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CeBIT Spatial@gov 2012 - James Millner, GPSnet Development Manager DSE, Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information
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CeBIT Spatial@gov 2012 - James Millner, GPSnet Development Manager DSE, Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information


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  • 1. James Millner GPSnet Development Manager Department of Sustainability and Environment CRCSI Positioning ProgramAcknowledgementsDavid Green: Project Team Leader Australian Roads Research BoardProfessor Yanming Feng: Queensland University of TechnologyMatt Higgins: Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines
  • 2. ‘Vehicle Positioning Requirementsfor Cooperative IntelligentTransport Systems and the role of aNational Positioning Infrastructure’
  • 3. ∗ Contents∗ What are Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS)?∗ Vehicle Positioning requirements for C-ITS applications∗ National Positioning Infrastructure (NPI)∗ How can the NPI support C-ITS?
  • 4. Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems require a combinationof:∗Dedicated wireless communications∗Vehicle positioning systems∗Enhanced road mapsThis presentation will focus on the relative and absolutepositioning requirements of:∗Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and∗Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I)
  • 5. Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) GPS Raw Data Vehicle’s Reference Point Vehicle’s DSRC Link (GPS Antenna) DSRC Antenna SAE J2735 BSM Part I: Vital State Data (e.g. Lat, Lon) BSM Part II: Safety Extension (e.g. RTCM) Vehicle-to-Vehicle Relative PositioningSource: Feng et al 2012
  • 6. INSERT HEADING Vehicle to Infrastructure V2I – absolute positioning using Multi-GNSS corrections from Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) C-ITS with CORS and DSRC CORS CORS DSRC DSRC Control Positioning Centre Control Centre DSRC DSRC CORSSource: Feng et al 2012
  • 7. US developments in C-ITS safety applications USA Department of Transport’s Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) has demonstrated six core V2V safety applications ∗ Emergency Electronic Brake Light ∗ Forward Collision Warning ∗ Intersection Movement Assist ∗ Blind Spot Warning + Lane Change Warning ∗ Do Not Pass Warning ∗ Control Loss WarningSource: Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership 2009 & Kenney 2011
  • 8. European developments in C-ITS safety applications European research and development project SAFESPOT has demonstrated a large number of V2X classified into both vehicle-based and infrastructure- based applications Vehicle-based applications ∗Intersection Safety application ∗Safe Overtaking application ∗Head On Collision Warning ∗Rear End Collision ∗Speed Limitation and Safety Distance ∗Frontal Collision Warning ∗Road Condition Status Image Source: Cohda Wireless ∗Curve Warning ∗Vulnerable Road User Detection and Accident Avoidance.Source: Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership 2009 & Kenney 2011
  • 9. European developments in C-ITS safety applications European SAFESPOT Infrastructure-based applications: ∗ Speed Alert ∗ Hazard and Incident Warning ∗ Intelligent Cooperative Intersection Safety ∗ Road Departure ∗ Safety Margin for assistance and emergency vehicle.Image Source: Cohda Wireless
  • 10. Australia: Intelligent Transport Systems to Improve Safety at Level Crossings Tests by La Trobe University in Victoria using V2I DSRC to have cars and trains talking to each other could save an average of 37 lives every year and an estimated 100 million dollars, by eliminating rail crossing collisions, especially in rural and regional Australia.Source: Professor Singh La Trobe University
