining vouchers is enjoying growing success in the three Regions. For instance, Brusselsexpanded the use of training vouchers for jobseekers going back to work, from languagetraining to other areas, such as ICT. Wallonia increased the options for training vouchers,both for companies and for workers; it boosted its offering by establishing a special‘language cheque’ and by increasing the number of vouchers that a business can order. Viathe wide objective of the training vouchers, enhancing literacy (language, digital, etc.) couldbe increased. Flanders is working on adjusting the system in various ways, including on thebasis of the conclusion that certain less-favoured groups, such as unskilled individuals and
  • 40. 40people aged 50 and over, are significantly under-represented in the group of those peoplewho make use of training vouchers. Brussels enhanced the synergies between theemployment service and the organisations that offer training, especially those concentratingon specialist centres and based on a modular approach (as this approach is the mosteffective to enhance the chances on the labour market). In Wallonia, a few new ICT centreswere opened and the surrounding network was strengthened. Wallonia also developed aproject whereby an introductory course for jobseekers in ICT and Internet was organised atthe skill centres. For jobseekers, training combined with work experience leads more easilyto a job. That is why Flanders and Wallonia increased the number of work experienceplaces. Flanders is also running experiments in cooperating with private firms (viadeployment measures) and temporary work agencies to increase the efficiency and targetgroup reach of work experience programmes. Brussels simplified the associatedadministrative procedure.Service cheques – more jobs in neighbourhood and local services: the aimof the service cheques is to encourage employability of the low skilled for certainprofessions. It is one of the first steps of labour market integration and training. Employersrecruiting with service cheques can receive a financial benefit of the (local) authorities.More equal opportunities in education and recognition of skills: within theframework of the open method of coordination for ‘Education and Training 2010’, theCommunities pursued their efforts to guarantee equal access to education and to upgradetechnical and vocational education. The French Community worked on implementing itssizeable reform plan that runs until 2013 by bolstering the Community foundation insecondary education. The Dutch – speaking Community introduced a bonus system in orderto put pressure on the cost of expensive courses of study.2.6 New business paradigmsIn Belgium, it is widely acknowledged that performance management and skills improvementhas to be directed towards delivering the operational imperatives of an organisation andcontribute to the strategic goals. In fact, several empirical studies [14] show that morehuman capital and human resource practices (e.g. training, commitment to employees)improve performance.
  • 41. SMEs managers recognise more and more that the employees’ knowledge is valuable, andthat investing in knowledge management (KM) is fundamental to ensure that the capitalrequired is readily available and be preserved, shared and developed.The Directorate General for Internal communication and knowledge management (DGCOMM-KM) of the Federal Public Service [10] provides supports to Belgian organisations todevelop a strategy and implement knowledge management projects. To achieve this goal, itdevelops relevant methodological tools, it implements IT applications and also coordinatesthe federal network of knowledge managers (KMnet).A valuable evaluation methodology used in the Federal Public Service and now increasinglyadopted in small and medium enterprises is based on the so-called “development circles”.This technique is based on communication and consists of several meetings between theemployee / the team and the general manager. The exchanges and the agreements reachedhelp the employee, the team as well as the manager to improve their performance, developtheir skills and achieve the work plan objectives. It is hence not just an evaluation system,but a management tool pursuing two objectives: on one side the development of skills ofstaff and on the other side the company’s objectives.In practice, concrete guidelines for development circles exist in two versions: one for themanagers and one for the employees. These are guiding documents that provide adescription of each service and prepare on managing internal communication and assuming/ sharing responsibility.In line with the above background, many organisations have implemented a KM service inthe latest years and began the construction of knowledge management.2.7 Challenges to respond toApart from incentives for companies to increase the provision of training places, there is noclear approach to increase participation and investment in training. Measures have beentaken for the recognition of competencies.
  • 42. 42To develop the training agenda, the government is relying on the forthcoming negotiationsamong social partners on a new multi-sector agreement. Important reforms were launchedrecently, such as improving the image and the quality of technical education, but they aretoo recent to show results.The research implemented in the frame of the JAKIN II project provides an overview of thelatest trends and approaches on training activities in the Belgian small and mediumenterprises (SMEs).In particular, the analysis of the responses given by the experts interviewed in the frame ofthe JAKIN II project shows that companies’ managers are increasingly aware of the strategicimportance of knowledge management and training for improving the performance of theirbusiness. Still, some challenges shall be addressed:Understanding of knowledge and knowledge management.The experts interviewed have a similar understanding of the notion of knowledge, commonlydefined by most of them as “the ability to identify and use the right data and information inorder to solve a question, a problem”. An interesting remark made by one of the managersinterviewed concerns the necessity to make a distinction between knowledge of data andKnowledge of information: the first one concerns theory and training activities, the secondone is more directly related to programme updates and specific technical, practice courses.Whereas the concept of knowledge seems to be understandable to all, opinions are quitedifferent when talking about knowledge management. Some of the interviewed admitted notto have a very clear (if not at all) idea of what knowledge management is. Others gavedissimilar definitions, such as the following:“Knowledge is not innate. It is made of practice, interest and training on the topic.Knowledge management (selection, study and exercises) can reinforce the basis formaintaining and improving different types of knowledge”.And another one:“Knowledge management refers to all the processes put in place to: a) monitor the state ofknowledge (data and information) at the sector level; b) keep track of employeesknowledge; c) undertake the necessary updates and training actions”.
  • 43. Planning and implementation of training evaluation mechanisms.The most controversial area, and definitely the one that needs more coordinatedactions and developments, is the actual planning and implementation of trainingevaluation mechanisms in the SMEs.All the experts interviewed agreed that there is a gap between needs and objectives on oneside and real achievements and actions on the other side. Managers recognise thesignificance of continuous training form them and for their employees, but in most cases realimplementation fails due to financial, structural and time constrains.This picture visibly emerges from the responses given when asked to describe howentrepreneurial training has developed in their company in the last years. Trends confirmthat some progress has been made to ameliorate the information and managementmechanisms.As one of the interviewed managers said, “company’s training programmes have beendeveloped over the last 4 years. Paper procedures were quickly abandoned in favour ofinformal discussions and brief reports by e-mail. Writing of longer texts (on paper or byemail) is time-consuming while the informal exchanges can better tailor information. Duringthese exchanges, the hierarchical structure is almost annulled, as everyone can give his /her opinion in a more democratic way. The minutes and the final decisions remain under theresponsibility of the management. The actual experience is very important as the sameinformation have sometimes to be used differently according to the situation”.In other cases, formal evaluation programmes are still lacking. Yet the enterprisedemonstrate a commitment to move towards more systematic approaches, as described bya human resources expert working for a health care company: “currently, each unit hasmore autonomy in its training policy. Still, a committee has been established since two yearswith the aim of developing a more cross-cutting training strategy, which also means awillingness to intervene at the level of business culture”.Unluckily, it is worth noting that despite global developments in the field of new technologiesin Belgium, the use of IT tools in the SMEs is far beyond successful. To the question “what is
  • 44. 44the role of new technologies in your organisation?” majority answered that there is “roughand hasty use of new technologies” and that “training activities on new technologiesdemonstrated to be not really effective and dumped eventually”.Informal training.According to the JAKIN II study, informal training takes place in many organisations as anormal part of day-to-day work.Informal training is seen as a valid approach to improving employee skills and knowledge. Itis in general fostered by managers through live discussion and exchanges in team, verbalexchange of information (while the more important information is put into written form),active participation in meetings, conferences, internal seminars and through access to thelibrary / other resources.Nevertheless, a challenge to face is the improvement / development of valuable methods tomeasure informal learning / training in the SMEs. According to the experts’ responses, inmany cases there are no valid assessment tools for that. Most of the time the monitoringand evaluation are made via informal discussions and exchange of mails (for more technicalinformation), and briefing notes to provide feedback and share the lessons learnt.2.8 New indicators to considerManagers and human resources experts agree that any business activity needs to becontrolled and evaluated in order to improve overall business performance. As seen in theprevious chapters of this report, business efficiency includes also knowledge managementand continuous training assessment.Measuring intellectual capital and training impact is quite a complex process and requires asystematic approach to put into practice a methodical assessment of worker’ skills,competencies and expectations.
  • 45. Evidence from the JAKIN II research shows that measurement of intellectual capital in SMEsis still based on criteria such as the simple evaluation of the training and qualificationsachieved by the employee.Asked about useful indicators to measure intellectual capital in a company, the expertsinterviewed pointed out the following:training contents, especially the relevance to the sectorindividual satisfaction of participantscosts (per employee) / benefits analysismonitoring and management of the lessons learnt at the training, concreteapplication on the groundcustomers’ feedback and satisfactiontiredness, lack of timeAmong the techniques and methods to implement the training assessment:• Post-Evaluation Questionnaires• Monitoring by daily top-down check of each employee’s work• Check of invoices and expenses by an outside company• Knowledge management: daily follow-up and tracking of sales andmanagement. If the information has been correctly transmitted andimplemented, the result is visible in statistics and turnover. It is moreimportant to check the application of the information received rather than itstransmission flow.• Asking for direct feedback from the workers during meetings
  • 46. 46III. GOOD PRACTICESThe desk research on good practices practices in the field of knowledge management andtraining evaluation in Belgian SMEs turned out to be unproductive. Today, little or no muchinformation is available in the literature regarding the situation in Belgium.Moreover, none of the managers and experts interviewed provided examples of goodpractices in this field.An explanation for this lack of information may be found in this managers’ justification to thequestion “would you share any good practices/ examples, concerning the KnowledgeManagement implementation/or Training Evaluation implementation in SMEs?”:“... Yes and no. Yes, because exchanging good practices is rewarding and necessary. In mycompany the board and the direction are represented by the same persons, this bringssometimes to a lack of objectivity. Since our company’s policy doesn’t include outsidedirectors, it becomes important to have a confrontation with other companies’ reality. No,because our enterprise is definitely much more ahead than other companies active in thesame sector (healthcare / pharmaceutical) so it would definitely be counterproductive toshare confidential information or give innovative ideas to our competitors…”IV. CONCLUSIONSThis report highlighted the achievements and challenges in the implementation of effectiveand valuable evaluation methodologies of training activities in the small and mediumenterprises in Belgium.Overall, it gives a positive picture of a range of policies, tools and initiatives that have beenput in place by different organisations in different situations, all aimed at improving thebusiness performance management as well as the workers competencies and skills.
  • 47. However, the survey clearly shows that much more needs to be done to bridge the gapbetween theory and reality.To conclude in a nutshell, no words can better express the situation than the eloquentdescription of one of the managers interviewed for this study, who stated:“A small enterprise is like a small boat that one must be able to handle very quickly. Themore difficult aspect to manage is to find the force to guide a small business, the decision-making process is slower and not easy to implement, against the big companies. To copewith these challenges, we, the managers, must and can often do a 180 ° turn very rapidly.To achieve that, everyone in the company must be aware of everything going on. That’swhy it is important that information, as well as the management strategy and the outcomesare transparent and clear to all. Everyone should be able to take the place of each other inthe company. Everyone must be very flexible, versatile.We are four people in the company. Ideally, we should be six, but the high work costs donot permit that. Consequently, there is sometimes work overload for one or the other…For that, we introduced the “pairs” approach at work. There is always one of us who is theback-up for another one and who knows exactly what the other is doing (current projects,tasks, vacation, sick leaves...).As for me, being the general manager I can obviously take the place of anyone. This isessential and it is the strength of any entrepreneur. This allows me to train and directlyaddress each of my in-house employees.”REFERENCES[1] Official Belgium Portal, www.belgium.be[2] FOREM, Walloon public service for employment and vocational training, www.leforem.be[3] Bruxelles Formation, official body for training for French-speaking job seekers andemployees in the Brussels-Capital, www.bruxellesformation.be[4] VDAB, public service for employment and vocational training in the Dutch-speakingcommunity, ww.vdab.be/[5] Employment Agency (Arbeitsamt) for the German-speaking community, www.dglive.be
  • 48. 48[6] Organisation of the education system in the French Community of Belgium 2009 - 2010.EURYDICE - Information on Education Systems and Policies in Europe, Executive Agency forEducation, Audiovisual and Culture (EACEA),http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/index_en.php[7] Educational Structures and Education Systems for Vocational Training and AdultEducation in Europe. Belgium, Flemish Community 2009. EURYDICE - Information onEducation Systems and Policies in Europe, Executive Agency for Education, Audiovisual andCulture (EACEA), http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/index_en.php[8] Structures of Education and Training Systems in Europe. Belgium, German-speakingCommunity 2009/10. EURYDICE - Information on Education Systems and Policies in Europe,Executive Agency for Education, Audiovisual and Culture (EACEA),http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/index_en.php[10] Evaluation des efforts de formation professionnelle continue en faveur des groupes àrisque et des travailleurs du secteur privé, Conseil Centrale de l’Economie (CCE), MarieMonville, August 2007, http://www.trainingineurope.com/[9] Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS), Statistic Belgium webpage,http://statbel.fgov.be/fr/statistiques/collecte_donnees/enquetes/cvts/[10] FedWeb, Official Portal of Belgian Federal Personnel, http://www.fedweb.belgium.be[11] KM tools can be downloaded at www.fedweb.belgium.be (under “About theorganization” / “Knowledge Management”)[12] Knowledge management in team work. Analytical framework and improvement plan.Federal Public Service, Personnel and Organisation, May 2010,http://www.fedweb.belgium.be[13] Reinald Van Weydeveldt, BELGIUM. VET in Europe – Country Report 2010. PublicExternally Autonomous Agency for Employment, Vocational Training and Guidance (VDAB ),Brussels. Available also in the CEDEFOP website at:http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Information-services/vet-in-europe-country-reports.aspx[14] Zoltan and Audretsch, 1990; Deichmann et al., 2004; Muse et al., 2005; Sels et al.,2006.
  • 49. CZECH NATIONAL REPORTI. INTRODUCTORY NOTENational report, describing the situation in the field of institutional education and differentmethodologies intended to evaluate training activities in the Czech Republic, is based on thefollowing sources:1. Managed interviews, which were conducted with the experts of six companies - withthree large firms and with three SMEs. The interviews were conducted from the beginning ofthe April to the end of May. The interviews were focused on the experience of the practicalapplications in the areas a) human resource management, b) business education training,c) knowledge management.2. The survey provided by questionnaires which were in the same time like theinterviews. The survey conducted 30 small and medium-sized enterprises, operating mainlyin regions where there are less educational opportunities.3. Analysis of the final reports and documents relating to the area of interest. Mainly,they were sources from the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Ministry of Labour andSocial Affairs.Results of the analysis of gained information confirmed that there is a remarkable gapbetween institutional education and training in big companies and SMEs in the CzechRepublic.Large enterprises, usually with international participation, apply all aspects of businesseducation at the highest professional level. On the other hand, in small businesses the areaof business education pays minor attention. Small businesses are concentrated on theireveryday problems of production, poor morale payments of customers and widespreadcompetition. They are not adequately interested in the long-term strategies of developmentin which education of staff can play a significant role.
  • 50. 50Fortunately, this gap is spanned by a large range of educational courses, which aresupported by European Social Funds. The courses, tailored to individual needs of smallbusinesses, are accessible and also affordable for many SMEs in the Czech Republic now.Data and information used in the national report were processed for the period 2005 - 2010.II. MAIN FINDINGS2.1 National training systems and European qualification standards2.1.1 The Czech National Qualification System (NQS)The Czech Republic has its own functional qualification system. The National QualificationSystem (NQS) implements mechanisms which support:comparability of learning outcomes acquired by various forms of learning andeducationachieving full qualification by combining partial qualificationstransfer of employment market requirements in the area of educationpublic awareness of nationwide recognised qualificationsadjustment of qualification levels in Czech Republic and EUThe NQS is designed with the following sections:NQS Units – distinguished through two types of qualifications:Complete qualification – the capacity to duly perform a specificprofessional occupation (or several occupations)Partial qualification – the capacity to duly perform a certain workactivity or a set of work activities enabling professional occupationNQS Standards – they assess qualifications in a standard way in two ways:Qualification standards – systematic description of requirements fora relevant qualificationEvaluation standards – a set of and criteria and methods forassessment of the requirements for qualification
  • 51. NQS Levels – classify NSQ vertically while respecting levels defined by the Czech educationalsystems and are related to the levels defined in the EQF.Qualification area (groups of occupations) – classifies NQS horizontally (according to area ofoccupation) while respecting area classification as applied in the Czech educational system.The Czech NQS is fully harmonised with the European Qualification System.2.1.2 Legal base of the Czech NQSAct 179/2006 Coll. on Verification and Recognition of Further Education Results in andAmendments of Some Other Acts as amended by Act 110/2007 Coll., which has come intoforce 1 August 2007 establishes a universal system of assessment of education acquired outof the educational system and introduces a unified, transparent and objective way ofverification of knowledge and skills. It enables the applicant to acquire a certificate andrecognition of so called partial qualification, i.e. skills acquired by non formal or informallearning, which lead to success in the labour market.In the initial provisions it is stipulated that the Act amends:a) the system of verification and recognition of further education results;b) qualifications;c) qualification standards for partial qualifications;d) assessment standards for partial qualifications;e) the National Register of Qualifications;f) rules for granting, extending validity and withdrawing authorisation for the verificationof further education results;g) rights and duties of participants of further education;h) the scope of competencies of bodies executing state administration with regard toverifying and recognizing further education results.2.1.3 Qualification and learning standardsBasic elements of the NQS are qualifications described according to a simple set of criteriaoriented on learning outcomes expressed independently form place and means of acquisitionor attainment. The NQS represents a basic systematic framework for initial and furthereducation and recognition of learning outcomes. Its conceptual platform is learningoutcomes. The standards of the NQS work with knowledge, skills and competencies in close
  • 52. 52relationship with learning outcomes. Focus on learning outcomes represents a fundamentalprinciple, surely in the European context and increasingly in that of the Czech Republic.The NQS is legally endorsed by the Czech Act on Verification and Recognition of FurtherEducation Results. The Act is formulated in such a way as to motivate adults in the CzechRepublic to pursue further education, to broaden their individual qualifications, to acquirenew qualification for getting a better occupation. The Act encourages systematicharmonisation of the educational systems offer with the demands of the labour market.The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MSMT) of the Czech Republic has beenworking since 2005 on two important System Projects that are meant for the developmentand partial implementation of a national qualification system:(a) Project aimed at developing a national qualification system (project NQS). In broadcooperation with the employers this system focuses mainly:Conception and overall architecture of NQS.Implementation of NQS for the lower qualification level – secondary high schooleducation level with certificate of professional competency, ISCED 3 C.ITS system for NQS.(b) Projected aimed at developing recognition of outcomes of non-formal and informallearning in school networks providing educational services for adults (project UNIV). One ofthe goals of this project is to propose, design and implement as a pilot project a system forrecognising outcomes of non-formal and informal education within the legal dispositionsconcerning recognition of further education.2.1.4 Sector BoardsThe Ministry established a Sector Boards for coordination of all activities concerning the NQSand a National Occupation System. Within the context of the Czech Republic Sector Boardsmay have several other functions and they may impact on many other areas. At present oneof expected areas for the implementation of Sector Boards is in authorisation andrecognition of learning outcomes in accord with the Act on Verification and Recognition ofFurther Education Results.
  • 53. The main strategic aims of Sector Boards are:to become respected sources of information on trends in sector development,on human resources and the requirements of employers in various sectorsto become important partners to state and government agencies in theeducational sectorto set up rules for functioning and interrelated systems providing basicinformation in the matters of further education and ensuring the update andproper function of these systemsto become key actors in designing an opportune environment for labourforces in the sector and to promote innovative actions in the qualificationcontents and cooperate with schools and other educational institutions.The creating of an NQS is from the start understood in the Czech Republic as means ofachieving a state wherein the NQS will not only bridge the gap between initial andsubsequent education but also between the world of labour and education. It is beingcreated with the aim of interconnecting job related requirements with adequate feedbackfrom the educational sector.The creation of an NQS implies many organisational measures and requires importantfinancial means. This is mainly due to the fact that the NQS design and implementationrequires active cooperation of many partners.2.2 Informal training implementation2.2.1 Difference between formal and informal learningThe difference between formal and informal learning is described by Act (1997). The formallearning framework is organised and performed by an employer. Typical examples are notonly courses and seminars organised by an employer but also formal mentoring programmesor planned programmes of rotation of managers. Activities under the formal learningprogramme usually have a clearly stated goal and content.Informal learning is less structured and often it is an employee’s own activity. It includeslearning through experience at workplace, self-study by an employee, and exchange ofexperience among colleagues.
