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CeBIT Spatial@gov 2012 - Prof. Chris Rizos, Head, School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, University of New South Wales
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CeBIT Spatial@gov 2012 - Prof. Chris Rizos, Head, School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, University of New South Wales


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  • 1. An Australian Strategic Plan for GNSSSchool of Surveying & Geospatial Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, Australia Chris Rizos
  • 2. Topics• The GPS/GNSS revolution• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 1• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 2• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 3• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 4• Concluding remarks Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 3. Short History of Satellite Navigation QZSS GIOVE-A GLONASS FOC beginning of launch of first GPS IIR-M (L2C) Galileo IOV Space Age GLONASS FOC BeiDou FOC GPS satellite BeiDou-M1 GPS FOC first TRANSIT first GPS GPS IIF navigation first GLONASS Block II first GPS (L5) Galileo IOC satellite satellite Block IIR Galileo FOC1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 new signalsUrs Hugentobler, 2011, Institute for Astronomical and Physical Geodesy
  • 4. +• Global Constellations: – GPS (32) (32) • SBAS: What do – GLONASS (24) (30) – WAAS – Galileo (4) (30) es this m – MSAS – BeiDou (13) (35) ean for u – EGNOS sers? – GAGAN• Regional Constellations: – SDCM – QZSS (1) (5-7) – others? – IRNSS (1) (7) Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 5. GPS/GNSS User Communities...”big & small” Mass Market Professional Market Personal Communication Mining & Navigation Timing Cars & motorcycles Environment Trucks & buses Fleet Management Recreation & outdoors Asset Management LBS Geodesy Gaming, etc Meteorological >99.9% Land Survey / GIS Precision Agriculture Fisheries / EEZ Low cost, Low power cons., <0.1%? Vehicle Control & Robotics Construction / Civil Engineering Navigation Space small size, ease of use, High accuracy, ubiquitous, High productivity, consumer High reliability, electronics,etc differential pos. Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 6. No, the economic & social benefits to society of accurate & reliable PNT are probably much greater than the mass market apps But do these numbers/ predictions tell the whole story?
  • 7. GNSS Benefits in Australia some land apps.• 2008 study found productivity gains with potential cumulative benefit $73B to $134B over next 20 years in agriculture, construction and mining alone.• Also, significant environmental benefits, such as reduced carbon footprint, through greatly improved fuel efficiency.• But current market uptake in A-C-M is about 10%! “Economic benefits of high resolution positioning services”, Allens Consulting Group, for CRC-SI & Vic. DSE, Nov 2008, download:
  • 8. GPS/GNSS is a critical capability for manyAustralian user communities...Professional users require high accuracy&/or integrity...considerable groundinfrastructure investment...How can Australia maximise thebenefits of GNSS?... Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 9. From GPS to multi-constellation GNSS...”multi-GNSS”From 1 GPS to 4 GNSSs and 2 RNSSs Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 10. Future M-GNSS Availability148 sat constellation “Hot Spot” Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 11. GNSS Strategic Recommendations... Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 12. Developing “Australian SP for GNSS” Working Group: Steering Committee: Chris Rizos (chair) Gary Nairn (chair) Phil Collier Chris Rizos Matt Higgins Michael Green Gary Johnston Ian Mallett Rob Lorimer Chris Baker Martin Nix Chris Pigram Dirk Noordewier Russell Priebbenow Dan Paull Warwick Beacroft Nunzio Gambale Brett Biddington Kirk Mitchell Don Sinnott John Sprivulis Rod Walker Try Bruggemann Peter Teunissen Andrew Dempster Adrian White Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 13. Topics• The GPS/GNSS revolution• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 1• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 2• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 3• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 4• Concluding remarks Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 14. Recommendation 1: Ensure there is leadership for the Australian GNSS community International engagement...1. Facilitate policy development for international engagement on GNSS-related issues.2. Ensure appropriate & effective governance to coordinate government & private sector Coordination... private/govt sectors... investment in enhanced GNSS infrastructure, & products & services dependent upon it. Promotion of benefits...3. Increase awareness & promote the benefits of GNSS to the broader community4. Encourage industry “champions” by creating opportunities for government agencies & private Encourage “industry champions”... sector organisations to exercise leadership & responsibility.5. Communicate with all sectors of the GNSS community on implementation issues & progress. Communicate with all stakeholders...6. Advocate for the need to upgrade the fundamental reference station network to support multi- GNSS tracking, to invest in the development of a new geodetic datum, & to coordinate the Upgrade of CORS to multi-GNSS... new activities of federal & state government agencies & the private sector. geodetic datum, etc. Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 15. What does this mean?• “Sell” GNSS govt & industry• Educate policy-makers on economic (& other) benefits of GNSS... what would we do without it?• Link GNSS to “digital future”... NBN, ICT infrastructure, etc.• Coordinate federal agencies with GNSS agendas... GA, CASA, SPU, ACMA, OSP...• Increase coordination across government & private sectors & academia... especially re augmentation, stds & specs, QC, etc.• Move away from GPS-only to multi-GNSS... build-in upgrade paths into GNSS investments by users & service providers• New geodetic/mapping datum definition based on ITRF Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 16. ITRF is the Foundation for all Mapping Applications