  • 54. 54Both training and development programmes may be part of either the formal or informalframework. An ordinary training seminar is an example of a formal training programme.Formal training programmes may use a wide range of methods. Formal training programmeshave been extended in the past years to include programmes that make use of computers(e-learning), active learning and team training. Active learning highlights the importance ofactive participation of a participant and in particular his/her own exploration of the field. Agreat emphasis is put on the meaning of mistakes for the learning. During team training theteam members not only learn together but they also learn how to manage specialrequirements of teamwork. One of the benefits of team training is cross training, duringwhich team members learn to manage the roles and activities of other members byacquiring shared mental models.2.2.2 Inadequate learningThere are at least two reasons for an inadequate use of training. The first is that even thebest managers are only humans. In free market conditions a company must adapt to thesituation to do well. It is often concluded that this fact leads managers of the company tooptimise the use of resources when achieving results. However, optimisation is oftenreplaced by satisfying. Satisfying means finding such a procedure or solution which issatisfactory. After having found it, the search for the optimum procedure or solutiondiscontinues and the company may also use procedures that are far from suitable anddesirable.The second reason lies in the specifics of human nature. People are often described, forexample by economists, as irrational. Psychologists usually describe people as human beingslooking for satisfaction and pleasure. Experts from other fields may highlight otherpeculiarities, for example the desire for power or playfulness.Some important concepts discussed in the part above of this section are related to thespecifics of the Czech Republic and a largely based on current legislation.2.2.3 Qualification in the concept of NQSThe key term “qualification” is defined in Czech legislation by Act 179/2006 Coll. as follows:Complete qualification shall mean professional qualifications of natural persons toduly perform all work activities pertaining to a relevant profession.
  • 55. Partial qualification shall mean professional qualifications of a natural person to dulyperform a certain work activity or a set of work activities in a relevant profession or in two ormore professions respectively, in the scope defined in a qualification standard. The National Qualifications System (NQS) shall mean a publicly accessible register ofcomplete or partial qualifications acknowledged, defined and recognised in the CzechRepublic.The definition given in this Act may be extended:NQS should be a common comprehensive framework for all forms of learning and education.The most adequate comparative attribute of all forms and ways of learning and educationare the outcomes. Outcomes of learning and education are the building blocks of thearchitecture of the NQS.If NQS should at all be an operational, usable and comprehensible system which allowscomparison and recognition of learning outcomes, the results should be described:in a standard formin the most simplified structurewith the aid of elements, which may easily be interchanged after eventualalteration and updating.2.2.4 Qualification standardsA qualification standard for partial qualifications shall mean a structured description ofprofessional competence of a natural person for the due performance of a certain workactivity or a set of work activities in a relevant profession or in two or more professionsrespectively.An assessment standard for partial qualifications shall mean a set of criteria, organisationaland methodological procedures and material and technical prerequisites specified for theverification of the attainment of professional qualifications to duly perform a certain workactivity or a set of work activities in a relevant profession or in two or more professionsrespectively.
  • 56. 56The specified user of the NQS in this case is a person who assumes that his/her qualificationpotentials are higher than those documented by his/her certificates or formal education, acitizen who thus requires a certificate of qualification (competency).2.2.5 System of certificationA possibility of acquiring a certificate of partial qualification is given to individuals who workin a different occupation than that they graduated in or were professionally trained in. Theymay often have much better skills in that particular occupation than in their initialprofession. In case they must change their employer they are left with their school leavingcertificate, diploma or certificate of training. The system of recognition of partial qualificationenables such persons to have their actual competences (skills) recognised independentlyfrom the fact if they have acquired these in schools, in courses, in practice or in self-education. Recognition of partial qualifications will also help people who may work on a jobthey have initially studied or been trained for, but who wish to expand their employability inother areas or specialisations by acquiring further competences (skills).Regardless of the selected area the following general procedure may be recommended.An individual who thinks that his/her qualification potential is higher than that documentedin his/her certificates of formal education, may select a partial qualification in theinformation system of the NQS for which he assumes to have the necessary requirements.This assumption may be verified by consulting the assessment standard of the relevantpartial qualification and provided he decides to try to acquire such qualification certificate, hewill look up in the NQS the list of authorised persons, who have the right to verify and certifyit. All necessary information about the examination terms, location and price may be foundat the same place. After that he/she may apply for and sit at the relevant examination andprovided he/she succeeds acquire a nationwide valid certificate of partial qualification.The whole process may be summarised in the following steps:1. Finding of a partial qualification in the information system of NQS (www.narodni-kvalifikace.cz).2. Consulting the assessment standard and evaluating one’s chances for success at anexamination.
  • 57. 3. Finding an authorised person (after making sure that one has a good chance tosucceed).4. Finding out the details concerning the dates of examination sessions.5. Register for examination.6. Sit at the examination.7. If the examination is passed one will receive a certificate of partial qualification.Conditions that must be fulfilled in order to start the process of acquirement of a certificateof partial qualification:The partial qualification must be described and accepted. This means that theinformation system must contain the classification and assessment standard of the partialqualification.At least one authorised person, whose specialisation includes the assessment standardof a partial qualification.2.3 Evaluation tendencies and standards (assessment tools usedand prevailing evaluation methodologies and techniques)2.3.1 Role of training in the businessManagers consider staff training as an important part of knowledge management.Questioning have referred to well-developed concepts of research on the efficiency oftraining at work and the transfer of knowledge and skills to work activities carried out byemployees.Training is considered as a way to ensure knowledge utilisation in organisation as well as itspreservation and further development. However, training fulfils these objectives only iforganised in a proper manner, in compliance with current scientific findings and if its validityis ensured and regularly verified. As has been already mentioned, managers distinguishedbetween external and internal validity of training. External validity is more important as it isconditioned by the transfer of knowledge and skills acquired from training to work situations(see the previous paragraph). Psychological research findings reveal how to achieve this andtherefore we have paid a lot of attention to them in the questioning procedure.
  • 58. 58To grasp the theoretical explication it is necessary to take into account the relevant empiricalmaterial.The evaluation of learning outputs is a complex process. The efficiency measurement ofindividual teaching methods is considered as very difficult, because there are many factorswhich, taken together, influence such efficiency; managers declare that it is practicallyimpossible to extract the impact of one specific factor and analyse it separately.2.3.2 Job and tasks analysisJob analysis is an analysis of a job position or profession. A job position is, however, acomplex entity, and we sometimes need a much more detailed analysis possibly dedicatedonly to certain aspects of the work analysed. Task analysis is considered as one of the mostimportant form of analysis used for training purposes. The basic unit of such analysis isoperation. An operation is, however, perceived as very flexible and in questioning it wasexplained by the training expert as follows: “An operation is any unit of behaviour regardlessof whether its duration is short or long and regardless of whether its structure (possiblyspecified based by its goal) is simple or complex”.The task analysis starts with a rather general description of main operations that make upthe work and continues with a breakdown of general operations into more detailedoperations. These may be further broken down to such a level of details that is needed inthe respective situation. The identification of the level of detail where the analysis stops is,of course, critical for the practical application of such a method.2.3.3 Training needsDetermining what training needs should be introduced in a company is possible only basedon a profound understanding of what type of behaviour and conduct the companyemployees should acquire and improve. In most cases it means that a high-quality trainingdesign is based on a profound understanding of working process components. Suchunderstanding is facilitated through a job analysis: a set of methods used to analyse thework performed and describe a job position. To identify training needs, mainly questionnaireenquiry methods of job analysis and written materials may be used. Apart from that, thereare also other methods used to identify the needs of an organisation which, subject to oneexception, may be considered a further development of job analysis. This exception is staffanalysis, which is a set of methods used to determine which employee needs training andwhat type of training. To this end interviews and questionnaire enquiries are used to obtain
  • 59. opinions of key persons. Managers’ perception of their employees’ training needs correlatemore with the perception of their own needs rather than with the training needs perceptionof their reports. To assess the training needs of an organisation it is possible to use theinformation acquired from questionnaire enquires, interviews and discussion groups ofvarious categories of respondents (for example, data obtained from customers may beinteresting).2.3.4 Evaluation criteriaGroups of the criteria are suggested according to the general objectives of the courses,because the multimedia lectures will be efficient if, and only if, they support theachievement of the courses’ learning outcomes. Moreover, such a support has to fulfil someeconomic criteria, and also has to be user-friendly so that the students will be motivated touse it.Information follows from questioning distinguishes among three groups of evaluationcriteria:Group 1 – pedagogical criteria (P) that are connected with the measurement of learningoutputs and inputs on the level of selected courses.Group 2 – economic criteria (E) that describe the economic efficiency of the multimedialectures.Group 3 – user-oriented criteria (U) that reflect a subjective satisfactory of the multimedialectures users.2.3.5 Pedagogical criteriaP1 – Learning outputs achieved by the students in specific courses. We want to evaluatesome progress of students, level of their knowledge, etc. This is an objective criterion; wewill measure it by results of a didactic test.P2 – Impact of the multimedia lectures on regular contact teaching (lectures, seminars).This is a subjective criterion; it is evaluated by the sample of teachers who participated onthe teaching of Mathematical methods in economics. To obtain the teachers’ opinions, weused a free interview method.P3 – Number of tutorials within the semester. In the frame of the interview for P2, we askedthe teachers for the amount of tutorials provided. This is an objective criterion measured bythe total time of the tutorials provided in one semester or by the estimation of such tutorialsrespectively.
  • 60. 602.3.6 Economic criteriaE1 – Time for the development of the multimedia lectures. This cost criterion is expressed astotal time necessary for the preparation of educational materials, recording the lectures andtheir editing. Using the time units, we can compare the time requirements of bothmultimedia lectures and textbooks.E2 – Cost for the distribution of the lectures among the students. It is expressed as the sumof staff costs and technical costs.E3 – Maintenance costs. It calculates all kinds of costs spent within the utilisation of thelectures.2.3.7 User-oriented criteriaU1 – Total time of learning. The development of the multimedia lectures was motivated bythe help to the students to understand better and easier the content of their subjects. This isa partially objective criterion; it is measured by an estimation of the learning time obtainedfrom the questionnaire survey conducted among the students.U2 – Accessibility of educational materials. This criterion expresses the opportunity ofproviding the materials through a standard shop, e-shop or learning management system.U3 – Price of the educational material. This criterion is expressed as the amount of moneynecessary for obtaining the same amount of educational materials in a different form.U4 – General user satisfaction with the multimedia lectures. This is a subjective criterionwhich is asked by means of a questionnaire.2.4 Innovating experiences: quality plans, models of excellence,new technologies, value sensitive design of evaluation, expectedinnovative procedures2.4.1 Implementation of enterprise education in the Czech SMEsThe questionnaires, answered by managers of SMEs, focus the following good experience aswell as mistakes occurring within real applications in enterprise training:Learning organization offers a form of organization that is flexible, adaptable, with a quickresponse to change. This is an organization which promotes the education of all its memberson the basis of learning activities. Such organisation is gradually being transformed. Theobjectives are:
  • 61. knowledge – learn whatacquiring skills –learn howpersonal development – learn how to be myself, how to maximize the inherentpotentialjoint research – to learn how to achieve goals together.Successful organizations develop – in cooperation with employees a) interest in joint work,b) personal development, c) the corporate culture with impact on business development,d) dialogue and discussion in groups, e) learning in groups, f) elimination of barriers toknowledge transfer and skills.The firm should be considered as a living system, which keeps corporate memory, tradition,common search and risk taking. The occupation would become healthy and pleasant placeadapted to the life and teachings of human beings.Successful implementation of enterprise education can be summarized in the followingtheses:evaluate the learning culture that supports your organization;further everything that is positive;empower the people to feel safe;do not risks too much;help people work together;indicate learning in life;formulate real visions;promote the visions in life.Most frequent errors that managers acknowledged in questionnaires:rigid rules and unadoptable rules;managers and staff are not in touch with customers and customers needs;managers are not committed to change;managers do not have the necessary qualifications;
  • 62. 62poor relations between groups of employees;lack of strategic thinking;poor awareness of workers at lower levels;low level of mutual trust;top managers refuse to believe that earnings and lower market share aremore than just a temporary aberration.2.4.2 Statistics of successful courses in the period 2005-2010In the Czech Republic, SMEs can choose from a wide range of educational courses. Since2004, these courses are subsidized by the European Social Funds. An enterprise thatordered a training course from an educational institution pays generally only 25% of the truecost of the course. According to Czech Statistical Office about 18% of persons, employed inSMEs, was involved in some training course in the period 2005 - 2010. Statistics show thatthe interest in learning from companies settled on four areas:Staff training aimed at deepening and enlargement, increase, restore or maintainthe qualificationThe acquisition of key skills, enhancing the sustainability of employment in theapplicant companyCreation of corporate training programs for employeesPreparation of business teachersInterest in technical subjects are divided into:Information Technology - 52%Occupational Safety and Health (OHSAS 18001) - 12%Quality management (ISO EN 9000) - 20%Environmental management (ISO EN 14000) - 6%Management systems - 10%Most of the trainees – 52% focused on ICT technology. It is logical, since Czechentrepreneurs and employees still have problems with the use of computer technology. Itcan be assumed that computer literacy will increase abruptly to the involvement of todays
  • 63. high school and college students to practice. Middle and older generation is still havingtroubles in the applications of computer technology.Very interested and pleasing is the audience of the ISO systems in training courses. The factthat 38% of all participants lacking information for the application of ISO 9001, or 14,001points to some pressure on the certification of the sales activities of Czech companies. Unlikethe past, this phenomenon can be clearly seen in the business of SMEs. In terms ofemployer involvement at a glance it seems somewhat surprising involvement of only 10% ofemployers in education in management systems. This fact confirms that Czech smallbusinessmen are not much interested in the modern forms of corporate government andgovernance. Still dominate the everyday concerns with the performance of operational tasks,changing legal base, worry about financial discipline of customers, collaboration withsuppliers, etc. The SMEs have not the time for reflection on the companys own developmentstrategies, setting marketing plans etc.Teaching was combined as traditional “face to face” and distance education using e-learningtechnology, which allows the audiences to adapt the system of education to the needs oftheir employers time flexibility.Education was associated usually with advice blocks. Advices were directed to the followingareas:Consulting the introduction of new management systems.Focus on the analysis of corporate governance, the creation of appropriateorganizational structures of a suitable management system with the use of ICT.Advices in implementing a quality management system.Focus on the analysis, needs identification and selection of consulting firms.Advices in the implementation of occupational safety and health.Focus on security risk analysis.Another interesting feature of teaching like workshops, seminars and a final conferencesoften were organised within courses.
  • 64. 64A significant proportion of participants were over 50 years (15%), which is importantbecause these groups of workers are very threatened with unemployment and loss of socialsecurity.In the group of educated employees were present 67% of men and 33% of women.Interesting is also fairly uniform view and evaluation of the complexity, intensity andteachers behaviour in the classroom activity. The fact that participants agreed mutually intheir opinions at a relatively high rating indicates that the courses should mostly benefit thedevelopment of SMEs.2.4.3 Evaluation of training resultsIn principle, the aim of training result evaluation is to obtain information on its efficiency, i.e.information that can be unambiguously interpreted and is relevant with respect to trainingefficiency. In practice this means that training efficiency, i.e. its validity, can be endangeredinternally or externally. Internal validity refers to the extent of the new knowledge gained byparticipants. External validity refers to the extent to which the learnt things will betransferred and disseminated to other groups and situations.Internal validity is threatened when the training seemingly leads to the acquisition ofrequired knowledge or a change in behaviour or results achieved while the true cause issomething completely different.The question of external validity deals with the issue of course suitability, i.e. is it suitableonly for this group of new employees; would it be useless for a different group, would it beequally suitable under different conditions, for example, in a branch located abroad.External validity would deal with the question of suitability of the procedures for individualparticipant – some people learn more easily through informal social contacts while othersrely on formally structured instruction in a course context.2.4.5 Application of Training ResultsTraining is aimed at work performance of employees. It determines their work results andconsequently the results of an organisation as a whole. The identification of final outcomesof training implementation in an organisation is the validation. In case of training we oftenspeak about evaluation, which has a broader meaning than validation.
  • 65. In the questioning the respondents distinguishes between four levels of evaluationdata. These were:1. Reactions – this means trainees’ comments on their responses to training. They cancover such things as the duration of the training in question, its extent, level of difficulty,pace, etc.;2. Learning – data at this level refer to the kind of new knowledge learnt by trainees andnew information obtained. Tests and examinations are necessary tools in this context astrainees’ opinions are not sufficient;3. Behaviour – at this level it is checked whether trainees’ participation in training hasled to changes in their behaviour. The check is carried out by means of tests or practicalexaminations;4. Results – at this level the evaluation focuses on the verification of the fact whetherthe relevant training has led to changes in trainees’ work performance.Opinions of trainees expressing their impressions from a training session represent thelowest level of findings that can be used for evaluation purposes. Trainees’ opinions areimportant, but can easily lead to an erroneous judgement of the value of the given trainingprogramme. Participants can give a positive evaluation of the training because the trainerhas won their hearts, was entertaining or limited himself/herself to confirming participants’opinions and behaviour. On the contrary, trainees may reject the training as well as thetrainer if it is too demanding or aimed at unpopular topics (e.g. the necessity to improvework productivity or to implement a far-reaching organisational change). Although therelevance of information about trainees’ responses is often disputed, it is the only kind ofdata disposable in the Czech statistics.Data on learning represents a significant improvement compared to trainees’ impressions. Aswere already mentioned, the information on what trainees have learnt can be acquiredthrough tests and examinations. Perhaps the best way is – according to questionedmanagers –to test participants before the training and after its completion and compare theresults. Like the information about trainees’ responses, the information about the results oflearning is not complete and sufficient. Even if participants learn a lot and fully understandthe knowledge gained, it does not mean that it will cause any change in their workperformance. Therefore it is necessary to gather data at the third level, i.e. the level ofbehaviour.
  • 66. 662.4.6 Design of entrepreneurial educationTo design a more robust internal learning and knowledge-sharing process, the managersrecommend start with a few questions about the key actors who create and consumeknowledge, then identify their learning needs, and finally identify where knowledge iscreated, how to capture it, and the resources required to do so.These are recommended key questions:Define actorsWho are internal and external actors?What natural groups of actors, or learning communities, exist?Identify their learning needsWhat are actor’s learning needs?Through what vehicles do actors already learn?Identify high value sources of knowledgeWhere is knowledge created?What knowledge needs to be captured?What are the priorities?Define processes for each sourceHow will knowledge be captured?How will knowledge be codified?How will knowledge be shared?Translate processes into tangible stepsWhat tasks make up each process?What capabilities and resources are required to execute the tasks?Align resources and support to new capabilitiesWhat staffing and other resources need to align to execute each task?Where do you need to add resources and incentives?
  • 67. The transformation of tacit and explicit knowledge is also depicted – the grey nodes arethose with prevailing explicit knowledge, the others with prevailing tacit knowledge. Thequestioned managers explain:Problem definitionIt is necessary to define the overall goal of the educational project. The definition is basedon an investigation of educational demand of the target group. The precise definition of thetarget group is necessary as well as detailed knowledge of the group’s interests anddemands. For this reason, the whole project starts with an inquiry into the group of potentialstudents. The evaluation of the knowledge claim is then a comparison of the knowledgeclaim with the aims of the specific course, study branch and the educational institution. Theinstitution is responsible for who is trained, what subjects and topics and how.InvolvementThe goal is to address both the potential students and the teachers – the course makers.The motivation is substantial because each participant must invest their own time, energyand creativity. “The knowledge creation generally needed to be done on one’s own time”and especially the people searching for new work, with lack of time, in the threat ofunemployment, etc., should have good reasons to devote themselves to learning andcreating new knowledge. The goals and intended results must be clear.Exploitation of existing sourcesIt is always possible to use some existing sources. The task of the course makers is tocollect sources of different type (texts, pictures, videos), and place them into one platform.Before that, they must evaluate these sources from the point of view of the goals of thecourse and the demand of the target group; the check up of correctness and novelty is self-evident.Implementation of new ideasThe new ideas can come both from the potential students and from the course makers. Theinvestigation of a well running business, and collecting the best ideas from practice wasfound to be very useful. Implementation of new scientific discoveries - even if they aretheoretical - could also be beneficial. The activities in the last two points led to theformulation of the course scenario.
  • 68. 68Course designThe content, schedule and all processes were designed, created (if need be), collected andunified. Some parts of tacit knowledge were codified.IntegrationAll prepared materials are integrated and implemented into the chosen Internet platform.Web templates are created and loaded.Practical applicationThe educational activity includes not only the real running of the course, but also theapplication of the newly acquired knowledge in the practical work of the students – thecourse leavers. The communication supported by the Internet platform continues naturallyafter termination of the course. The students meet practical problems and they areencouraged to share them with other participants including teachers and experts. Thiscommunication in fact closes the knowledge cycle and prepared stimulations forimprovements of the course, in some cases for creating a completely new educational unit.2.5 New business paradigms (management styles): knowledgemanagement, human capital etc.2.5.1 Difference between organizational learning and learning organizationParadigm shift in todays organisations needs to differentiate between organizationallearning and learning organization stress questioned experts. Organizational learning is theway firms build, supplement, and organize knowledge and routines around their activitiesand within their cultures and adapt and develop organizational efficiency by improving theuse of the broad skills of their workforces. A learning organisation is a company thatfacilitates the learning of all its members and continually transforms itself. Learning isacquiring new knowledge, behaviours, skills, values, preferences or understanding, and mayinvolve synthesizing different types of information. Learning occurs every time in thischanging world. Organizational learning is extremely important for a firm to keep ondeveloping and organizing its resources better. However, a learning organisation can help allthe members to gain more knowledge. Many people may feel confused between them.
  • 69. According questioned experts there are two dominant paradigms or ideal types inorganisational learning cultures, each constituted by different discourses. The first paradigmcharacterises a discourse of failure, exemplified by conformity and prescription. Thesecond, competing paradigm is one that is characterised by the discourse of success. Thisis a transformational paradigm. It is loosely organised around what can be done to grow,improve and change the situation.There are a number of reasons why the transfer of knowledge gained into practice via rathergood organized training procedure does not take place see the Czech managers. The first,perhaps, is that participants have acquired new knowledge but lack the necessary skills andhabits for its further use in practice. In other cases participants, although they havemastered the new processes well, do not dare to start using them in front of their colleagueswho have not undergone the training. Any modification to the work process is a change andeach change elicits a certain level of stress and requires some effort to overcome the inertia.However, a change in behaviour is the main purpose of organizing training. Therefore theevaluation of training results should be based on the evaluation of changes in the behaviourof trainees.2.5.2 Knowledge continuityKnowledge continuity is a missing link in the new paradigm that recognises the organizationas a network of thoughts rather than a hierarchy of positions and knowledge as the forcethat binds, directs, and vitalizes it.Knowledge continuity is an axis around which the fate and success of organizations willcirculate in the new century stress questioned managers. Those able to maintain knowledgecontinuity will prosper and those who are not will fall behind. This is a new law of knowledgeeconomy. Managers who take this into account will make their careers, organizations andlives wealthier. The threat of knowledge loss is a risk for organizations not yet fullyrecognised by their managers. However, with respect to the demographic development ofsociety, knowledge is becoming increasingly important. Knowledge management andknowledge continuity help to mitigate the risk.According questioned managers for an organization, knowledge continuity management is atool to develop a “brain” that does not forget, leave or die. It is one of the knowledge
  • 70. 70management tools which describes the extent to which the brain does not forget, howknowledge does not leave an organization and how it outlives a human being.Revolutionary in its effect, but evolutionary in its practice, knowledge continuity is central tothe tidal wave that is reshaping organizational knowledge flow and its creation in the newcentury and transforming the way we think about knowledge. Analyzing the questionnairesthere is possible conclude that knowledge continuity seems to be a missing link in the newparadigm that recognizes the organization as a network of thoughts rather than a hierarchyof positions and knowledge as the force that binds, directs, and vitalizes it. Knowledgecontinuity is an axis around which the fate and success of organizations will circulate in thenew century. Those able to maintain knowledge continuity will prosper and those who arenot will fall behind. This is a new law of knowledge economy. Managers who take this intoaccount will make their careers, organizations and lives wealthier2.5.3 New role of tacit knowledgeAccording knowledge management experts the tacit knowledge is recognised as havingmore impact on a company’s success than explicit knowledge available to employees. Czechmanagers see the deficiency of explicit knowledge in the fact that officially promulgatedpractices are often woefully inadequate to deal with the unpredictability and uniqueness ofeveryday work life. In today’s, dynamic world inventive solutions to problems, are a sourceof company success.According to the management of individual types of knowledge, managers of bigger firmsclassify these corporate strategies as explicit and tacit strategies. Explicit strategies arefounded on the principle of systematic knowledge management, utilization and storage onthe basis of process standardization. Tacit strategies, on the other hand, are built onknowledge sharing through mutual contacts and dialogues that are a basic prerequisite forknowledge transfer between company employees and occur within social networksestablished at workplaces. The most common forms of these networks are work groups andteams. A similar view can be found in small firms which associate the development of anintellectual capital, which includes competence and experience, with repeated interpersonalinteractions within not competitive cooperation.
  • 71. 2.5.4 Impact of organizational structures on tacit knowledge transferWhen trying to determine the significance of an organizational structure in tacit knowledgetransfer, both in horizontal and vertical terms, it is firstly necessary to define thecharacteristics which permit such transfer. On the basis of empirical findings from ourresearch, the following four basic requirements for an organizational structure have beenidentified. An organizational structure:1. must create conditions for frequent personal contact; this contact is to be a naturalneed for everyone;2. must prevent the development of barriers between workplaces and unwantedsubcultures within workplaces and organizational units;3. must facilitate and demand team co-operation, in particular when dealing with illstructured problems;4. must have a positive impact on the creation of a corporate climate characterised bymutual trust, space for participation in determining of the company strategy and willingnessto subordinate personal interests and goals to common goals and interests.Organizational structures can determine tacit knowledge transfer directly as well as indirectlytold one of the experts. The direct impact means the direct influence of a certain type oforganizational structure on tacit knowledge transfer. Some types of organizational structuresrestrict or inhibit tacit knowledge transfer. On the other hand, there are types oforganizational structures that generate (often when combined with certain types ofcorporate culture and other factors) favourable conditions for such transfer. The indirectimpact of organizational structures on tacit knowledge transfer is associated with its“mediated” effect through corporate culture as each type of organizational structuredetermines corporate culture and subsequently company climate. Therefore when speakingabout tacit knowledge transfer, the impact of organizational structure should not beoverlooked.It has been also identified that organizational structures influence tacit knowledge transfer intwo ways – indirectly and directly. The indirect impact is a mediated effect of the givenorganizational structure on tacit knowledge transfer through corporate culture and withinthis frame on the corporate climate, which is a kind of transfer catalyst see knowledgemanagement experts. Simultaneously, without a suitable corporate culture there would notbe any direct impact of the organizational structure.
  • 72. 722.6 Challenges to respond (taken under consideration the findingsfrom the research)2.6.1 Aging population and knowledge continuityThe entire world has been facing a silent crisis of population ageing. A number oforganizations are rushing to introduce management support to get ready for the arrival ofa new generation of employees at all organizational levels.Staff turnover is one of the long-term problems organizations have been dealing with,especially when good senior employees and efficient, experienced and loyal people want toleave.In case of aging of competent staff, knowledge employees leave the organization. The lossof knowledge threatens the organization, which increases the importance of knowledgecontinuity.Knowledge continuity is a domain linked to knowledge management that defines the ratio ofknowledge preserved by the former organization at the time a knowledge employee leavesthe organization and knowledge leaving the organization together with the knowledgeemployee. While knowledge management focuses on the preservation, sharing and transferof knowledge by the personnel of an organization, knowledge continuity managementconcentrates on the transfer of critical knowledge by departing employees to theirsuccessors.Knowledge continuity is a powerful advantage for organizations their management and staff:It speeds up the induction of new recruits by directing them to learning paths,making them more productive in a shorter period.It unites knowledge and important productivity driving forces and thus enables newemployees to focus on gaining new knowledge and broadening of highest-benefitopportunities and activities with the biggest turnover.It maintains knowledge networks that would otherwise disappear with departingemployees. These networks are significant for good performance and it is difficult and timeconsuming for new employees to restore them.
  • 73. It prevents cumulating of knowledge by a single person.It preserves organizational memory; knowledge stays in the organizationand becomes an asset for the organization.Reduces staff turnover and its financial consequences.Continuity is a feature that is and has always been associated with knowledge. However, atpresent when knowledge is becoming increasingly important for organizations, it should bemonitored more intensely. Organizations are motivated to preserve the maximum possiblevolume of knowledge and to prevent the loss of valuable and needed knowledge, i.e. toensure knowledge continuity in case a knowledge holder has left the organization or is aboutto leave.2.6.2 Distinction between discussion and dialogueManagers draw a distinction between discussion and dialogue. They compare discussion to atable tennis match where each of the participants strives to push through his or her solutionby means of his or her arguments. On the contrary, a dialogue is a conversation where theparticipants are colleagues with different opinions who are trying to find the best solution toa problem without claiming the authorship of this solution. They add that if the participantsare unable to surrender their privilege in the hierarchy with respect to other participants,they have to surrender the privilege of dialogue. Hierarchy is antithetical to dialogue, and itis difficult to escape hierarchy in organizations. Simultaneously, the findings of these authorsshow that in an environment where discussions prevail, knowledge transfer is limited.Staff training is a cross-sectional activity and its effective development is ensured bydeveloping proficiency in several specialised disciplines. They mainly involve experts ineducation, sometimes called andragogists, and human resource managers (HR managers)who are usually in charge of staff training in a company.
  • 74. 74REFERENCES[1] Cooper Sarah (2008) “Building Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy and Intent throughEducation and Experience”, Hunter Centre for Entrepreneurship.[2] Birdthistle Naomi, (2006) “An examination of tertiary level students and their intentionto found an enterprise”. Proceedings of the Conference, ISBE, 7-9 November 2007 -Glasgow, Scotland, ISBN 978-1-900862-03-5.[3] Cooper, S. (2006), “Exploring the pre-entrepreneurial careers of high-technologyentrepreneurs”, International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-LongLearning, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 341-354.[4] DFES, 2003; European Commission, 2002, 2005.[5] Havlíček Jaroslav, Pelikán Martin (2011) “Customise Training for new Businesses”,Journal of Agricultural Economics, 58, 2011, pp. 539-544.[6] Havlíček Jaroslav: “University quality assessment, A Report of the Assessment carried outin the period 2002 to 2008”. Final Report, Scientific Board, 2008. Internal publication.[7] Havlíček Jaroslav: “University quality assessment, A Report of the Assessment carried outin the period 2002 to 2008”. Final Report, Scientific Board, 2008. Internal publication.[8] Havlíček J.: “Soft Decision Making in Competitive Environment”. In: Proceedings ofConference “Agrární perspektivy VIII”, PEF ČZU, Praha 1999, str.616-619, SBN 80-213-0563-0.[9] Havlicek, J., Hron, J., Ticha, I.: “Tailor-made Education for Small Entrepreneurs”. MERJournal for Management and Development, 5, 2003, pp. 138-143.[10] Packham, G., Joneds, P., Milledr, CH., Jones, A. (2006) “Enterprise Education andEntrepreneurial Intent: A European Perspective”. Proceedings of the Conference, ISBE, 7-9November 2007 - Glasgow, Scotland, ISBN 978-1-900862-03-5.[11] Statistická ročenka ČR 2009, 2010.[12] Structural Funds, (2010) “Moderní formy vzdělávání a poradenství púro zaměstnance,zaměstnavatele a zájemce o podnikání”, MOVAP, 2010.[13] Ministry of Education Czech Republic (2010) “The White book of Education”,http://www.msmt.cz/.[14] The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (1981) “Standards forevaluations of educational programs, projects and materials”, McGraw- Hill.[15] Wilkinson Ann, Roberts Julia (2010) “Construction of an instrument to measure studentinformation and communication technology skills, experience and attitudes to e-learning”.Computers in Human Behavior, 10, 297-315.
  • 75. GREEK NATIONAL REPORTI. INTRODUCTIONThe following national report concerning Greece has been conducted within the frameworkof JAKIN II project. This project aims to diagnose the different methodologies of trainingevaluation, used and applied in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Furthermore, adeeper analysis into the latest business management paradigms and some of the bestpractices will be presented in this report.According to the current definition by the European Commission and its application 16SMEsare defined as:“Enterprises qualify as micro, small or medium-sized enterprises if they fulfil maximumceilings for staff headcount and either a turnover ceiling or a balance sheet ceiling (see tablebelow). The Commission Recommendation also specifies the method on how to establishand calculate these reference data.” Currently, up to 23 million enterprises in the EU fallwithin the scope of the definition.Enterprise category Headcount Turnover or Balance sheet totalmedium-sized < 250 ≤ € 50 million ≤ € 43 millionsmall < 50 ≤ € 10 million ≤ € 10 millionmicro <10 ≤ € 2 million ≤ € 2 millionRegarding Greece, until the year 200817around 850.000 SMEs existed, representing morethan 99% of the total economic sector. Greek SMEs employed until then around 2.3 millionGreek people - roughly 87% of the total workforce. Finally, the added value offered by those16http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/sme_definition/sme_report_2009_en.pdf17http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/facts-figures-analysis/performance-review/pdf/final/sba_fact_sheet_greece_en.pdf
  • 76. 76SMEs to Greece was 58 Billion Euros, representing a 72% of the total value produced byGreek Enterprises regardless their size.In order to conduct this national report, EEDE (Hellenic Management Association) the Greekpartner of this project, had to follow a mixed methodology of qualitative and desk researchapproach as it was agreed by all partners who participate in this project. As far as, thequalitative method is concerned, we have conducted 6 semi-structured interviews withprofessionals, experts on their fields. Among the people who have been interviewed, therewere 2 HR managers of SMEs, 2 Training/evaluation experts (trainers and Professors ofEEDE), and 2 Knowledge managers (coming from 2 very powerful SMEs in Greece). Inaddition, we tried to keep the gender balance.Furthermore, in order to get the best picture from the SMEs in Greece we had to collect atleast 20 questionnaires from managers / directors. In this effort we have sent direct e-mailsto more than 100 managers / directors of SMEs and about 120 letters by post and couriersto SMEs all over Greece. Most of our recipients have been members of EEDE. We have madephone calls so as to check the procedure and have a follow up of the participation. Finally,we had to upload the questionnaire on our main site for one week in order for managers/directors who visit our portal to fill it in online. The previous methodologies had as a result,the collection of 23. All the data were collected and analyzed in order to get the valuableinformation.Along with this qualitative research, a desk research has taken place. In this framework wehave read various, content mostly online (both in English and Greek language) fromEuropean Institutions and downloaded Greek Journals and operational programs concerninglaws and institutions.