  • 17. Static Datum Name: GDA2020Modernised Frame: ITRF@2020 Realised annuallyNational Geodetic Datum 1990 2000 2010 2020 GNSS requires RVS Update Static Datum the modernisationDatum Dynamic of our frameworks GDA94 Name: GDA94Frame: ITRF92@1994 Name: & infrastructure Static Datum Name: GDA Frame: ITRF Frame: ITRF92@1994 Realised continuously (realised in ITRF2008) Coordinate 3, 7cm 150+7cm/yr, 10cm differences from GDA94 150, 10cm (horizontal, vertical)
  • 18. Topics• The GPS/GNSS revolution• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 1• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 2• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 3• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 4• Concluding remarks Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 19. Recommendation 2: Adopt a whole-of-nation approach to a sustainable, multi-GNSS-enabled NPI Identify NPI activities...1. Identify existing NPI-related activities of government & private sector CORS providers.2. Identify and mitigate investment risks by analysing & resolving duplication, fragmentation, Coordinated roll-out of GNSS component of NPI... consistency, timeliness & funding issues, with a view to ensuring a coordinated roll-out of the GNSS component of the NPI. Build GNSS component of NPI on hierarchical3. Coordinate the deployment of the GNSS component of the NPI based on capability to meet the above principles efficiently & effectively, to ensure that the NPI is built on hierarchical principles, & principles...technical & commercial operating Consistent link to geodetic datum... is strongly linked to the fundamental global GNSS reference station network and geodetic datum.4. Establish & enforce consistent technical & commercial operating principles so that high accuracy & principles... governance, funding & business Appropriate high integrity users are assured of the quality of enhanced GNSS by all service providers.5. Establish appropriate governance, funding & business models to operate the NPI & deliver NPI- models... international collaboration... Coordinate related products & services.6. Coordinate international collaboration in multi-GNSS regional & global initiatives, campaigns & campaigns, tests, etc. tests. Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 20. What does this mean?• Develop an NPI Plan...for federal govt & other agencies, e.g. to minimise duplication of CORS, etc.• NPI to be promoted as “critical infrastructure”...and funded• Encourage development of value-added services...high accuracy and high integrity markets• CORS networks & geodetic datum extend beyond state & national boundaries...coordination, international engagement• Manage CORS & DGNSS services growth...not only hardware components• Transitioning from GPS-only to multi-GNSS often implies “rewriting the textbook”...and do it quickly Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 21. Precise Positioning GNSS Applications • Surveying & mapping y CORS- tation b navigation Building Construction Geodesy augmen all generate • Precise e A ll requir ervices... • Precise kinematic apps, such as base ds ec omic onguidance/control Rapid Mobile Mapping edPort oc i etal &machine ade of increa s s Operations usDefine/monitor datum, geodesy m r • e is Monitoring if greate benefits SS technologetc. apps, y GN • Precise georeferencing ofLand Surveying Machine Guidance Precision Agriculture airborne or terrestrial scanning/imaging sensors
  • 22. International & National CORS Networks Augm ented & gov by ten ernm s of t ent G hous NSS r ands efere of pri nce r vate eceiv er s
  • 23. GNSS & National Positioning Infrastructure • GNSSStrategic Framework for the NPI Plan: “backbone” “Instantaneous GNSS/RNSS • Uniform positioning anywhere, anytime, • Accurate with the highest possible accuracy • Reliable • Continuous and the highest possible integrity” • Coherent • Compatible • Integrated • Hierarchical (Source: Johnston and Hausler, March 2012)
  • 24. GNSS & National Positioning Infrastructure • GNSS backbone • Uniform • Accurate • Reliable this? ho funds • Continuous at den sity? W servic•e Coherent At wh ordinate H ow to co ers? Etc • Compatible provid • Integrated • Hierarchical (Source: Johnston and Hausler, March 2012)