  • 77. II. MAIN FINDINGS2.1 National training systems and european qualification standardsThe Greek formal education system18,19in Greece consists of three successive levels:Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education level. Compulsory education in Greece startsfrom the age of 5 until 15 years old.Primary education includes pre-primary education for children between 5-6 years old andprimary for 6-12 years old called Dimotiko scholeio (ISCED Level 1, primary education).Secondary education includes lower secondary general education called Gymnasio (ISCEDLevel 2) for children between 12-15 years old. There are also Evening Gymnasia that aregeared to the needs of working students and enroll students from the age of 14 years. Inaddition operate Ecclesiastic, Minority, Cross-Cultural, Peiramatika (Experimental), Music,Special Education Gymnasia etc.Post-compulsory secondary education (Lykeio - ISCED Level 3), consists of upper secondaryeducation called Geniko Lykeio (general upper secondary school) for children between 15-18years old, offering general education and Vocational Lyceums for the age between 15-18(vocational upper secondary schools) combining general education with technical –vocational studies. Finally, there are also Vocational Schools (EPAS) between the age of 15-17 which may extend to three years if on-the-job training is provided. EPAS belong to postlower secondary education.In post secondary non tertiary institutes we come across with Vocational Training Institutes(IEK’s – ISCED Level 4) which offer 4 semesters of initial vocational training or in the case ofvocational education graduates who followed a similar course, 2 semesters of furthertraining. Certain courses of the I.E.K. can also enroll Gymnasio graduates. Currently thereare 114 public I.E.K. where there are no fees and 53 private I.E.K. where students have topay fees.18http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/national_summary_sheets/047_EL_EN.pdf19http://www.ekep.gr/english/education/main.asp
  • 78. 78Tertiary education in Greece consists of two parallel sectors. The University sector(Universities, Polytechnics, Fine Arts Schools and the Hellenic Open University) and theTechnological sector (Higher Technological Education Institutions/ATEIs and the School ofPedagogic and Technological Education). Students are admitted to these Institutes accordingto their performance at national level examinations taking place at the third grade of UpperSecondary schools. Additionally, students are admitted to the Hellenic Open University (EAP)upon the completion of the 22 year of age by drawing lots. For universities studies theISCED level is 6 and for postgraduate studies the ISCED level is 7.2.1.1 Lifelong training in GreeceLifelong Training is defined as the system that aims at training and retraining people. Thepolicy20of lifelong learning and training in Greece is developing through a wide rangenetwork of activities from the very early childhood to the third age which includes not onlythe formal learning from the institutions of education and training but also the informal andnonformal training that people can get. In addition to that, there is a new legislation reformwith the latest law 3879/2010 which aims to further develop the Lifelong learning in Greece(regarding quality, accreditations, qualifications etc). This law regulates for the first time inGreece the National Qualification Framework and establishes the National InstitutionAccreditation Qualifications which will make the linkage between the national and theEuropean Qualification Framework (E.Q.F.). Its jurisdiction will be to correlate thequalifications (the knowledge, skills and capabilities) that are being acquired through theformal education, non formal education but also the informal education (empirical learning,biomatic learning) in the National qualification Framework. In addition to that, a new LLLnetwork is going to be developed under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, LifelongLearning & Religious Affairs, through its General secretary of Lifelong Learning which will beresponsible for the coordination of all other social/public/private partners and organizationsand apply this new LLL policy throughout the new LLL network in Greece.Lifelong training consists of a) Initial Vocational Training21(IVET) which provides basicvocational knowledge and skills in order to develop manpower and promote vocationalmobility. In this framework we come across with the Vocational Training Institutes20Greek National Programme of Lifelong Learning, Ministry of Education, Lifelon Learning andReligious Affairs (Ypourgeio Ethnikis Paideias kai Thriskeumaton)21(Official Journal Issue 171 /A’ / 6 -7-2005 Law 3369 ‘Systematization of lifelong learning and otherprovisions’)
  • 79. (Institouta Epangelmatikis Katartisis, IEK - ISCED Level 4), public or private, supervised bythe Organisation for Vocational Education and Training (OEEK). They are unclassified andcater for the needs of trainees who do not wish to continue studies in tertiary education norto immediately enter the labor market as unskilled workers but they want to obtainvocational qualifications. Post-secondary education can also be provided by institutes run byvarious ministries, but the vast majority among them is run by the Ministry of Education,Lifelong Learning & Religious Affairs.b) Continuing Vocational Training22(CVET) is defined as the continuing process that aims atensuring that a person’s knowledge and skills constantly adapt and respond to thedevelopments of their work place and the labor market. CVET23includes all vocationaltraining and further training activities organised outside the formal initial vocational trainingand education system.CVET is mainly provided by the Vocational Training Centers (KEKs). KEKs accept graduatesof Lower Secondary Education and Upper Secondary Education as well as Higher Educationgraduates. They are privately-owned (non-profit or profit making) or state-run traininginstitutions which have been officially accredited by National Accreditation Center forVocational Training (EKEPIS). They are financed from national funds and EuropeanCommunity funds. KEKs design, organise and provide courses in continuing vocationaltraining for employees, the unemployed and school leavers at all levels of education in manydifferent subjects (environment, health, education, agriculture, management, financing,services etc). CVET focuses on specific population groups within the existing institutionalframework such as training of the unemployed, training of private – sector workers, trainingof workers in the wider public sector and training of socially disadvantaged groups. EKEPISis supervised by the Ministry of Education, Lifelong learning & Religious Affairs and it hasadministrative and financial autonomy. EKEPIS mission is to develop and implement theNational Accreditation System for Continuing Vocational Training. This system aims toachieve quality assurance in vocational training, linkage between initial and continuingvocational qualifications and recognition of vocational qualifications provided via continuing22(Official Journal Issue 1491/B/29-07-2008 Common Ministerial Decision 55582/1933 ‘IntegratedSystem for the Management, Assessment, Monitoring and Control of Vocational Training Actions whichare co-funded by CSF in the framework of the National Strategic Reference Framework (2007-2013)for all OPs that include training actions)23http://www.ekep.gr/english/education/sunexizomeni.asp
  • 80. 80vocational training. Experience in organizing adult training courses, teaching personnel andown facilities are some criteria generally employed in designating a training institution as aKEK.2.1.2 European qualifications“ECVET is a common methodological framework that facilitates the accumulation andtransfer of credits for learning outcomes from one qualifications system to another. It aimsto promote transnational mobility and access to lifelong learning. It is not intended toreplace national qualification systems, but to achieve better comparability and compatibilityamong them. ECVET applies to all outcomes obtained by an individual from variouseducation and training pathways that are then transferred, recognized and accumulated inview of achieving a qualification. This initiative makes it easier for European citizens to gainrecognition of their training, skills and knowledge in another Member State.”24Concerning ECVET and European Qualifications, there is no legislation for the accumulationand transfer of qualifications up to now. However, OEEK has implemented some specialtiesin the form of units within the contenxt of Leonarado da Vinci “Cominter” program such asthe “International Trade Executive” and “SME executive”. Moreover, ECTS is appliednormally which lead later public Vocational Training Institutes (IEK) at ISCED level 425.Greece is among the countries that at the moment trying to design the final form of thenational framework and to agree between the national stakeholders on how it should beimplemented using the best way.26The development of NQF includes introducing ECVET.This is happening, among others, in Greece within the operational program (2007-13) of theMinistry of Education LLL and Religious Affairs in Greece (within a new institutional set-up)27.24http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/education_training_youth/vocational_training/c11107_en.htm25http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/eu/pub/cedefop/vetreport/2009_CR_GR.pdf26http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/3059_en.pdf27http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/6110_en.pdf
  • 81. 2.2 Informal training implementation28CVET, which is publicly promoted, is provided by the KEKs of the Manpower EmploymentOrganization (OAED). Apart from KEKs of OAED, private KEKs, which are the majority andKEKs run by social partners also provide publicly promoted CVET since many of their trainingprograms are subsidized by OAED. CVET programs provided by OAED are implemented bytraining institutions in ministries too (Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Tourism,Ministry of Rural Development and Food, National School of public Administration etc). Inaddition, the Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (YPAKP) has also a role to play inpromoting CVET.Because of the great number of training institutions, both public and private ones, it becamenecessary to set up a national body that would supervise and coordinate all agencies thatwere involved in CVET; The National Accreditation Centre for Vocational Training (EKEPIS,see 1.1b). Until today, 273 private and public KEKs have been accredited by EKEPISthroughout the country. Moreover, 23 Vocational Training Centers for people with disabilities(KEK AmeA) 4 Specialied Centers for the Social and Vocational Integration of Former DrugUsers and Drug Users in Treatment have also been accredited.The ‘Employment Observatory Research – Informatics SA’ (PAEP) which is under thesupervision of the Minister of Labor & Social Insurance undertakes research, studies andmakes use of all data at national and local level regarding labor market. What is more, theCenters for the Promotion of Employment (KPA) offer counseling regarding labor market.Finally, the company ‘Vocational Training SA’ which is affiliated to OAED, is involved inplanning and forecasting CVET.2.2.1 Funding CVET in GREECEThe major mechanism of enterprise-based CVET in Greece is the Account for Employmentand Vocational Training (LAEK). This account aims at the reinforcement of vocationaltraining and employment policies and comes from the joint contributions of both employersand employees, which amount to 0.45% of the total salary of each employee and arecollected by the Social Security Institute (IKA). OAED is the organization responsible for28Greek National Programme of Lifelong Learning, Ministry of Education, Lifelon Learningand Religious Affairs (Ypourgeio Ethnikis Paideias kai Thriskeumaton)
  • 82. 82administering this program. Every year OAED allocates the funds, criteria and the annualgeneral framework for types of training eligible for funding; Based on that annual programenterprises submit proposals to OAED for running CVET programs. The enterprises that areentitled to LAEK funding may be private enterprises or semi-state bodies which want theirstaff to be trained. The personnel trained are mandatory to be insured in IKA.Concerning CVET at the initiative of social partners, all four social partners of Greece havetraining institutions providing training opportunities such as the Labour Institute of theGeneral Confederation of Greek Workers (INE/GSEE), the General Confederation ofProfessionals, Craftsmen and Tradesmen (GSEVEE), the Federation of Greek Industries(SEV), the National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce (ESEE), with accredited andvocational training structures offering training to their members.CVET for individuals takes place in the post-secondary educational Centers (KME) which areprivate training centers for holders of Upper Secondary School certificates. Courses are self-financed and last from one to four years, depending on the level of training they provide.These centers have to fulfill certain criteria that the Ministry of National Education, LifelongLearning and Religious Affairs (YPEPTH) sets in order for them to take a license to operateand only a few took this licence until today. Some of them are colleges and collaborate withforeign Universities in order to confer university-level degrees. These degrees have not beenrecognised up to now by the Hellenic National Academic Recognition and Information Centre(NARIC) as equivalent to those conferred by Greek Universities (AEI) or HigherTechnological Educational Institutes (ATEI), because under the Greek Constitution, it is notpermitted to establish or run private Universities or private ATEIs yet.The total budget of the National program of Lifelong Learning in Greece until 2015 is 2.29billion Euros. The resources for funding the National Program of LLL are divided into Nationalfunds and European funds OP for the period 2007-2013.Apart from informal learning there is also the non formal learning which is not part of anorganized educational framework, but it is part of the social, athletic, civilized, professionalactivities during leisure time (instructions from experienced supervisor, learning at homethrough internet, reading a scientific/ vocational journal, visiting a museum etc). For themoment it is neither recognized nor certified. Much of this learning goes unrecognized bythe employer and also by the individuals themselves. This initiative seeks to promote the
  • 83. recognition, validation and accreditation of this non formal /informal learning in theworkplace in Greece too from 200829and on.As for the validation of non-formal and informal knowledge, education and training skills,there is no legislation concerning the mechanisms, tools, methods and practices up to now.The non-existence of a certification system for qualifications yet leads to noacknowledgement of skills which have been acquired by employees via informal/ non formallearning. Furthermore, no access is given to further formal education or to regulatedprofessions. However, they are considered as an additional qualification that can be used toimprove the professional position by employees who already work. Besides, there are a lotof workers, as well as unemployed people, who are interested in participating in non-formallearning programs.302.3 Evaluation tendencies and standardsThe prevailing evaluation method mostly used by the Greek SMEs regarding their trainingactions which take or took place, is based on the internal evaluation. This result derives fromthe answers of 65% of the SMEs managers. On the other hand, 35% of the SME’s havemade an evaluation of the training action, externally by the provider of the training action orby the trainer itself.It is quite crucial to realize that nearly half (47%) of the SMEs managers who haveresponded, find that continuing training is definitely important for their organizations andanother 29% considers it as equally important. Only a small amount of SMEs managers(5%) who took part in our survey believe that continuous training is not important for themand their organizations.As far as the training detection and analysis as a pre – design stage of a training action isconcerned, the answers of the SMEs managers are almost equally divided between positiveresponses with 28% answering definitely , 29% answering very important and 29% quite alot important. Is it clear that among their answers none of them finds it of no importance atall.29http://www.eipil-pan.eu/index.asp?s=section30http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/eu/pub/cedefop/vetreport/2009_CR_GR.pdf
  • 84. 84Another positive picture that has to do with Greek SMEs regarding the evaluation of theimplementation of the training action (to the overall organization), comes from more thanhalf of the managers who give positive responses (38% answered definitely important and24% very important).It is interesting to notice that regarding the evaluation of the workers’ satisfaction with thetraining actions in which they participate, 38% of the managers’ claim that it is definitelyimportant, and only a 14% believes that it is very important. Additionally, 29% of themanagers find it quite important and 19% of them, of little importance.In a similar vein, we observed that regarding the evaluation of the training content 38% ofthe SMEs managers find it definitely important , 19% of them find it very important, 24% ofthem believe it is quite a lot important and 19% of them find it of little importance.SMEs managers when asked about the evaluation of the trainers answered the following:34% find it definitely important, 14% very important and 33% quite important. On the otherhand, we observed that 14% of the managers’ find the evaluation of the trainer of littleimportance and another 5% believes it has no importance at all.Another point which is worth mentioning has to do with the efficiency of the training actionwhere 19% of the managers responded that it is definitely important. The majority of themanagers (38%) find the efficiency of the training action very important, whereas 33% ofthem find it quite important and 10% of a little importance.Regarding the evaluation of the cost of the training action, 24% of the managers find itdefinitely important and another 28% of the managers find it very important. In addition tothat, 29% of the managers see the cost of the training action as quite important whereas a14% of them finds it of little importance and only a 5 % of then finds it of no importance atall.On the final stage of the analysis, regarding the evaluation of the impact and the knowledgetransfer, 29% of the SMEs managers’ mentioned that it is definitely important and another37% of the managers that it is very important. Only a small amount of managers-around
  • 85. 10%- responded that knowledge transfer is quite important and another 24% that it is oflittle importance.Based on EEDE’s 49 years of experience in the field of management and training, we have tocomment that although the Greek SMEs are looking for continuing training, in most of theSMEs there is no certain system of evaluation, except from some evaluation sheets orsatisfaction tools that may exist inside the ISO procedures.2.4 Innovating experiencesNowadays, in Greece within a competitive environment in which the organizations operate,and with all the difficulties that have occurred by the financial crisis, it is clear thatinnovation will help SMEs to develop, among others ,their advantages and create sustainableprocedures for the best of each organization. In this direction, there are some models ofexcellence that can be mentioned here, which can be implemented to organizations like theSMEs in order to help them find solutions and promote entrepreneurship in Greece.Since 2009, EEDE has started to offer some great management tools to enterprises in orderto reinforce their differentiation and maximize their competitiveness inside the market.The EFQM Model of Excellence is one of the most famous among others. EEDE is thenational partner of EFQM in Greece, certifying organizations (private, public, or evenindividual operating departments) for the first two levels (Committed to Excellence) and(Recognized for Excellence) in Greece.The first Certificate, Committed to Excellence in Europe, is being awarded to thoseorganizations which are committed with their stakeholders to continuous improvements. Thesecond Certificate, Recognized for Excellence in Europe, is being awarded to thoseorganizations which have great experience in self-evaluation regarding the EFQM Model ofExcellence. The third Certificate and the higher one (EFQM Excellence award) is still awardedby the European EFQM Organization itself. The EFQM award consists of three levelsdepending on the score each organization gets. During all those years, more than 134organizations from Greece and Cyprus have managed to be awarded with some of the 3EFQM awards. What is important to mention here, is that a lot of SMEs were inside the onesthat have been awarded?
  • 86. 86In addition, EEDE has introduced a new model of Excellence similar to EFQM but morefocused to the Greek reality, culture and local market needs. In this direction the GreekModel of Excellence “Aien Aristevein”, which has two levels, was issued. The first level,refers to the adaptation of the principles of Business excellence which will help theorganization to be guided into business excellence and the second level is the reward forachieving those principles through certain specific actions. Even though this Model ofExcellence exists only a few years in Greece, there are some SME’s among the others whohave been awarded until today.Finally, among the most well known and common models of excellence that organizationstry to implement is the Investors in People (IIP). Since 2009, EEDE is the officialrepresentative of IIP international Organization. This award is given to those organizationswhich recognize the crucial role that the Human manpower plays in the improvement anddevelopment of their competitiveness and operations. Until today 6 organizations have beenawarded but it is very important to mention that among them one organization is an SME.One should notice here that the above mentioned models, EFQM , Aien Aristevein and IIPare models that are mainly based on evaluation procedures (the company’s activities,manpower organization etc).Another aspect of innovating experiences that we realize in Greek market is the extensiveuse of information technologies. It is very optimistic that SMEs nowadays, use theinformation technologies even more in order to help them not only in their everyday workbut even for the evaluation of their personnel, performance and as a consequence of theevaluation of the training action that takes place. Through data mining, organizations canacquire the knowledge that they want, look for and also help managers take the rightdecisions. Information technologies help SMEs reduce the time of their procedures andmaximize their efficiency. Moreover, regarding training actions, new technologies can helpwith e - learning and knowledge can be transferred even in the most isolated places forpeople and organizations that really look for it. This way of training is really somethinginnovating and important for organizations. OAED, through its mechanisms of LAEK, for thefirst time in 2011 implemented e-learning in their annual program for those organizationswho are interested in that kind of training. That means that now there is another optionalway for employees to be trained.
  • 87. During the semi – interviews we have been informed that there is a new evaluation method/concept called “360 degree” evaluation. In this method used, managers can acquire andevaluate their personnel not only from their direct interviews but also from theirenvironment and from what their stakeholders think about them. This method can also leadto identify new training needs if required. We do not have a picture, though, if this newconcept is implemented, in reality, in a great number of Greek SMEs. However, we have topresent it here.Finally, as far as the quality management indicator is concerned we detect that many of theGreek SME’s are using ISO systems (International Organization for Standardization) in theireveryday operations. Furthermore, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used by the vastmajority of the Greek SMEs in order to assure quality, productivity and effectiveness in theirorganization.2.5 New business paradigmsFrom the research we have conducted, we found out that the massive majority of the SMEs(74%) operate under a Hierarchical organizational chart. A small amount of SMEs (22%)have responded that their organizational chart is a matrix and only a 4% of those SMEsoperate under a flat organizational chart.In the same framework with the above question, 52% of the Greek SMEs operate under anintegrative management style, whereas a 39% of them under a directive style. Only another9% of the SMEs have responded that managers do not involve in the decision making at all.Regarding the mechanisms that SMEs use in order to create and innovate knowledge, someSME’s are using the intranet where they put all the available knowledge so that allemployers can have access. Others, try to share best practices, ideas and listen to the needsof the times. Continuous training either internally or externally is maybe the most importantbusiness paradigm in promoting knowledge through the entire organization and theiremployees.A great number of SMEs managers (68%) admit that continuous training is part of thestrategic management of their organization and 60% of the SMEs choose the necessarytraining courses from the training needs analysis. From those SMEs which organize trainingactions, nearly half (49%) are funded by state programs, which are externally organized (bytraining providers), whereas another 21% of them organize training actions by state funds
  • 88. 88internally (in company). Only 30% of the SMEs are willing to organize a training action usingtheir own funds either internally (in company) or externally.Concerning the human capital, SMEs invest on the job training and continuous evaluation oftheir personnel. In many SMEs, employees are motivated in order to participate inworkshops and meetings by asking them their opinion in the opinion giving procedure. Thenew and more experienced employees learn from each other by knowledge simulationprograms, project seminars or by just having conversations and exchange of opinions.Finally e - learning is another procedure that some SMEs offer to their employees in order tohelp them enhance their knowledge. What is more, other common methods and strategiesused, are the result driven management and performance management for the employeeswhich can lead to new training needs and better insight of the knowledge that anorganization holds.Finally, from the people we interviewed and their great experience, we have been informedthat in many SMEs, there is no training department existing as an autonomous department.It is a “luxury” for many SMEs to operate such a department in their organizations. In thatcase all training issues are a responsibility of the HR department or the HR manager.2.6 Challenges to respondIt is clear that 91% of the SMEs who answered the questionnaire have carried out at leastone training action during the last 3 years, meaning that Greek SMEs invest in thedevelopment of knowledge inside their organizations and their employees. Only a smallnumber of SMEs (9%) have not implemented any training action during the last 3 years.Approximately one third of the SMS managers (34%) have responded that less than 20% oftheir workers have attended a training action and another 39% answered that the workers’participation was between 20% and 40% in the training actions they implement. Only a13% of the SMEs offered to their employees training actions, which were referring to morethan 60% of their workforce.Regarding the major obstacles that SMEs face in relation to the implementation of thetraining actions, the answers of the managers are equally divided between the financial and
  • 89. the time constraints, meaning that those two parameters play an important role before atraining action takes place.The approximate annual cost for the implementation of the training action in an SME varies.In the questionnaire this question was answered only by half of the managers. The amountsthat have occurred cover a range between 1500€-21000€.Another challenge for the Greek SMEs would be to develop a system of continuous and wellbased knowledge management.2.7 New indicators to considerFrom the semi-structured interviews with the experts and the HRM managers, we realizedthat although, theoretically, we got some answers regarding the indicators / parameters tomeasure Intellectual Capital and the efficiency of Knowledge Management in a company(SME), we found out that there is not a single or accurate way to follow in order to measureit apart from some estimations that can be made.One of the best answers measuring Intellectual Capital is mentioned right beneath:“In order to measure it, you have to take into consideration and measure theinitial knowledge the human capital has acquired. Then, you have to measure the knowledgethat has obtained the organization itself or produced all those years of operation. Finally youhave to measure the knowledge that you can acquire from the market/customers. If you addall those three different knowledge capitals then you will have a picture of the intellectualCapital of your company.”Furthermore, the relation between the implementation of the training actions at thecompany (SME) and the generation of Intellectual Capital must normally be positive.However, no certain answer can be given without measuring it and examining the impactaccurately.
  • 90. 90Another difficulty that we faced when interviewing the managers was the measuring of theinformal/nonformal learning/training in a company. There are many factors that caninfluence informal learning that can have an impact on the knowledge (like: the actual levelof the training, whether the trainers are really capable to train and transfer their knowledgeor not, whether it is evaluated or not, etc). In some certain productive procedures this maybe possible though; for example, if we measure the mistaken parts that a worker produceseveryday and the mistaken parts after the training he got. This can give us an estimation ofthe training impact. Moreover, we can turn this into monetary value and make some otherpredictions or assumptions. Of course, this can not be applied to all the procedures and alloperations that an SME can have.As far as the evaluation during the implementation of the training actions is concerned,except the ones mentioned, we would like to add the satisfaction that workers get with theinfrastructures while the training action takes place. Moreover, the right audience mix is veryimportant in order for a program to be successful and promote knowledge among others.Furthermore, the duration of the training action and the participation of the audience aresome other indicators to be measured. These are parameters that can also have an impacton the knowledge transfer of the training action.Last but not least, maybe one of the most important indicators that we found out to be themost wanted and most difficult to be measured, is to measure the profitability of the trainingactions (in terms of costs). Nobody could answer with accuracy on how to measure Returnon Investment (ROI) of training actions. Some estimation can only be made by measuringthe output before the training action and after the training action as we mentioned aboveand try to exchange it into monetary values. It may be easy to know the cost of a trainingaction that is going to take place but becomes more difficult when we have to measure andexpress the output into monetary values. The output may also be a result of other factorsthat cannot always be allocated or expressed with monetary value.Regarding this dilemma we mention beneath a clever answer that we got from anevaluation/training expert:
  • 91. “As Kick Patrick was saying when he was asked about ROI on training he was answering tothem to try to measure the cost that enterprises will have if they don’t do training.(meaningthat this is also difficult to be measured as ROI)”.III. BEST PRACTICES SELECTEDSome of the best practices that we suggest for the Greek SMEs in general are the followingconcerning CVET:SMEs usually select training providers such as Vocational Training Centers (KEKs), in orderto train their employees and promote knowledge inside their organizations. In thisframework market and numbers speak from themselves and set EEDE as one of theirprimary choices regarding CVET. After 49 years from its establishment, EEDE has managedto train more than 400.000 people in more than 800.000 training hours, being a nationalassociation, leader, in management. As an example here, we can mention the MBA programof EEDE which has a deep impact and recognition mostly among the private sector inGreece. This MBA is referring to managers with working experience in decision makingpositions and have a university degree. We present it here as a best practice because in its22 years of existence more than 3.300 managers have graduated. It takes place everysecond Friday evening and second Saturday morning and has duration of 200 hours. Duringthis program there is an ongoing evaluation of the program, the material, the satisfactionand the result of the training action. A participating organization can decide to use LAEK inorder to finance those training actions or people individually. It is worth mentioning that thisprogram operates also as an e-learning option in cooperation with Cyclades chamber ofcommerce for the isolated islands of the Aegean Sea.“Train the trainer” is another best practice which is usually followed by many enterprises.This practice is used by organizations which want to invest in a number of people in theirorganization and train them in order to get the knowledge which they will later use internallyin training actions. This is funded mostly by the organizations. With this practice,organizations can have their own trainers and their workforce always trained only byinvesting a small amount of money in the beginning or by in the job training. It is highlyrecommended for organizations that do training very often on the same subject like (MSOffice, SAP and Oracle etc) and it is easily evaluated.
  • 92. 92E-learning or e-training is another best practice which now starts to be applied in even moreenterprises. This helps employees to be trained without losing time in transportations fromtheir offices or homes. What is only required for someone to attend is only an internetconnection. It is not, yet, so famous into the business environment as a way of trainingemployees. As it was mentioned before, OAED through LAEK account added it for the firsttime among the options that an organization has in order to train their employees and canpublicly be funded. Among individuals it is more famous though.Concerning IVET we would like to mention another best practice which is the Hellenic OpenUniversity31(EAP). EAP is the main provider of lifelong education at tertiary level. Academicprograms are based on distance learning and award degrees are equivalent to those ofconventional universities offering all professional rights. It is very famous amongorganizations and individuals and the factor that it is nationally recognized is another plusfor those who decide to be trained. It offers not only undergraduate but also postgraduatestudies. It is situated in Patras and in 2010-2011 it had around 76000 applicationssubmitted. Finally, EAP offers Phd options to those who are interested. In the Greek marketthere are many managers holding a degree from EAP.Best practice Nr.: 1 Country: GreecePromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous) EEDE (HMA)Title of the programme/initiative (if any) MBA program for professionalsDescription of the trainingcourse (when, hours,training provider etc)10 rows annually all over Greece, 200 hoursduration, EEDE (HMA)Target group (groups ofemployees)Managers with working experience in decisionmaking positions and have a university degree.Objectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesManagers learned the principles andmethodology of current Management.Managers developed further their professional31http://www2.eap.gr/frameset_en.jsp?locale=en
  • 93. knowledge, skills and cooperation with eachother.Managers learned the latest European andworld wide business trends.Methodological instrumentsused for evaluation processQuestionnaires and interviews with theparticipants and the trainers.Evaluated contents andstages of evaluationQuestionnaires and interviews before thebeginning of the program, after the completionof each module and finally in the end of theprogram. After a year another research takesplace.Results obtained (throughevaluation practices -impact)Improvement of the training program, ongoingevaluation of the program, the material, thetrainers, the satisfaction and the result of thetraining action.Budget assigned andsources of financingLAEK (Account for Employment and VocationalTraining) in order to finance those trainingactions or people individually.Possibilities to "export" toother contextsThe same format can be applied to othertraining programs.Special features of theevaluation methods(innovation dimension)Best practice Nr.: 2 Country: GreecePromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous) Every enterprise individuallyTitle of the programme/initiative (if any) “Train the trainer”Description of the trainingcourse (when, hours,training provider etc)Organizations which want to invest in a numberof people in their organization and train them inorder to get the knowledge which they will lateruse internally in training actions. Different
  • 94. 94characteristics depending on the trainingcontent. (there are a lot of training providersand consultants which can offer this trainingaction)Target group (groups ofemployees) Managers of the companyObjectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesSkilled and competent trainers which are readyto train their in company personnel.Methodological instrumentsused for evaluation processMostly questionnaires used depending on theprovider.Evaluated contents andstages of evaluationMostly questionnaires used before and after thetraining action.Results obtained (throughevaluation practices -impact) Depending on the usage each provider does.Budget assigned and sourcesof financing Mostly funded by the organizations.Possibilities to "export" toother contexts “Train the trainer” for every training contentSpecial features of theevaluation methods(innovation dimension)Best practice Nr.: 3 Country: GreecePromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous) Training providers, consultants and enterprisesTitle of the programme/initiative (if any) E-learning or e-trainingDescription of the trainingcourse (when, hours,training provider etc)Depending on the training course and eachprovider respectively.
  • 95. Target group (groups ofemployees) All level managers and employeesObjectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesAny objective has been set from the providerand the participant in the e-learning or e-training action.Methodological instrumentsused for evaluation process Online and normal Questionnaires.Evaluated contents andstages of evaluationMostly questionnaires used before and after thetraining action.Results obtained (throughevaluation practices -impact) Depending on the usage each provider does.Budget assigned and sourcesof financingLAEK (Account for Employment and VocationalTraining) in order to finance those trainingactions or people individually.Possibilities to "export" toother contexts E-learning or e-training for any training content.Special features of theevaluation methods(innovation dimension) The online dimension.Best practice Nr.: 4 Country: GreecePromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous) EAP (Hellenic Open University)Title of the programme/initiative (if any) All their educational and training programs.Description of the trainingcourse (when, hours,training provider etc)Depending on the program.Target group (groups ofemployees)For people who want to attend undergraduate,postgraduate and Doctorate studies along with
  • 96. 96people who want to get Certificates ofattendance such as already workingprofessionals.Objectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesTrying to reach the objectives which theUniversity and the Ministry of Education hasset.Methodological instrumentsused for evaluation processInternal University and Ministerial procedures ingeneral.Evaluated contents andstages of evaluationRegulated by the University and the Ministry ofEducation.Results obtained (throughevaluation practices -impact)Depending on the usage and analysis theUniversity and the Ministry want to do.Budget assigned and sourcesof financing From national and community funds.Possibilities to "export" toother contextsIn all other National Universities in order forpeople to get Certificates of a particularmodule.Special features of theevaluation methods(innovation dimension)Long distance learning (no needed to be therephysically all the time)IV. CONCLUSIONSIt is easily understood from all the above mentioned in this national report that to makeinnovating steps and invest in tools and technologies, this is not only a trend but also a vitalfactor for an SME that wants to be in the front line on each economic sector. This will helpan SME lead the way in this competitive environment.Greek SMEs as well as individuals seem to realize the importance of continuous training. Thisis something very optimistic and promising for the Greek market and entrepreneurship in the
  • 97. future. It seems that SMEs want to have trained and skilled employees among theirworkforce. Human Capital starts to get more and more important for them and we see thatcontinuous training is implemented in a strategic level, unfortunately though not from all theSMEs yet.Funding and time constraints are the two basic factors that SMEs admit to exist andconstraint them in order to implement a training action. Those factors are becoming moreimportant, nowadays, in Greece.Another aspect that we have to mention, from the overall research and experience of EEDEin this field, is that although SMEs do or try to implement some actions in order to enhanceknowledge in their organizations, all those actions are not combined together into a centralknowledge management strategy. Moreover, training actions are mostly coordinated by theHR departments and not by an individual department.To conclude, we would say that there are many things to be done towards training and themethods of evaluation that SMEs or training providers use. For sure, some indicators wouldbe very useful to SMEs in order to promote training actions (such as measuring the impactof those training actions, the transfer of knowledge and ROI.We hope that those findings from the Greek SMEs will be useful in order for the JAKIN toolto be enhanced.REFERENCESPrinted:[1] Greek National Programme of Lifelong Learning, Ministry of Education, Lifelon Learningand Religious Affairs (Ypourgeio Ethnikis Paideias kai Thriskeumaton)[2] (Official Journal Issue 171 /A’ / 6 -7-2005 Law 3369 ‘Systematization of lifelonglearning and other provisions’)[3] (Official Journal Issue 1491/B/29-07-2008 Common Ministerial Decision 55582/1933‘Integrated System for the Management, Assessment, Monitoring and Control of Vocational
  • 98. 98Training Actions which are co-funded by CSF in the framework of the National StrategicReference Framework (2007-2013) for all OPs that include training actions)Electronic:[1]http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/sme_definition/sme_report_2009_en.pdf[2] http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/facts-figures-analysis/performance-review/pdf/final/sba_fact_sheet_greece_en.pdf[3]http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/national_summary_sheets/047_EL_EN.pdf[4] http://www.ekep.gr/english/education/main.asp[5] http://www.ekep.gr/english/education/sunexizomeni.asp[6]http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/education_training_youth/vocational_training/c11107_en.htm[7] http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/eu/pub/cedefop/vetreport/2009_CR_GR.pdf[8] http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/3059_en.pdf[9] http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/6110_en.pdf[10] http://www.eipil-pan.eu/index.asp?s=section[11] http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/eu/pub/cedefop/vetreport/2009_CR_GR.pdf[12] http://www2.eap.gr/frameset_en.jsp?locale=en
  • 99. aSPANISH NATIONAL REPORT“If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these applesthen you and I will still each have one apple.But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideasthen each of us will have two ideas”.George Bernard ShawI. INTRODUCTORY NOTEThe present report has been carried within the framework of work package 2 “Analysis ofEvaluation Methodologies in Europe” aimed at obtaining an overview of differentmethodologies intended to evaluate training activities in Spanish context, with a specialfocus to a SME.The report has been prepared following the Methodologies Guidelines, applying a mix –based methodology: desk research, expert interviews and survey32. During the field workresearch that was conducted within the months of May and June (2011): 5 expertinterviews33and 36 questionnaires with managers and directors of SMEs have been carriedout, mainly within the territory of Basque Country.34As follows, the report is structured into 7 main chapters that will be discussed respectively:1. National training system and European qualification standards, 2. Informal trainingimplementation, 3. Evaluation tendencies and standards, 4. Innovating experiences, 5. Newbusiness paradigms, 6. Challenges to respond and 7. New indicators to consider.32Expert interviews and survey have been carried out in collaboration with CEBEK (ES).334 business consultants and 1 knowledge management expert.34Special thanks to all the experts and managers of SMEs for their kind collaboration.
  • 100. 100II. MAIN FINDINGSBackground and socio - economical contextBefore analysing the evaluation practices of Spanish SMEs, it is import to point at severalaspects of the socio - economic environment. According to the report “Informa de losMovimientos Empresariales” (Report of business movements), published by Informa D&B,during 2009 79.617 new companies have been created, that is 25% less than in 2008. Theaccess to capital that increased most – were from informal investments: family, friends andneighbours, work colleagues, etc. What is more, as presented in Global EntrepreneurshipMonitor (GEM: 2009), the principal sources of financing available for the enterprises are thefollowing: 64.8% banks and financial institutions, 51.7% public funds and governmentprogrammes, 49.5% informal investors (family, friends etc.), 10.5% business angels and10% risk capital. It has to be noted, that in 2009 female entrepreneurship decreased 4%(most affected by the crisis). Significantly more companies, established by femaleentrepreneurs have ended its business activity (35%), compared to the 22% of thecompanies launched by male entrepreneurs. When it comes to cost reduction, Spanishcompanies opt to cut the costs in the areas of processes (36%), organization structure(27%) and general costs (11%). Sales and marketing, together with logistics are usually lessaffected areas: 4% and 11% respectively (Lowendalmasai: 2011).2.1 National training system and European qualification standards35The Spanish vocational training system falls into three subsystems:1. Regulated vocational training (formación profesional inicial/reglada) - under theLOGSE (ley de ordenación general del sistema educativo) - is the responsibility of theeducation authorities at either central government or autonomous community level. It isprimarily aimed at young people but is also available to adults wishing to obtain the relevantschool certificates within the concept of permanent education and training.35The information discussed in this section has been collected mainly from the 2 following reports:“Spain – Country Report, VET in Europe”, CEDEFOD, REFERNET SPAIN, National Public EmploymentService: 2010 and “Formación en las empresas 2008”, Fundación Tripartita para formación en elempleo, Madrid: 2009
  • 101. 2. Ocupacional training (formación profesional ocupacional). This is targeted at workerswho are unemployed and comes under the Ministry of Labour. It is regulated by RoyalDecree 631 of 3 May 1993 on the vocational training and employment plan. Its aim as anactive measure of employment policy is to encourage first-time employment and the re-employment of job-seekers by providing for qualification, re-qualification or updating ofoccupational skills validated by the issue of appropriate certificates of professionalcompetence.3. Continuing vocational training (formación profesional continua). This is targeted atworkers in employment and is the responsibility of employers and unions (CCOO, UGT, CIG,CEOE, CEPYME). It covers training given by firms, workers or their various organisationsdesigned to enhance skills and qualifications, as well as the retraining of employed workersso as to render firms’ efforts to improve competitiveness compatible with the social,vocational and personal development of their workers.National Reform Programme of 2005 (Programa Nacional de Reformas 2005) was a turningpoint for the Spanish vocational training system that established particular priority objectivesrelated to education and training that led to legislative reforms such as the approval of theLey Orgánica de Educación, LOE (Organic Law on Education), which set the basis forVocational Training within the educational system, and the creation of a new vocationaltraining model, vocational training for employment (CVET), which reformed the model forvocational training in the world of work36.2.1.1 Vocation training for employment (CVET)The training at the company and its funding is regulated by the Law/Order TAS/2307/200717thof July, included in the Read Decree 395/2007 23th of March, where the system ofprofessional training for the employment is established37.The vocational training for employment (henceforth, CVET) aims at promoting and offeringcompanies and employed/unemployed workers a training that fits their needs and36VET in Europe – Country Report 2010, REFERNET ESPAÑA37“2008 formación en las empresas”, Fundación Tripartita para formación en el empleo.
  • 102. 102contributes to the development of knowledge based economy38. CVET encompasses thefollowing initiatives:Training on demand (Formación de demanda), which includes company trainingactions PIF (individual leaves of absence for training), financed wholly or partially by publicfunds, to meet the specific training needs of companies and their workers.Training on offer (Formación de oferta) which includes the training plans intendedmainly for employed workers and the training actions intended mainly for the unemployed,to offer them training that will qualify them for their professions and give them access toemployment.Training alternating with employment (Formación en alternancia con el empleo),which comprises training actions for training contracts and public employment/trainingprogrammes, to permit workers to combine it training with practical on-the-job workexperience.Support and mentoring actions during training (Acciones de apoyo yacompañamiento a la formación), which help to increase the effectiveness of the vocationaltraining for employment sub-system (CVET) (Ibid.)On demand training: the initiative of arranging the training actions at the companies waslaunched in 2004, aiming at facilitating the companies to plan and carry out the trainingwhen necessary. The training by demand is the training implemented by the companies fortheir workers, individual leaves of absence for training included39. In this manner, eachcompany responds to its own training necessities, as well as to the training needs of theworkers. Company training actions receive a credit in the form of allowances on SocialSecurity contributions that are calculated by applying the percentage set in the Law on theGeneral State Budgets to the amount paid in by the company for vocational training40. The38VET in Europe – Country Report 2010, REFERNET ESPAÑA39Individual leaves of absence for training (permisos individuales de formación, PIF) are designed tomake it easier for workers who wish to improve their personal and professional abilities to take trainingthat is recognized by an official diploma, at no cost to the company where they work. The companiescan finance the cost of the wages during a leave of absence with the annual credit received as trainingallowances and any additional credit that they receive. Leaves of absence can be given for training for:a) official diplomas issued by the competent education departments; b) official accreditations listed innational regulations and issued by the competent department; c) certificates of professionalism; d)training actions that form part of the support plans for sectors in crisis (VET in Spain).40The allowances are applied annually in the manner determined by the General Treasury of the SocialSecurity.
  • 103. percentage of the discount is determined by the size of the company, according to thefollowing logics: the smaller the company, the higher percentage of the discount. In 2008,there were established the following percentages (see Figure 1).Figure 1. Percentage of the company´s contributionSize of the company Percentage of the companys contributionCompanies with 9 or less workers 0%Companies with 10 to 49 workers 10%Companies with 50 to 249 workers 20%Companies with 250 and more workers 40%Source: “Formación en las empresas 2008”, Fundación Tripartita para formación en el empleo,own elaborationNational Public Employment Service, together with the Tripartite Foundation for Training inEmployment and authorized Autonomous Community bodies manage and monitor theinitiative (Ibid).Training on offer: the initiative that aims to provide training that meets the needs of thelabour market, requirements for company productivity and competitiveness and theprofessional promotion and personal development of workers that will qualify them for theirprofessions and give them access to employment. This training is designed for employedand unemployed workers. It includes a broad range of permanent, accessible training that isoffered in a modular format and leads to certificates of professionalism.The Ministry of Labour develops multi-annual plans in order to establish the priorities,general objectives and recommendations for the courses offered by the entire vocationaltraining for employment subsystem.The training offered includes various forms of subsidized training, such as: training plansintended primarily for employed workers; training plans intended primarily for theunemployed; specific programmes for those with special training needs or difficulties infinding employment; training for those who have been deprived of their freedom andprofessional soldiers in the army and navy; and training actions intended mainly for theunemployed that include an undertaking to hire the trainees after the course.
  • 104. 1042.1.2 Access to the bonus/discount systemIn 2008 there were counted 273.406 registered companies; 201.046 of them implementedtraining actions. That demonstrates the increase of 44% regarding 2007. The participation inthe training actions rate is much higher among big enterprises, compared to the SMEs:90.5% compared with 77% in case of SME (See Figure 2 for more details).Figure 2. Registered companies and participation rate, according to the size of company,2008 (proc.)Size of the company Registered companies Participation rateMicro SME (1 to 9) 168.485 72.3Medium enterprise (10-249) 97.764 77.0Big enterprise (more than 249) 3.943 90.5Source: “Formación en las empresas 2008”, Fundación Tripartita para formación en el empleo ownelaboration2.1.3 Configuration of the training actions and multi-participationAccording to the latest report, issued by the Tripartite Foundation, during the 2008, 155.948training actions were developed, implemented in the 328.343 training groups and to1.998.458 participants with a total number of hours of 54.057.750 (average of 27 hours perparticipant). From 155.948 implemented training actions, 65% were implemented inpresencial modality41. It has to be highlighted, that throughout the years, presencialmodality training has been losing its importance in pursuit of distant training. Besides, during2008, 17.5% of the workers participated in more than one training action.Continuous training is composed of the following phases: diagnosis of the qualificationneeds, elaboration of the training plan, and implementation of the training actions andevaluation of the continuous training. As revealed in the Estudio transversal sobre el estadode la evaluación de la formación continua en la CAV (Transversal study about the state ofcontinuous training evaluation in the Basque Autonomous Community), among the 3 stages,41The training can be implemented via 4 modalities, with special conditions, defined in the Real Decree395/2007, of the 23rd of March: 1. Presential modality, 2. Distant training, 3. Tele-training and 4.Mixed modality.