  • 25. Topics• The GPS/GNSS revolution• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 1• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 2• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 3• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 4• Concluding remarks Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 26. Recommendation 3: Mitigate vulnerabilities in existing and future GNSS infrastructure1. Ensure the NPI is formally identified as Critical Infrastructure. NPI as “critical infrastructure”...2. Form a Community-of-Interest as part of the Trusted Information Sharing Network (TISN) for Critical Infrastructure Resilience. C-o-I within TISN...3. Investigate the role of an SBAS within an NPI, what form it should take, what its functionality Investigate SBAS as part of future NPI... must be, & the partnership arrangements for its deployment & operation.4. Protect the GNSS spectrum against RF interference through an appropriate regulatory Protect GNSS spectrum from RFI... framework.5. Mitigate GNSS dependency risks by: Mitigate GNSS dependency... alternative PNTs, • Ensuring broad adoption of multi-GNSS, thereby eliminating single system dependence. • Promoting the appropriate use of non-GNSS back-up & augmentation technologies. address vulnerabilities, etc... • Encouraging the development & deployment of alternative PNT systems where GNSS cannot operate effectively. • Address issues of vulnerability. Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 27. What does this mean?• GNSS-enabled NPI is critical infrastructure... needs to be maintained, and protected• Intentional and unintentional RFI is a big concern... one of GNSS’s greatest vulnerabilities• Need to manage GNSS vulnerabilities... mapping impact of GNSS loss, identifying back-up technologies, what’s our “Plan B”? etc.• Some mitigation of risk going from GPS-only to multi-GNSS• SBAS for some users... but a big step, that would require a big investment• No alternative PNT technology with same performance characteristics as GNSS... but terrestrial systems possible• Some environments will never be suitable for GNSS... e.g. indoor positioning Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 28. Increasing sense of GNSS Vulnerability: intentional (and unintentional) jammingIn late 2009 satellite positioning receiversfor a new navigation aid at Newark airportwere suffering brief daily breaks inreception. It took two months forinvestigators to track down the problem:a driver who passed by on the NewJersey Turnpike each day had a cheapGPS jammer in his truck because he didnot like his employer tracking his everymove.TheEconomist, March 10, 2011( Illegal in Australiabut still needs to be watched. Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 29. Beyond GNSS... Locata: Australian-designed, terrestrial, GNSS-like PNT technology able to augment GNSS (e.g. open-cut mines) or replace GNSS (e.g. vulnerable apps) or be used where GNSS never could operate (e.g. indoors), within coverage area of local transmitter network. June 2012Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 30. Leica, Locata & Open-cut Mine App f JPS at Officia l launch o o”, 24-26 ining Exp“Intern ational M Vegas... tember 2 012, Las Sep Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 31. Leica, Locata & Open-cut Mine App Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 32. UNSW-Locata Sydney Harbour Test Oct 2012 Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 33. Topics• The GPS/GNSS revolution• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 1• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 2• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 3• Australian SP for GNSS...recommendation 4• Concluding remarks Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 34. Recommendation 4: Capitalise on Australia’s unique geopolitical advantage Promote Australia’s advantages as a “partner”...1. Promote the unique benefits and opportunities that stem from Australia’s geopolitical status as a politically stable, middle-power, with advanced infrastructure, an educated workforce, an active industry sector & a world class R&D capability: • Encourage GNSS system providers to locate & operate ground monitor stations in Australia. • Encourage GNSS receiver manufacturers & application developers to engage with Australian companies & research organisations to develop, test, validate & demonstrate innovative Attract overseas investment in Australian GNSS products & services in Australia. businesses, etc...2. Attract overseas investment in Australian-based GNSS businesses & research organisations. Assist neighbouring countries...3. Assist neighbouring countries with GNSS infrastructure development, technical advice, education & skills development. Address capacity needs & skill requirements...4. Determine capacity needs & skills requirements to service Australia’s growing GNSS industry. Grow the education & research sectors...5. Grow the education & research sector to service demand for skilled GNSS engineers, scientists & researchers. Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 35. What does this mean?• Use the fact Australia is located in Asia-Pacific GNSS “hot spot” to its advantage... promote experimentation, joint tests, indigenous product & service development, R&D, etc.• Australia has special PNT market needs... promote R&D into better GNSS support for agriculture, mining, transport, etc.• Invite GNSS signal providers to set up monitor stations in Australia... “security concerns” should not stifle international cooperation• Investigate GNSS/PNT training/education needs... primarily for navigation, geospatial & mapping sectors• Grow our GNSS R&D capability... primarily at universities, but also CSIRO, NICTA Canberra, 20-22 November 2012
  • 36. Concluding Remarks• GPS has introduced revolutionary PNT capabilities.• Multi-GNSS will bring many benefits, but uptake will depend on constellation deployment, user equipment, infrastructure, procedures & services.• (Continued) international engagement and cooperation is vital.• Addressing GNSS shortcomings/vulnerabilities is essential.• “Australian Strategic Plan for GNSS” identified constraints to increased & more effective GNSS adoption by critical industries & made some recommendations.• The Professional Market has significant influence on infrastructure & GNSS developments, and is a significant consumer of GNSS products & services. Canberra, 20-22 November 2012