  • 105. evaluation of the continous training, is least implemented so far. The promotion of thecontinous training evaluation is interrelated with the improvement of the first two stages.2.1.4 Certificates of ProfessionalismCertificates of professionalism as described in the CEDEFOD report “VET in Spain”,certificates of professionalism are the way in which official accreditation is given to theprofessional qualifications in the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications (Spanishinitials, CNCP) in the area of employment. They have an official character and are valid allover the country, although they do not regulate the exercise of a profession. They are issuedby the National Public Employment Service and authorized Autonomous Communitydepartments. Their aim is to: a) Give accreditation to qualifications and units of competencyregardless of how they were acquired; b) Facilitate lifelong learning through open, flexibleand accessible training, organized into modules that are associated with the certificate; c)Increase the transparency of the job market, at both the national and European levels, forboth employers and workers; d) Organize the training courses offered by the vocationaltraining for employment subsystem that are linked to the CNCP; and e) Contribute tooffering high quality vocational training for employment and to the integration, transparencyand recognition of the different vocational training courses on offer.A Certificate of Professionalism represents a professional profile; is recognized and valued inthe labour market, and ensures the training needed to acquire this profile. Each Certificateof Professionalism accredits a professional qualification. El Repertorio Nacional deCertificados de Profesionalidad (National Repertory of Certificates of Professionalism) liststhe Certificates of Professionalism by sector in the 26 professional families in accordancewith the levels of qualification established (Ibid).2.2 Non formal and informal training implementationIn Spain, non-formal education essentially comprises all training actions that are not directlylinked to obtaining a vocational training diploma, certificate of professionalism or a unit withcredits that can be accumulated in order to obtain a diploma or certificate. When the trainingactions are not directly linked to obtaining a certificate of professionalism, each participant isgiven a certificate of attendance or a diploma of achievement. The competencies acquiredthrough this type of training and those acquired through job experience can both be giventotal or partial accreditation for certificates of professionalism or vocational training
  • 106. diplomas. The process that permits recognition and accreditation was approved in 2009 andis currently being implemented. If we look at the employment status of adults taking part innon-formal education, the greatest difference between Spain and the European Unioncountries as a whole can be found among employed workers, with an 8 point difference,while there are similar rates for inactive and unemployed workers (Source: EUROSTAT).2.2.1 Continuous training implementation practicesAs follows, the findings of the survey with managers and directors will be presented in thissection, together with insights and observations from the expert interviews, aiming toprovide a general panorama of main tendencies regarding the training and knowledgemanagement implementation in Spanish SMEs42.Regarding the implementation of training actions, as survey results revealed, 100% of theparticipating companies have carried out any training action during the last 3 years.Regarding the training organization, most commonly, continuous training is part of strategicmanagement of a SME (See Figure 3).Figure 3. Continuous training organization42Concerning the findings of the survey, it needs to be highlighted that due to a limited number ofresponses received, the below discussed results illustrates and supports the desk research findings anddon’t represent a qualitative analysis in terms of representativeness.106
  • 107. As far as major obstacles, related to the implementation of training actions are concerned,time constraints seem to be one of the major obstacles, followed by financial constraints anddifficulties in finding an appropriate training provider (See Figure 4 for details). It has to benoted that 2 companies declared there were no obstacles at all.Figure 4. Identified obstacles for training actions implementationLooking at how the training actions are financed and organized, SMEs opt to look for statefunded programmes and organize the training externally (See Figure 5 for more details).Figure 5. Funding of the training actions
  • 108. 2.2.2 Information training implementation:When asked about the informal training implementation, more than half of the respondentsdeclared not to take any measures to encourage/foster informal training at the companythat points at the weak implementation of the informal training.Another half of the managers pointed at the efforts of establishing a closer contact with theworkers or assigning a more experienced employee to work with, as basic efforts toencourage the learning environment at the company.Assigning a more experienced employee to work together is one of the productive ways toencourage the informal learning, as stayed by the experts.2.2.3 Evaluation tendencies and standardsFigure 6. What are the evaluation strategies of the training/learning actions used in yourcompany?As ilustrated in Figure 6, the internal evaluation of the training actions is a prevailing methodof trainig evaluation. As a rule, most commonly the companies choose questionnarie orobservation method. It has to be added that the internal evaluation that is being practiced,is of a rather informal character, as confirmed by the interviewed experts as well.108
  • 109. On the other hand, the experts defended a survey of satisfaction as an appropiate methodto evaluate the training. As stressed by one of the experts, “nowadays, a worker whoreceives the training, is competent enough to give his opinion and has experience andattended before other training courses” (ex1).Although weakly implemented, the experts highlighted different stages of evaluation, withqualitative and quantitative aspects to be evaluated. The following elements wheresuggested for measuring: degree of performace,number of persons attending the course,level of satisfaction, total cost (hours, economic cost, dedication etc.).Futhermore, all the interviewed experts agreed about the importance of the newtechnologies for evaluation, “vital element for evaluation” (ex3) and a significant help formanagement.The above mentioned report Estudio transversal sobre el estado de la evaulaución de laformación continua en la CAV (Transversal study about the state of continuous trainingevaluation in the Basque Autonomous Community) highlights that “evaluation is one of theprinciple challenges in the continous training management”. Evaluation activities are notbeing planned and as a rule, don’t include any existing methodological instruments. Mostcommonly, the training centres implement the evaluation; leaving a missing gap in theevaluation of the transfer of knowledge. What is more, generally, the evaluation of thequalification needs detection, evaluation of the design and planning of the training actions,are not considered in the majority of the theorical and methodolgoical proposals. Accordingto the report, informal mean of information recopilation is the prevailing method in theBasque companies. Looking for the causes and obstacles to carry out the evaluationpractices of the continuous training, first of all, it can be pointed out at the lack ofmanagement culture of the continuous training; a lack of confidence to trust the results aswell as a lack of the evaluators with the adequate capacity. Besides, there exists a lack ofevaluation methodologies and good practices, and a shortage of the public funds to financethe evaluation activities.In addition, it is worth noting that in varios cases, we have a rather weak collaborationamong the training centres and the companies. The training centers sometimes carry out theevaluation actions aiming at gathering useful information for their own needs and not for the
  • 110. 110companies that received the training. The report provides the typology of Basquecompanies, regarding the evaluation practices:Companies, evaluating satisfactionCompanies, implementing intermediate evaluationCompanies, evaluating the impactFuthermore, regarding the methodologies of evaluation, we face a lack of sufficientlystandartized methodologies, as in most cases, each company designs its own methods ofevaluation. Elaboration of the methodogies, applicable in companies according to theirinterests and available resourses is one of the challenges up today. Those methodologiesshould identify the capacity of the training toward the improvement of the work conditions.It is necessary to adapt each technique and each methodology to the own carasterictics ofeach sector of activity, taking into account the size and the specific problematic of eachorganization.Transfer of knowledge and impact are the least evaluated training phases, as it involves theintangible elements, that, to a great extent, are difficult to obtain the measurable results.Notwithstanding thoses stages of the evaluation can provide the most useful information tothe companies, being directly linked to the performance and productivity (Ibid).2.3 Innovating experiencesWhat concerns the views shared by the managers that participated in our survey, 53% ofrespondents recognized not using any mechanisms or methods for creating and innovatingknowledge. The rest of respondents highlighted the following efforts:Providing an adequate training for their employeesTransferring and implementing good practicesIntroducing new technologies as intranet, to foster knowledge sharingCreating a space for informal knowledge sharinThrough competences management etc.
  • 111. The interviewed experts stressed the importance of developing and measuring an intellectualcapital in any company, though acknowledged weak implementation: “an important road stillto go” (ex4).Dynamic training (“mixing” and encouraging people to interact, motivating them, usinggame techniques etc), building a friendly environment to encourage knowledge sharing,bookshelf available for employees, delegating tasks (“a weak point in many companies”(ex5)) have been suggested by the experts as little steps for improvement.Finally, it has to be added, that lately, as various experts and studies reveal, in the times ofcrisis, many enterprises opt to internationalise and look for business opportunities abroad orlearning from good practices and examples, as new innovation perspectives.2.4 New business paradigmsKnowledge management can be considered as a new business paradigm due to therelatively weak acknowledgement and implementation in Spanish companies that can beexplained, to a great extent, by the lack of successful and visible examples, and prevailingmisconceptions about design and application. Interestingly enough, if we enter in Googlesearch “knowledge management” (in English) as a search objective, we get 77,900,000results; while introducing the same research in Spanish “gestión de conocimiento” we getsignificantly less results - 44,800,000 search results.Nevertheless, the study about the Knowledge Management and Competitiveness in Spain43,highlights the positive developments, indicating 67% of Spanish companies that implementvarious initiatives related to the Knowledge Management, that points at an increase of 40%compared the previous years. 38% of the companies declared to be planning a projectconcerning the knowledge management implementation. The study concludes thatknowledge management is currently in the expansion and consolidation phase. Theinvestment in the knowledge management implementation projects represents a medium of43The study about Knowledge Management and Competiveness in Spain has been carried out by theCapGemini consultancy, in collaboration with IESE (2004). The study was based on the directinterviews and surveys that targeted 108 Spanish companies.
  • 112. 1120.66% from/of the sales. The most relevant initiatives in this area concentrate inTechnological solutions in general (18%) and Intranet (16%) in particular. Those initiativesmainly are targeted to improve the management and facilitate the cycle of the knowledge.Another important tendency that is worth noting, 92% of the companies assign theknowledge management the key role for the competitiveness of the company and believes itprovides durable advantages. There exists a consensus that a good management of theknowledge management influences the quality in services and products (declared by the78% of the interviewed companies), satisfaction of the clients (75%) andcapacity/responsiveness toward the changes (70%). Persons, innovation and economicoutcomes are the concepts that Spanish managers associated with the knowledgemanagement. As a result, the objectives go beyond the individual and his/her training andcentres on the “outcomes”. The latter practice can explain the fact that in the 30% of thecompanies, the initiatives of knowledge management is managed by the managementboard.The study concludes that knowledge managing is actually in the development stage, whilewe still find a low level of integration of such initiatives in the key processes of the company(only 6% acknowledge the good level of integration), as well as indicators and evaluationsystem are not being used, as a rule (51% declared to have little or no indicators ofevaluation). The rigidity of the organization (structure) turn to be one of the main obstaclesfor the knowledge management related projects. Neither technology, nor the cost wasconsidered as difficulties to address those projects (Ibid.).Although the positive developments summarized above, various difficulties can be identifiedwhen it comes to the design and application of a model of knowledge management in aSpanish business context. Manuel Riesco Gonzalez (2006) in his article “Por qué la gestióndel conocimiento no se consolida en España”44(Why knowledge management doesn’tconsolidate in Spain) argues that first of all, we have to place the knowledge managementwithin the cultural context, and in the particular Spanish case, we find a lack of investigationand innovation culture, which is a basic requirement for the economies, where thecompetitiveness is based on the intensive knowledge. What is more, lately the concept of“learning enterprise” became very “popular” in the business contexts. However, whenlooking precisely at the characteristics of a “learning enterprise” (learning enterprises are44Published in “Educación y Futuro digital”, ISSN: 1695,4297, 06/02/2006
  • 113. open to innovation, have strategic and proactive vision of training, have flexible andadaptable structures that would facilitate learning and change, manage Corporate AnnualReport, encourage collective learning, design the pedagogy of personal and organizationalchange) we find out that in reality, those characteristics and necessary conditions for thelearning enterprise are not so frequently and easily met, as training and learning are stillvery often considered as secondary aspect and a source of cost. Furthermore, Riesco (2006)points at various prevailing misconceptions related to the knowledge management designand application, such as paradox of sharing in order to obtain a competitive advantage45,and fallacy that the valuable tacit knowledge should be transferred to the explicit to be ableto manage it. Last, but not the least, one of the major obstacles and mistakes in theimplementation of the knowledge lies in reducing and transforming knowledge intoinformation. Information consists of organized data that acquire the meaning in a context.While knowledge consist of ideas, beliefs and through reflection processed and assimilatedexperienced that serve for the guidance of action. The transformation of the information intoknowledge is performed through the phases, necessary to design and measure theirefficiency (Ibid).As far as knowledge management implementation in a SME is concerned, the following ideaswere shared by the interviewed experts.“A SME has to adapt to its size and sector, and take the best advantage of the existingpractices and models” (ex2).“Knowledge management – a competitive and profitable advantage to improve theperformance, especially for a SME” (ex5).“The key of success for a SME is adaptation of the knowledge to the growing necessities ofthe company” (ex3).45Refering to Riesco (2008) there were created misleading misconceptions about the strategy ofknowledge sharing, leading to the bad management of the “good practices”. Due to the wrongmanagement focus, as a result, important aspects, that facilitates sharing and teamwork were putsideways: when is necessary is necessary to share and when not, which is the common objective, howto develop an adequate climate, what is the competence and the compromise of the participants,which is the expected impact of the “best practices” etc.
  • 114. Besides, coaching, open innovation, incorporation of web 2.0 in the daily management,systemization of the knowledge (“system facilitates the development of the value, especiallyin the small enterprises” (ex1)) were suggested ideas for consideration and inclusion in themanagement practices of a SME.2.5 Challenges to respond toEvaluation one of the principles challenges in the cycle of Continuous Training. Up today, wefind very limited and/or practices of informal character.Interestingly, the managers of SMEs recognize the importance of informal learning; howeveron the contrary, the importance of continuous training was not highly assessed, compared toother statements/indicators. Another interesting finding points out that evaluation of theimpact and knowledge transfer were assessed not so big importance neither, that can beexplained by the prevailing misconceptions that surrounds the knowledge managementimplementation and on the other, it has to be admitted that due to the crisis, the SMEs latelyfocuses on cost reduction and have established other management priorities.Figure 7. Level of importance114
  • 115. As confirmed by the experts, evaluation of impact and the transfer of knowledge is theweakest point of the evaluation cycle. There is an awareness of the importance, though verylittle programmes or innitiatives implemented up today.Pineda Herrero (2000), in her article “Evaluación del impacto de la formación en lasorganizaciones”46(Evaluation of training impact in the organizations) confirms the abovestated argument that the companies, as rule, recognize the importance of trainingevaluation, however despite the recognition of the importance, very little companiesevaluate the impact and profitability of training. As follows, she identifies the followingdifficulties:Measuring problems of numerous effects and specifically, transferring them intoeconomic terms.A lack of adequate instruments and difficulty to access certain informationNecessary resources to design and apply this type of evaluation that raises the cost.“Unprepared” continuous training professionals (the complexity of the impactevaluation)A lack of support on behalf of management board that do not consider of importanceto assign resources in order to detect the real impact of training and as follows, givepriority to quantity instead of quality.Those difficulties could be solved by introducing a complete and coherent training evaluationplan, while assigning its design and development to the competent professionals. This wouldbe a global strategy, which requires a radical change of vision concerning the training and itsevaluation in numerous organizations (Ibid.).2.6 New indicators to considerConsidering new indicators in training evaluation, due to the above discussed existing gap inevaluating the impact of training, we would like to focus on and highlight the importance ofthe calculation of costs and benefits.46Pineda Herrero (2000) “”Evaluación del impacto de la formación en las organizaciones”, Educar 27,2000
  • 116. 116The calculation of costs is the first step in order to carry out the evaluation of impact of thetraining. It embraces the identification of the costs of training processes. When calculatingthe costs, we should consider and take into account the following classification of costs, asproposed by Pineda Herrero (2000):Direct costs: trainers, materials, diets, room etc.Indirect costs: management, design, communication, additional materials, salaries ofparticipants etc.Costs of structure: general services of organization, such as supply, cleaning etc.All those costs are classified in fixed and variable costs, a very useful procedure whendeveloping a budget for training, as well as useful when calculating general costs for varioustraining actions. This calculation allows obtaining the total cost and as follows, theinvestment in training, the quantities that will used later on to carry out the calculations ofprofitability (Ibid.)Regarding the calculation of benefits, first of all, it has to be noted, that by “benefits” werefer to the increased levels of utility and welfare associated with the increased quantity ofobtained training. The calculation of benefits focuses on measuring the effects of training bymeans of establishment of impact indicators. The indicators allow identifying, monitoring theevaluation and measuring the real effects generated by training. The indicators of impactcan be expressed in various terms: as quantities, products, deadlines, etc. There are 2 typesof indicators to consider: economic indicators (easy to measure and easy to transfer intomonetary values, objective, not present in training, examples: sales carried out, number ofclients, number of mistakes, etc.) and qualitative indicators (difficult to measure and transferinto monetary values, subjective, present in training, examples: motivation of collaborators,suggestions received, work climate etc.)Taking into account, that identification of valid indicators is one of the most difficultprocedures in the impact evaluation, Pineda Herroro (2000) provides specific suggestionsand instructions:
  • 117. It is necessary to follow a set of criteria in the selection of impact indicators, such as:appropriateness, moderate cost, reliability, acceptability, reduced number and lowindex of contamination.The impact indicators should be identified during the planning of training and shouldbe linked to the objectives of the training and company.It is of crucial importance to classify the impact indicators according to the differenttypes of training that are going to be evaluated.It is necessary to specify the modalities of application of each indicator, to be moreprecise, the moment, agent, source and measuring instrument.It is convenient to elaborate a chart of monitoring which would facilitate the datacollection and would allow monitoring the evaluation of indicators.The calculation of benefits of training is one of the most complex parts of impact evaluation,though at the same time, most interesting part, as it allows to see the positive effects oftraining and justify the investment (Ibid.)III. GOOD PRACTICESAs a good practice, we would like to remark a guide of training evaluation in the company(“Guía para la evaluación de la formación en la empresa”) prepared and developed by theEmployment Institute of Aragón. The guide provides with special recommendations andguidelines concerning the adoption of methodologies and tools of training evaluation, as wellas provides with theory framework of training evaluation and its implementation in thecompany and presents available tools, indicating their utility, applicability.Best practice Nr.1: Country: SpainPromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous) Employment Institute of AragonTitle of the programme/initiative (if any) Evalfor
  • 118. 118Description of the trainingcourse (when, hours,training provider etc) Software EvalforTarget group (groups ofemployees) Human resources and training professionalsObjectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesTo orientate and facilitate during theimplementation of correct methodologies oftraining evaluationMethodological instrumentsused for evaluation process1. Configuration of parameters and indicators.2. Definition of objectives3. Introduction of parameters4. Monitoring of objectivesEvaluated contents andstages of evaluation1. Group of indicators according to thetraining evaluation modality:- Indicators of training needs detection- Indicators of training implementation andtraining contents- Evaluation of training impact- Evaluation of transfer of training- Evaluation of economic indicators2. Group of indicators according to theEFQM model- Indicators of client results- Indicators of employees results- Indicators of society results- Indicators of final performance of thecompanyResults obtained (throughevaluation practices -impact)The Evalfor tool facilitates a broad catalogue ofparameters and indicators and as follows,facilitates the configuration of the tool. As aresult the software provides a graphic calculation
  • 119. of the level of objectives accomplishmentconcerning the training evaluation.Budget assigned andsources of financing FreePossibilities to "export" toother contexts YesSpecial features of theevaluation methods(innovation dimension)Possibility to add parameters and indicators thetool and to adapt to the needs of particularcompany/user of the toolOTHER OBSERVATIONS:Available to download:http://www.femz.es/filesDown/Evalfor.exeIV. CONCLUSION REMARKSEvaluation of training in organizations is one of the most needed strategies to guarantee thequality of training and to drive the learning process in organizations nowadays (PinedaHarrero: 2000). Transfer of knowledge and impact are the least evaluated training phases,as it involves the intangible elements, that, to a great extent, are difficult to obtain themeasurable results. As the findings of the report reveal, a few number of companiesevaluate the training provided to their employees and significantly less companies that carryout systemic and periodic evaluations. Notwithstanding the evaluaton of the transder ofknowledge and impact evaluation can provide the most useful information to the companies,being directly linked to the performance and productivity.Within the framework of JAKIN II project, the updated JAKIN tool can help to bridge theprevailing misconceptions about knowledge manamgent and be a very interesting and usefultool for SMEs.
  • 120. 120REFERENCES:[1] “European SMEs under Pressure: annual report on EU small and medium sizedenterprises 2009, Directorate – General for enterprise and industry, Brussels: 2009[2] “Estudio transversal sobre el estado de la evaluación de la formación continua en la CAV:informe de resultados”, INVESLAN: 2005[3] “Formación en las empresas 2008”, Fundación Tripartita para formación en el empleo,Madrid: 2009, retrieved from:http://www.fundaciontripartita.org/almacenV/publicaciones/documentos/39912_2222222010101520.pdf[4] García-Tapial Arregui, J. Gestión del conocimiento y empresa: una aproximación a larealidad española, EIO: 2002[5] “Gestión de conocimiento y competividad en la empresa española”, IESE: 2003,retrieved from:http://www.joanbaiget.com/documents/professionals/GestionConocimiento2003.pdf[6] “Guía para la evaluación de la formación en la empresa”, Instituto Arigones de Empleo,2010, retrieved from: http://www.conectapyme.com/documentacion/AA2010-06-2.pdf[7] "Informe de los Movimientos Empresariales", Informa D&B 2010[8] “Informe ejecutivo GEM España”, Global Enterpreneurship Monitor 2009, Realización deltrabajo de campo GEM para todo el territorio español Insituto Opinómetre S.L.[9] Riesco González, M. “Porqué la gestión del conocimiento no se consolida en España”,Educación y futuro digital: 2006[10] “Retrato de las PYMES 2010”, Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce(2009), retrieved from: http://www.ipyme.org[11] Pineda Herrero, P. “Evaluación del impacto de la formación en las organizaciones”,Educar 27, p. 119-133, 2000[12] “Spain – Country Report, VET in Europe”, CEDEFOD, REFERNET SPAIN, National PublicEmployment Service: 2010
  • 121. PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORTI. INTRODUCTIONThis report analyses training evaluation methodologies, the new advanced paradigms in thebusiness management, as well as new challenges, and experiences of the enterprises, aboveall, in models of excellence, innovation, quality plans, application of the new technologiesand the best practices in Portugal.All the required data and its analysis were gathered with a mixed methodology: qualitativemethodology and desk-research. The first consisted of different questionnaire carried outwith one Human Resources Manager (from a private school), two training experts (involvedin teaching at secondary and university level) and two SME managers (from a manufacturingcompany and a retail trade and repair of motor vehicles company). The desk-research wasbased on different documents, mainly the results of the AVALNET – Training Evaluation andROI Network project, a recent report on Knowledge Management in Portugal, the CEDEFOPreport on “Vocational education and training in Portugal”, as well as minor articles on thesubjects of training evaluation and knowledge management, and official information fromthe Government of Portugal.Apart from the analysis of the methodologies and the state-of-the-art of the trainingevaluation in Portugal, examples of best practices related to this field were also collected.These were gathered at the repository of best practices developed during the AVALNETproject and have very interesting data that can be used to improve the JAKIN II platform.
  • 122. 122II. MAIN FINDINGS2.1. National training systems and European qualification standards2.1.1 Description of the VET System in PortugalThe education and training system in Portugal is centrally administered with reference to thedefinition of major policy lines and curricular, teaching and financial guidelines. ThePortuguese vocational education and training system comprises pre-primary, basic,secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary, and tertiary education.Basic education is universal, compulsory and free, and lasts for nine academic years,beginning at the age of six and ending at the age of 15. It comprises three sequential andprogressive cycles and its successful completion leads to a diploma certifying completion ofbasic compulsory education. After completing basic education, students can choose either avocational course or a generalist one; both of them can lead to a university degree.There are two types of Vocational Training: Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET),and Continuous Vocational Education and Training (CVET).2.1.2 IVETAs said before, on completing their basic education, young people who go on to secondaryeducation can opt either for courses in the sciences and humanities that prepare them forfurther study or for courses that provide them with vocational qualifications. The latter canbe used to enter the labour market or to continue studying. The training offered by coursesleading to a qualification can be vocational courses (secondary-level training that last forthree academic years and leads to Level 3 vocational qualification and a diploma insecondary education), courses under the apprenticeship system (initial alternance training,intended for young people – between 15 and 25 – and that leads to Level 2 vocationalqualification and a certificate of completion of Cycle 3 of basic education, or a Level 3vocational qualification and a certificate of completion of secondary education) andeducation and training courses (intended for people aged 15 or over who left or are in riskof leaving the regular education system and for young people who have completed 12 yearsin school and wish to acquired a vocational qualification; lead to an academic certificateequivalent to year 9 or 12 of school and a Level 2 or 3). Other courses include specialisedart courses and technology courses (that leads to a diploma of secondary education and alevel 3 vocational certificate).
  • 123. Concerning the post-secondary vocational education and training the main offer areSpecialized Technology Courses that provide a non tertiary vocational education and training(and leads to a diploma of specialised technology and a Level 4 vocational certificate).2.1.3 CVETThe National Qualification Catalogue is a framework that reflects the system of continuingvocational and training in Portugal: a range of flexible training pathways which makepossible to build a vocational qualification project organised in short credit units that allowfor the independent certification of skills.The main methods of continuing vocational education and training are aimed at adults ofworking age (employed, unemployed and groups at risk of exclusion), including adulteducation and training courses that are intended to raise academic ability and vocationalqualifications and enhance employability and certification of acquired learning (aimed atadults over the age of 18 who have no qualification or whose qualifications are inadequatefor integration in labour market and lead to a Cycle 3 basic education certificate and a Level2 vocational certificate or a secondary-education certificate and a Level 3 vocationalcertificate). The Recognition, Validation and Certification of Skills process is the mostcommon platform for access to these courses.In addition to the precedent methods of training there are also courses aimed specifically atgroups that face problems in joining the labour market (most of these courses are promotedby the Institute for Employment and Vocational Training).There are also continuing vocational education and training at the initiative of enterprises orsocial partners in accordance to the Labour Code that enshrines in law the employers’obligation to ensure that every year, at least 10% of workers on permanent contract takepart in training courses and to assert the right of every work to receive a minimum of 35hours certified training each year.2.1.4 The National Qualifications FrameworkDevised in 2007 and operative since 2010, the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) wasdeveloped by the Portuguese Government and its social partners to meet the following aims:
  • 124. 124The scope: the NQF includes the qualifications from de different levels of the educationand training system, independently from the ways of access (basic, secondary and highereducation, vocational training and the processes of recognition, validation and certificationof competences obtained via either non-formal or informal paths).Organisation into eight qualification levels which encompass all the qualificationscurrently awarded in Portugal’s education and training system.Adoption of a methodology based on learning outcomes to describe each qualificationlevel: the use of learning outcomes to define qualification levels reflects an importantchange in the way that qualifications are conceptualised and described, making it possibleto compare them according to competences and not according to learning processes. TheNQF thus allows comparison of competences acquired, independently of how they wereacquired (in formal, informal or non-formal contexts). Describing qualifications on the basisof outcomes affords individuals and employers a clearer perception of the relative value ofqualifications, which in turn helps the labour market a better performance. On the otherhand, transnational mobility is facilitated by the comparability of qualifications that isensured by the NQF and facilitated by way of the relationship with the EuropeanQualifications Framework (EQF).Adoption of the domains “knowledge, skills and attitudes” to define the learningoutcomes for each qualification level.Adoption of the descriptors of learning outcomes contained in the EQF.In practice, as well as constituting a device for translating/comparing the qualificationsissued by different systems, the EQF has become a tool that has given extra impetus toreform processes in many national qualifications systems and has aided the creation ofnational qualifications frameworks. The Portuguese case was no exception, and in creatingthe NQF the decision was taken to adopt the principles of the EQF, both in terms oforganizing it into eight levels and of regarding the description of learning outcomes, whichproved appropriate to our context and capable of accommodating all Portugals nationalqualifications.
  • 125. 2.2 Informal training implementationIn Portugal each company has its own approach to recognize and promote informal learning,but the questionnaires allowed to find out that is usually done by direct observation of theperformance of the workers by supervisors or managers. If new competences are identified,the worker may receive higher responsibilities or a special bonus.Nevertheless there are no universal methods to do it, but recently the country has made aconsiderable effort to improve the informal training recognition, especially since 2001, whenthe National System for Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competences (SNRVCC)was created.The recognition of the informal learning is a key part on the strategy to reduce thequalifications deficit among the adult population. Different initiatives have been undertakenbefore, including diversified schooling tracks and adult education and professional trainingsystems, but were very small and did not integrate labour with education.To solve this situation, the Portuguese government launched the New Opportunities inDecember 2005. The aim was to expand the qualification framework for completion ofsecondary education for both young people and adults. The program was based on twopillars:Reinforcement of professional courses as a viable alternative to traditional curricula insecondary education;Enhancement of qualifications of the active population through the establishment of asystem for the recognition, validation and certification of the competences and skillsacquired during their professional lives and the attribution of equivalences to secondaryeducation diplomas, based on pre-defined achievements. This process is called Recognition,Validation and Certification of Competences (RVCC).This last point has been the main focus of the programme, which has been quite successful:according to data from the National Agency for Qualifications (ANQ), by April 2010, 324,370adults had been granted a certificate through RVCC processes.
  • 126. 1262.3 Evaluation tendencies and standardsOn considering training evaluation in Portugal it’s important to analyse not only the types ofassessment but also previous projects that focused on this kind of task. As such this chapteris split in two subsections: the AVALNET project and the different phases of the process ofevaluation of training in Portugal.2.3.1 AVALNET – Training Evaluation and ROI NetworkStarted in January of 2007 and finished in May 2009, and promoted by CECOA – Centro deFormação Profissional para o Comércio e Afins (Vocational Training Centre for the Trade),the AVALNET – Training Evaluation and ROI Network was a Leonardo da Vinci – Trans-national Networks that tried to provide “useful, how-to information, current best practices,and links to business results, share new theories and their application, report emergingtrends and address the implication” of training evaluation and Return of Investment (ROI).As such, the main purpose of this network was the conception, deliver and transfer ofinnovative products in the field of assessment, evaluation and Return of Investment, with aview to improve the quality of VET systems and practices throughout Europe.Among its results, there is a repository of best practices in companies from differentcompanies, a report about European Training, Evaluation and Profitability Benchmarking,and the European Skills Profile for ROI Training Consultants. All these can be consulted at:http://avalnet.fdti.pt/Default.aspx.2.3.2 Training evaluation in PortugalThere are basically two methodologies to evaluate training in Portugal: the classic Kirkpatrickmodel, and the ROI model, developed by Jack Phillips. The first concerns four differentlevels: reaction, learning, behaviour, and results. The second is much more complex andincludes five levels, apart from the initial diagnosis: reaction evaluation, learning evaluation,transfer evaluation, impact evaluation and return on investment. The majority of studies inPortugal concern this model – as such it will be the one analysed here.Please note that most of the data presented here comes from the report produced in the“Report about European Training, Evaluation and Profitability Benchmarking” produced
  • 127. during the AVALNET project, as well as from the expert interviews. The analysiswill be divided in two parts: before the training and after the training.2.3.3 Diagnosis and measurement/assessment of training needsThere is a strong emphasis on the diagnosis and assessment of training needs in VETsystem. This encompasses a multidimensional strategy for evaluation, including the trainees,the trainers, the provider organization, the tutors, and the company environment, in order tocorrectly identify the real needs of the company or institution.The diagnosis is made usually with questionnaires and analysis of the activities of thecompany (identifying its weaknesses), and can be made by people inside the company (forexample managers and human resources departments) or by external entities (for exampleconsulting groups), it just depends on the size of the company.It is also important to mention that sometimes the training actions are mandatory, as theyare demanded by an external entity. For example one of the interviewees was a manager ata retail trade and repair of motor vehicles. The training actions of the company wereplanned according to the technical innovations on the suppliers’ products – the companycould act as a representative of the suppliers’ brand only if it was technically prepared todeal with the new products and/or innovations.2.3.4 Evaluation of training actionsAs said before, the evaluation of training actions concerned in this report is based on theROI model, developed by Jack Phillips in 1997. It’s the model where more studies are beingcarried on and is the one considered on the “Report about European Training, Evaluationand Profitability Benchmarking”, from the AVALNET project. This report and the experts’interviews will be the basis for the analysis that follows.Reaction Evaluation: this parameter aims at assessing the degree of trainees’ satisfactionin relation to the training initiative and the training conditions. It helps improving the trainingprogram not only for the company, but also for the trainer who teach it. In Portugal, thisparameter is widely used by the generality of VET providers and is usually measured withquestionnaires distributed among students.
  • 128. 128Learning Evaluation: in this parameter the trainees are evaluated to explore the degree oflearning expressed. This is similar to what is done in school and universities, with thetrainers evaluating the skills acquired by the trainees during the training courses, and it’svery popular in Portugal: it was applied on the companies of all the experts interviewed. Itcan be accomplished by different methods, but the commonest ones are tests and evidencesof continuous work done by the trainees (for example, a portfolio).Transfer Evaluation: this parameter concerns the changes that the trainees are expectedto suffer on their on-job-behaviour after the training program. Although the use of the skillson the job is no guarantee, most training programs assume that if the knowledge and skillsare applied, results will follow. This phase of the evaluation process is less common inPortugal, but there are companies which are investing in the evaluation of the newacquisitions and their transference into the job, including the company of one the expertsinterviewed. It is usually measured with interviews of employees and supervisors, roleplaying and focus-groups sessions, workshops, and direct observation by managers ofsupervisors.Impact Evaluation: this phase concerns the actual impact of the training on the activity ofthe company. It’s very difficult to measure and it’s not a very common phase of theevaluation process in Portugal. However in the actual context, the time and resourcesdedicated to measure the training impact and to measure the results of the training activitiesare increasing. Nowadays, the competition between private and public training providers ishigher, as there is a considerable decrease of the trainees available, due to birth ratediminution and to population aging increase. In order to know how the new skills promotethe organizational changes some organizations develop studies. For example, VocationalTraining Centres are assessed, at an organization level, at the end of each year to analyze ifthe quality area of the training entity fills the global image of the institution, the quality ofthe services and products, the efficiency, and the satisfaction level. The methods used tomeasure the impact are, for example, questionnaires and interviews with key persons.Return on Investment (ROI): this is the last phase of the training evaluation. ROI can bedefined a ratio of the benefit or profit received from a given investment to the cost of theinvestment itself:
  • 129. Usually it’s measured as the quantification and relation between the monetary valuesproduced by the training impact with the costs (in percentage). Although this concept is awell known word in most training flyers and advertisements, only a small number ofcompanies do this in Portugal – even if CECOA promoted between 2003 and 2005 aLeonardo da Vinci – Pilot Projects to explore this concept (site of the project:http://www.srep.ro:800/roi2). The companies that apply it, measure the traininginvestments as a mix between the collection of the performance indicators, addressed to theacquisition of hard and soft skills, and the transformation of those indicators in tangible andintangible benefits.2.4 Innovating experiencesDuring the research no really innovative methods for training evaluation were found. All thebest practices identified concerned the classic interviews and questionnaires, as well asdirect observation of the activities of each worker – for example, if the training was focusedon teaching the trainees to work with a specific software, the supervisor in the companycould check if they learnt something by giving him/her specific tasks and verify if they werecompleted correctly.Another important factor is that the contents of training evaluation are different for eachcompany and each industry. Some companies consider more important evaluate the learners(distributing examinations or questionnaires to evaluate their performance), others toevaluate the profitability of the course (checking if for example one year after the trainingsession the productivity of the workers increased), and others only give the informationrequested by the training institution.Thus it is possible to conclude that although training evaluation and assessment is animportant and disseminated concept in Portugal, the country is still very traditional on themethods applied, as they are mainly interviews, questionnaires, and direct observations.Also, for most companies training evaluation means only to evaluate the learners and thetrainers, thus not focusing on the real impact that training can have on the activity of thecompany, or on determining the ROI.
  • 130. 130Nevertheless, some companies try to implement evaluation methods online such asanonymous questionnaires, both with close and open questions, which allow the workers togive more sincere and honest answers.2.5 New business paradigmsIn Portugal the main “new business paradigm” seems to be Knowledge Management (KM).In fact, numerous studies have been made about this subject and its impact in Portugal,with very good response from the companies. The more recent study is called Estudo daGestão do Conhecimento em Portugal – 2010 (Study of Knowledge Management in Portugal– 2010), and will be the root of the rest of this chapter – the study itself can be found at:http://knowman.pt/wp/wp-content/uploads/doc s /D2011A-GCemPortugal2010.pdf (inPortuguese).Conducted during the last third of 2010, and gathering information from 255 differentcompanies, its main objectives were to define the kind of companies that invest in KM,understand their approaches, make a survey of the tools and activities used, and identifybenefits and difficulties found.It was mainly centred on studying the strategic character that KM takes on Portuguesecompanies, considering different variables such as their activity or their dimension. As suchthe authors developed a model for the classification of the kind of approach that companieshave to KM: strategic, operational, intentional, or informal. They concluded that 1 out of 5companies have a strategic approach, while 2 out of 5 have an informal one.One of the objectives was to understand if KM is something central to the Portuguesecompanies, being considered a special position inside it. The authors concluded that it is notand that this function is usually part of the human resources department or of the CEO ofthe company. Nevertheless there were some exceptions to this.Considering the activities and tools used on different companies the authors concluded thatthe intranets and enterprises portals are the most popular tools. Meetings to evaluate aboutfinished projects and meetings to share the knowledge acquired are the most commonactivities.
  • 131. The study also showed the importance of a KM strategy, or of the fact that the managementstrategy mentions the KM: the resistance of the workers to the activities concerning KM wasmuch lower in these cases. Nevertheless only one third of the companies mentions KM on itsstrategy – and if we analyse the number of companies that directly refer to a KM strategy,it’s even lower.The greatest difficulty found by companies while trying to implement a KM strategy was thatthey hadn’t much experience and information about it. On the other hand the main benefitthat companies look for with KM is to increase and give a better use to the knowledge thatalready exists.Finally we present some of the main conclusions of the study:One third of the companies have someone responsible for KM;Companies with a sponsor for KM at the management level are less likely toexperience a lack of resources for the implementation of the strategy or to perform KMactivities;The majority of the responsible for KM are in the Management of the company. Thereis also an important percentage at the Human Resources department;It is more likely to find a responsible for KM on the branch of a foreign company;On the companies where there is a responsible for LM, there is an average of 3,13people working in KM. As an average value, each of these dedicates 11,41 hours per weekto this area.From the study it is possible to conclude that the implementation of KM in companies differsa lot from each to each: the largest ones seem to care a lot about this type of businessparadigm; on the other hand for the majority of Portuguese companies KM is still a“mysterious” area, where there isn’t much practice. It seems that in Portugal this kind ofbusiness paradigm is, by and large, a consequence of informal and isolated activities.2.6 Challenges to respondAs seen before, although “training evaluation” is a popular and disseminated concept inPortugal, there haven’t been many efforts to improve it with modern technologies orconcepts. Also, it seems that most companies consider that “training evaluation” is just theevaluation of the knowledge acquired by the
  • 132. 132trainers (with exams and questionnaires) or the evaluation of the quality of the trainingactivities (with questionnaires).This seems to be the main problem – the majority of companies don’t do a follow-up of thetraining activities and usually there are no documented methods or instruments to analysethe training impact on the company besides the work of the trainers and the profitability ofthem, for example, by checking if a particular group or department that has been subjectedto training actions can do a better work or produce quickly.As such, the authors think that there are some innovations that can be made to improvetraining evaluation in Portugal:Incorporate new technologies: it could be useful to improve the methods used toevaluate the impact of the training actions on companies. A way to achieve this is usingdifferent technologies that could help evaluate different indicators. Technologies have theadvantage of performing statistic evaluations, give recommendations for future actions, orregistering anonymous questions, thus allowing the users to give more honest and sincereanswers.Incorporate new concepts: each social science has its own scientific methods toachieve the results. To import methods from one subject to the other can be a good idea ifthey are properly applied. For example, researchers47suggest that a SWOT (Strengths,Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) matrix could be used to evaluate the impact oftraining. Considering this methodology, Strengths could be what was better during thetraining action; Weaknesses could be what went wrong; Opportunities could be what willcome up of the training action; and Threats could be anticipate which will be the difficultiesfound in the future.Improve Knowledge Management (KM) practices: as seen in chapter 5, onlyone third of the companies in Portugal have someone responsible for KM and this concept isnot widely implemented, with the practices differing a lot from company to company. Toalert managers and human resources departments, especially from SME, to the importanceof KM could be an important step to improve the training evaluation situation in Portugal.47Study available at: http://www.actassnip2010.com/conteudos/actas/PsiTrab_4.pdf (in Portuguese)
  • 133. 2.7 New indicators to considerFrom the different methodologies followed during the research – both the qualitativemethodology and the desk-research – three different indicators were found that might beimportant to consider while evaluating training actions:Values and ethics: this indicator was suggested by one of the experts interviewed,who works at a private school of religious orientation. As such the interviewee wasparticularly concerned if the contents of the training action followed the values and ethics ofthe school. He also suggested that this could be very important for an NGO or anotherinstitution working with a social aim.Adaptability to the suppliers’ technical demands: this was suggested by one ofthe SME managers interviewed. As his company works directly with retail trade and repair ofmotor vehicles, the suppliers’ technical demands are very important. It is crucial that theevaluation of the training action considers this indicator.Compare the impact of the training actions in workers with differentdegrees of education: this is an interesting indicator, suggested by one of the expertsinterviewed, who said that the evaluation of the training actions should compare the impactthese have on workers with different degrees of education: for example between a workerwith a university degree and a worker with only the secondary level education.III. GOOD PRACTICESBest practice Nr.: 1 Country: PortugalPromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous)ScaniaTitle of the programme/ initiative(if any)Scania Driver TrainingDescription of the training course(when, hours, training provideretc)Scania Driver Training is a training coursefor professional drivers. The coursedistinguishes itself from others by usingthe web to deliver the training contents,which are learn through self-study withsupport as well as the use of a trainingsimulator, which demonstrates variousdriving conditions.Target group (groups ofemployees)Drivers, either inexperienced orexperienced.Objectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesThe main objectives were to reduce fuelconsumption, increase road safety, andminimize the environmental impact of thevehicle.
  • 134. 134Methodological instruments usedfor evaluation processThe evaluation of the personaldevelopment is accomplished throughquestionnaires. The evaluation of theimpact of technical and transversalcompetences is accomplished throughthe direct results in the workplace.Evaluated contents and stages ofevaluationEvaluation of the training satisfaction andevaluation of the training learning goalsand learning evaluation, knowledge, skillsand competences. Training impact wasmeasured as well.Results obtained (throughevaluation practices - impact)It was found that drivers that attendtraining reduce fuel consumption by 10to 15%.Budget assigned and sources offinancingN/APossibilities to "export" to othercontextsThe Scania Driver Training is available inalmost all European countries.Special features of the evaluationmethods (innovation dimension)N/ABest practice Nr.: 2 Country: PortugalPromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous)FDTI – Fundação para a Divulgação dasTecnologias de Informação (Foundationfor the Dissemination of the InformationTechnologies)Title of the programme/ initiative(if any)N/ADescription of the training course(when, hours, training provideretc)The course was carried out in 2009 andcentred on training the employees ofFDTI to obtain skills to get an IQFcertification (IQF is the Portugueseorganization that manages thecertification of the training entities),dealing with identifying training needsand evaluating trainingTarget group (groups ofemployees)7 employees of FDTIObjectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesThe type of instruments used to identifytraining needs (diagnosis) was used bythe trainer during the training course toimprove the program. As the class washomogeneous and very interested, itgave a great feedback to the trainer inorder to satisfy their training needs.
  • 135. Methodological instruments usedfor evaluation processThe evaluation was done usingquestionnaires and interviews.Evaluated contents and stages ofevaluationBesides the diagnosis and the trainingneeds, the trainees’ level of satisfactionwith the course was also evaluated(reaction evaluation, the first level of theROI methodology)Results obtained (throughevaluation practices - impact)At the end of the training course, 14,3%of the students had a medium level ofsatisfaction, and the rest 85,7% had ahigh one. Nevertheless, FDTI didn’tacquire the aimed IQF certification,because for that it was also necessary tohave evidences of employing those skills.However, the skills acquired during thetraining proved to be very useful in theactivity of FDTI.Budget assigned and sources offinancingN/APossibilities to "export" to othercontextsAs it was a fairly simple model ofevaluation of the training actions, thereare strong possibilities that it can be“exported”.Special features of the evaluationmethods (innovation dimension)The diagnosis of the training needs wascarried out not only before the trainingcourse, but also during it, thus allowingthe trainer to improve the programaccording to his class needs.Best practice Nr.: 3 Country: PortugalPromoting enterprise andcollaborators (anonymous)CECOA – Centro de FormaçãoProfissional para o Comércio e Afins(Vocational Training Centre for theTrade) and NAUTEL, SistemasElectrónicos, Lda.Title of the programme/ initiative(if any)N/ADescription of the training course(when, hours, training provideretc)The training course was carried out in2009 in b-learning regime, i.e. a blendingof e-learning with face-to-face teaching.It was provided by CECOA to NAUTEL (acompany specialized in marine electronicequipment) for employees to improvetheir competences in e-commerce.Target group (groups ofemployees)e-commerce technicians (15 trainees),consultants (22), and entrepreneurs (14)Objectives reached, throughevaluation activitiesMeasure the trainees’ level of satisfactionwith the training and measure the
  • 136. 136knowledge, skills, and competencesacquired with it.Methodological instruments usedfor evaluation processOnline self-evaluation questionnairesEvaluated contents and stages ofevaluationQuality assurance and the degree ofadaptation of the trainees and trainers tothe program in order to achieve thetraining goals. Determine the real valueof the program and its usefulness to thelearners.Results obtained (throughevaluation practices - impact)Improvement of the website of NAUTELand increase on the volume of sales:from all the sales day-by-day contacts, 3to 5 were coming through the website.Budget assigned and sources offinancingN/APossibilities to "export" to othercontextsThe b-learning regime is turning into avery popular learning regime, even athigher education institutions. As such,systems like these are very easy toimplement in other countries.Special features of the evaluationmethods (innovation dimension)N/AIV. CONCLUSIONAs said before, this report analyses training evaluation methodologies, the new advancedparadigms in the business management, as well as new challenges, and experiences of theenterprises, above all, in models of excellence, innovation, quality plans, application of thenew technologies and the best practices in Portugal.Overall it is possible to conclude that although training evaluation is a common concept inthe country there haven’t been many efforts to improve it with modern technologies orconcepts. To most companies – and even for the interviewees – training evaluation seems tobe only the analysis of the performance of the learner, of the performance of the trainer,and of the contents of the course. Also the methods used to evaluate training are verysimple and traditional: questionnaires and direct observation. These conclusions wereconfirmed when doing the desk research, especially with the results of the AVALNET project.As such, this report proposes three new innovations that can help improving trainingevaluation in Portugal: incorporate new technologies; incorporate new concepts; and
  • 137. improve knowledge management practices. This last one is important because, as it wasseen on chapter 5, it seems to be the “new business paradigm” in Portugal.In the end – and this is especially important for the JAKIN II – the interviewees suggestthree new indicators that a tool to evaluate training in companies should have: the trainingcourse respects the values and ethics of the company; adaptability to the suppliers’ technicaldemands; and compare the impact of the training on workers with different levels ofeducation.REFERENCES[1] Ferreira, M. Conceição (coord.). (2007). Vocational Education and Training in Portugal:Short Description. Luxembourg: Cedefop Panorama Series. WWW:http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/ publications/12984.aspx[2] Gouveia, António et al.. (2009). Report about European Training, Evaluation andProfitability Benchmarking. Lisbon: CECOA – Centro de Formação Profissional para oComércio e Afins. WWW: http://avalnet.fdti.pt/prod_03/Avalnet_Prod_03_EN.pdf[3] Neves, Ana, Sousa, M. José. (2010). Relatório do Estudo de Gestão do Conhecimentoem Portugal. Lisbon: Knowman. WWW: http://knowman.pt/wp/wp-content/uploads/docs/D2011A-GCemPortugal2010.pdf (in Portuguese)[4] Vinha, Elisabete, Lima-Santos, Nelson. (2010). Adaptação da Matriz SWOT à avaliaçãoda Formação Profissional. Actas do do VII Simpósio Nacional de Investigação em Psicologia,Universidade do Minho, Portugal, 4 a 6 de Fevereiro de 2010. WWW:http://www.actassnip2010.com/conteudos/actas/PsiTrab_4.pdf (in Portuguese)[5] Gouveia, António. (2009). A case study from the ICT sector. Best Practices and CaseStudies produced during the AVALNET Project (PT/06/B/F/NT-159165). WWW:http://avalnet.fdti.pt/upload/bestp29.pdf[6] Vieira, Vanda. (2009). A case study from the trade and services sector. Best Practicesand Case Studies produced during the AVALNET Project (PT/06/B/F/NT-159165). WWW:http://avalnet.fdti.pt/upload/bestp49.pdf
  • 138. 138CONCLUSION REMARKS AND LESSONS LEARNT“A small enterprise is like a small boat that one must be able tohandle very quickly” (interviewed Belgian manager)The potential and importance of training and workplace learning has long been recognizedAdam Smith in his book “The Wealth of Nations” speaks about how learning by doingimproves worker dexterity and the quality of goods produced. As pointed out by Griffin(2010), “this long standing interest in assessing the impact of workplace learning is hardlysurprising”. Vocation learning is seen as the route to improved economic competitiveness, aswell as is claimed to support personal development and social cohesion. However, here wemeet a paradox: “while the importance of vocational training is widely recognized, promotedand backed with impressive amounts of spending very few organizations actually evaluatethe training” (Griffin: 2010)48.What we could learn from the national reports, knowledge management is identifiednecessity, though weakly implemented. SMEs tend to concentrate on their everydayproblems of production, poor morale payments of costumers and widespread competition.As a result, we face a lack a lack of interest in long-term strategies of development in whichstaff training can play a significant role. Very different national realities make it difficult tocarry any further comparative analysis concerning the training evaluation tendencies,however, as repeatedly mentioned in all the national reports, we can identify and state thatinternal evaluation and satisfaction questionnaire or after-training survey, as well as intranetand portals are the prevailing evaluation tendencies and tools for knowledge management inall analysed countries.Furthermore, what we could learn from Czech National Report, when talking aboutknowledge management implementation, it is important to distinguish the concepts oforganization learning and learning organization. Organizational learning is the way firmbuild, supplement, and organize knowledge and routines around their activities and within48Griffin, R.P. “Means and ends: effective training evaluation”, Industrial and Commercial Training,Vol. 42, No.4 2010, p. 220-225.
  • 139. their cultures and adapt and develop organizational efficiency by improving the use of thebroad skills of their workforces. While a learning organization is a company that facilitatesthe learning of all its members and continually transforms itself. Learning is acquiring newknowledge, behaviour, skills, values, preferences or understanding and may involvesynthesising different types of information.It has to be highlighted, that are still many prevailing misconceptions about knowledgemanagement. The companies tend to be familiar with the concept, though when it comes toimplementation and practice, a big gap appears. In addition, financial possibilities are limitedand time constrains represent a serious barrier in organizing training actions and evaluation.Another identified challenge is the improvement and development of valuable methods tomeasure informal learning/training in the SMEs and the identification of latent trainingneeds. As follows, for the improvement of JAKIN tool, it is strongly recommendable toinclude a special section about the knowledge management, in order to break the prevailingmisconceptions and stress the potential and benefits of knowledge management, whenincorporated in a SME.Last but not the least, for further development of JAKIN tool and approaching the SMEs, asproposed by Griffin (2010), we should consider three interrelated reasons that explain thelow level of workplace level evaluation: the complexity of learning, inadequate methods andorganizational barriers.
  • 140. ANNEX I: INTERVIEW GUIDELINES A HUMANRESOURCES MANAGER - TRAINING EXPERT –EVALUATION EXPERTINTERVIEW GUIDELINESA note for the interviewer: The main objective of JAKIN II (Ref. 2010-1-ES1-LEO05-21048) project is to redesign the JAKIN tool in order to incorporate any kind of stageassociated to the assessment of formal and non formal training, to add indicators associatedto new trends, and such to become a management tool for all kinds of companies; especiallyfor the smallest ones and those linked to innovation processes. Your answers in thisquestionnaire will support us in achieving these aims.Due to data protection laws we ensure that no names or information contained in thisinterview will be divulged to any third party use outside the project.I. INTRODUCTION1.1. How would you define the term “knowledge”, how knowledge differs from data andinformation? (optional)*1.2. How would you define Knowledge Management?1.3. Describe the life cycle of knowledge in your company! How it is recruited,transferred, shared, preserved, purchased, sold, hidden, …. recycled?1.4. What are the parameters/ indicators to measure Intellectual Capital in your company(SME)? (How do you measure Intellectual Capital?)1.5. What is the relation between the implementation of training actions in yourcompany (SME) and the generation of Intellectual Capital?1.6. How do you encourage/ foster ‘informal learning’ in your organisation?II. PRE-DESIGN OF TRAINING ACTIONS:2.1. Who decides in your organisation on which training action to organise for whom?2.2. To your opinion, should the implementation of training actions be a strategicelement in an SME(at management level)? Please, specify:2.3. What kind of activities does the preps work to pre-design of training actions includein your company? (What are the stages/steps taken, in order to detect the training needs ofyour workers? – Identification and analysis of training needs)140
  • 141. 2.4. Classification of training needs and selection of the course: what is the procedure andcriteria applied in your organisation? Is there a difference between those organised in-house/ outsourced ones? Please, specify:2.5. Which criteria do you have for choosing a training provider?2.6. Do you differentiate between tacit49and implicit knowledge? If yes, how do youorganize training in case of tacit knowledge? How are employees motivated?2.7. What are the prevailing evaluation mechanisms: external, internal etc in yourorganisation?2.8. How do you measure informal learning/training in your company?III. EVALUATION – DURING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF3.1. Which indicators do you think should be evaluated during training actions:costs and expenses training contents, extent, design of training action individual satisfaction of participants tiredness, external factors satisfaction with trainer others, please specify: ....................................................................................  IV.POST – EVALUATION:4.1. What are the techniques and methods for impact measurement applied in yourorganisation/ for your training? (Please list indicators in use or which you feel would beappropriate)4.2. What are the mechanisms you apply to measure the profitability of the trainingactions (in terms of costs)? If there are any differences from one topic trained to another,please specify49Tacit (internal) knowledge refers to “knowledge” which needs a “face to face” transfer – e.g. thepersonal contact with expert is necessary to perceive the content entirely. It gives the recipient ofknowledge also a part of expert’s personality. Examples: charisma of teacher, unique (practical,technical – surgery, didactical – teaching performance, dramatic profession, etc.) skills which must be“seen”. Implicit (explicit, external) knowledge may be shared by traditional ways without presence ofexpert. Expert’s personality is hidden in the quality of medium (texts, books, programmes, multimedia,etc.) which is used to transfer knowledge.
  • 142. 4.3. “Measuring” the individual value of each worker for the company (sensitiveevaluation design). Which are the mechanisms applied in your organisation to identifyworkers achievement as training outcome?4.4. Who does the post-evaluation do for your training and when? What does thisinvolve for informal learning?V. INNOVATIVE EXPERRIENCES AND MANAGEMENT STYLES,CONCERNING THE TRAINING NEEDS AND TRAINING EVALUATION5.1. What are the latest tendencies concerning the training evaluation implementationyou have noticed? (In what respect have they been implemented or adapted and are beingused in your organisation)?5.2. What is the role of new technologies in your organisation?5.3. How do the latest management/business paradigms interpret/perceive theknowledge management?5.4. Describe how entrepreneurial (innovative) training in your company has developedduring/ in the last (ten) years, which procedures were abandoned, which survived till today.Please, also specify the reasons for itVI.BEST PRACTICES:6.1 Would you share any good practices/ examples, concerning the KnowledgeManagement implementation/or Training Evaluation implementation in SMEs? Please specify:VII. OTHER REMARKS:………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………….…………………………………………………………………….FINAL NOTE: Size, sector, time of activity (“age”) of the organization:THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND KIND COLLABORATION!142
  • 143. ANNEX II: INTERVIEW GUIDELINES B (EXPERT INKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT)A note for the interviewer: The main objective of JAKIN II (Ref. 2010-1-ES1-LEO05-21048) project is to redesign the JAKIN tool in order to incorporate any kind of stageassociated to the assessment of formal and non formal training, to add indicators associatedto new trends, and such to become a management tool for all kinds of companies; especiallyfor the smallest ones and those linked to innovation processes. Your answers in thisquestionnaire will support us in achieving these aims.Due to data protection laws we ensure that no names or information contained in thisinterview will be divulged to any third party use outside the project.I. INTRODUCTION1.1 How would you define the term “knowledge”, how knowledge differs from data andinformation? (optional)*1.2 How would you define the term “Knowledge Management”?1.3 Do you think there is a relation between Knowledge Management and informationtechnologies1.4 How would you define the term “Knowledge Worker”?1.5 Describe the life cycle of knowledge in your company! How do you create, capture,store, share and apply knowledge in your organisation?II. IMPLEMENTATION AND INCORPORATION IN MANAGEMENT2.1 Do you think Knowledge Management can be applied in any kind of company?2.2 What kind of SMEs should implement Knowledge Management in your opinion?2.3 Do you think that Knowledge Management should be part of the managerial businessstrategy (of the companies)? (If you would differentiate, which difference would you seeaccording to economic sectors and the size of enterprises?)2.4 Who decides in your organisation on KM issues/ which departments are involved?2.5 What are, in your opinion, the main risks of a methodological bad implementation inthis management?2.6 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a common implementationmethodology (e.g. KM Toolkit, K. Wiig methodology, P2 – KSP, APQC – Road Map etc.) forSMEs?
  • 144. Advan ages2.7 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the original Knowledge Managementimplementation solution tailored for SMEs?t DisadvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesIII. MEASUREMENT3.1 What are the parameters/ indicators to measure the efficiency ofKnowledge Management in SMEs? (How do you measure KnowledgeManagement in your organisation?)3.2 Which metrics do you apply to measure the efficiency of the KnowledgeMarket?3.3 Which indicators of the direct correlation between KnowledgeManagement application and profit growth in SMEs do you apply?3.4 What factors do you measure in Knowledge Management?144
  • 145. V. VALUE AND IMPACT4.1 What benefits do you think are provided to a company through the application ofKnowledge Management in an appropriate way?4.2 How do you direct or control the knowledge of a group?4.3 How do you express the value of Knowledge Management for yourcompany/organisation?4.4 How do you express the value of the Knowledge Workers for yourcompany/organisation?4.5 Do you think that there is some correlation between Knowledge Management andcontinuous training? Please, specify:THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND KIND COLLABORATION!
  • 146. ANNEX III: QUESTIONNAIRE C (SME MANAGERS)The current research is being conducted within the framework of “JAKIN II” project(Ref. 2010-1-ES1-LEO05-21048), aiming to diagnose the different methodologies oftraining evaluation, used and applied in SMEs.Due to data protection laws we ensure that no names or information contained in thisform will be divulged to any third party use outside the project.I. INTRODUCTION1.1. How many people do you have employed at your company?a. Up to 9 peopleb. 10-49 peoplec. 50-249 peopled. 250 people and more (thank you very much for you time!)1.2. Economic sector:a. Agriculture, forestry and fishingb. M inning and quarryingc. Manufacturingd. Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supplye. Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activitiesf. Constructiong. Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcyclesh. Transportation and storagei. Accommodation and food service activitiesj. Information and communicationk. Financial and insurance activitiesl. Real estate activitiesm. Professional, scientific and technical activitiesn. Administrative and support service activitieso. Public administration and defence, compulsory social securityp. Educationq. Human health and social work activitiesr. Arts, entertainment and recreations. Other service activitiest. Activities of household as employers, undifferentiated goods- and services –producing activities of household for own useu. Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies1.3. The date of establishing your company? ................................................146
  • 147. II. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE – MANAGEMENT OF AN SME2.1. Organizational chart:a. Hierarchicalb. Matrixc. Flatd. other (e.g. combinations) please specify:2.2. Management style:a. Not involvingb. Integrativec. Directived. Others, please specify:2.3. Quality management indicators, implemented/applied in your company(please indicate):…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………VI.CONTINOUOS TRAINING IMPLEMENTATION3.1. Has your company carried out any training actions during the last 3 years?a. YESb. NO (Go to the section IV)c. N/A3.2. What is the percentage of the workers who took part in those trainingactions?a. Less than 20%b. Between 20% and 40%c. Between 40% and 60%d. More than 60%e. N/A3.3. What are the major obstacles, related to the implementation of the trainingactions?a. Mostly financialb. Time constrainsc. No obstaclesd. Other (pleaseindicate)…………………………………………………………………………......................3.4. What are the approx. annual costs spent for the implementation of trainingactions?
  • 148. 3.5. How is the continuous training organized in your company?a. Continuous training is part of the strategic managementb. On demand, received by workersc. Other (please indicate): ………………………………………………………………………3.6. What are the methods used in your company, in order to select thenecessary/appropriate training course?a. According to the training needs analysisb. Based on the direct request of workersc. Other (please indicate): …………………………………………………………3.7. How are the training actions are financed and organized in your company?a. By state funded programmes, organized internallyb. By state funded programmes, organized externally (by training provider)c. By own funds, organized internallyd. By own funds, organized externally (by training provider)e. Other (please indicate):…………………………………………………………………3.8. What do you do to encourage/ foster “informal” learning?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………VII. EVALUATION AND IMPACT OF THE TRAINING ACTIONS4.1. As follows, we will provide you different statements, please indicate thelevel of importance/significance, using the scale from 1 to 5 (1 – definitely,2 –very important, 3 – quite a lot, 4 – little, 5– not important):a. The importance of continuous training:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5b. Training needs detection and analysis as a pre-design stage of a training action:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5c. Evaluation of the implementation of the training action (overall organization):1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5d. Evaluation of the workers’ satisfaction with training actions:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5e. Evaluation of the training contents:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5f. Evaluation of trainers:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5g. Evaluation of the efficiency of the training actions:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5h. Evaluation of the costs of the training actions:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5148
  • 149. i. Evaluation of the impact and knowledge transfer:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5j. The importance of informal learning:1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 54.2. What are the evaluation strategies (of the training/learning actions) usedin your company?a. Internal evaluationb. External evaluationc. Other (please indicate):..........................................................................VIII. INNOVATION PARADIGM5.1. What are the mechanisms/methods used, in/by your company for creatingand innovating knowledge? (please specify)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND KIND COLLABORATION!
  • 150. 150
  • 151. This project has been funded with support from the EuropeanCommission under the Lifelong Learning. Programme. Thispublication reflects the views only of the author, and theCommission cannot be held responsible for any use which maybe made of the information contained therein152

×