  • 11. Potential Economic, Safety and Environmental Benefits of C-ITS∗ Road accidents are a leading cause of deaths worldwide. It is estimated each year that 1.2 million people are killed and a worldwide loss of between 1% and 2% of GDP (Feng 2009)∗ Cost of road fatalities in Australia in terms of medical expenses, loss of work time is in the order of $17 billion per annum (The University of Queensland – June 2006)∗ Avoidable traffic congestion in Australia is estimated to cost over $10 billion per annum (about 1% of GDP) (Feng 2009)∗ Vehicle Energy Management (VEM) is estimated to provide annual fuel savings for Victoria of about $30 million and a reduction of 47,700 tonnes of carbon emissions, (DSE response to Transportation - B2B ICT Roadmap)∗ Potentially V2V communications with high accuracy positioning/mapping systems can provide Australia a benefit of above $20 billion per annum by avoiding congestion, saving 50% of lives and reducing green house gas emissions (Feng 2010)∗ Australian Vision for 2030 (ITS Summit 2009)∗ Zero fatalities by 2030∗ Zero avoidable congestion by 2030∗ Reduction of 50% transport CO2 gas emissions (8.5% of total emissions)
  • 12. Alternative Business Case for Connecting Vehicles Cisco’s Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG) Point of View document: Business Case for Connecting Vehicles reports that Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication has the potential to prevent 80 percent of reported crashes according to the USA National High way Traffic Safety Administration. Cisco believes that by connecting a third of all vehicles has the potential to tap more than $100 billion of value in the United States and another $345 billion globally.Source: Cisco IBSG Mai & Schlesinger April 2011
  • 13. Positioning accuracy required for C-ITS safety applications The accuracy requirement for C-ITS safety applications is classified into three levels: ∗ road level (on which road the vehicle is placed) ∗ lane level (in which lane the vehicle is in) ∗ where-in-lane (where the vehicle is in the lane).Source: Basnayake 2009, Basnayake et al 2010 & Basnayake et al 2011
  • 14. Summary of positioning accuracy required for C-ITS safety applications Type Level Accuracy Requirement Research prototype Communication latency (second) 95 % confidence level Root means square Root means square (m) (order) (order) V2I: Road-level 5.0 Metre Metre 1-5 absolute Lane-level 1.1 Sub metre Sub metre 1.0 Where-in-lane- 0.7 Decimetre Decimetre 0.1 level V2V: Road-level 5.0 Meter Sub metre 0.1 relative Lane-level 1.5 Sub metre Decimetre 0.1 Where-in-lane- 1.0 Decimetre Centimetre 0.01-0.1 levelSource: Feng et al 2012
  • 15. Summary of positioning components used for C-ITS safety applicationsSource: EDMap Consortium (2004) and Feng et al 2012
  • 16. How can Australia’s national positioning infrastructure support emerging C-ITS safety applications?Source: ANZLIC, 2010
  • 17. Revisit vehicle positioning components of C-ITS DSRC Antenna GPS Antenna On-Board Unit DSRC Transceiver GPS Receiver Encoder/Decoder GPS Signal Converter Display Devices Display Devices Interface Application Protocol Processor Processing Unit Sensors Interface Sensors Structure of a typical on-board unit using GNSS and sensorsSource: Schokker (2010)
  • 18. Continuously Operating Reference Stations CORS Features: • Continuously Operating • ‘100 Year’ concrete pillar anchored to granite bedrock • Solar and hydrogen fuel cell power • VSAT connectivity • Integrated Met Station • Full remote site monitoring and operationSource: GPSnet DSE
  • 19. International, National and State based CORSIndicative distribution of the IGS world tracking stationsSource: International GNSS service Source: Hausler 2011 Source: Johnston et al. (2008) Geoscience Australia
  • 20. Users and Benefits of CORSResearch has identified benefits of high accuracypositioning for machine automation in agricultureconstruction and mining• More productive (up to 200%)• More competitive (mining and construction)• More sustainable (particularly agriculture) Hours of Use by Market Sector Mapping Mapping Survey (DGPS) (RINEX) (RINEX) 1% 5% 10% Agriculture 48% Survey (RTK) 30% Construction 6% Source: GPSnet DSE, CRCSI, Allens Consulting 2007, 2008
  • 21. Projected GNSS Value Chain The worldwide GNSS market is growing fast and the total enabled revenues are expected to increase 13% CAGR between 2010 and 2016 Road is the largest market by revenue, followed by LBS By 2020, many vehicles will be served by multiple GNSS devices Future vehicles, connected to a roadside distributed network will support a range V2X applications like road side assistance, intelligent active driving, infotainment and traffic management.Source: The European GNSS Agency (GSA) 2012
  • 22. How can the NPI support C-ITS? What are the options and opportunities? Number of satellites available in Australia 150 140 MSAS 130 QZSS IRNSS 120 Compass 110 Galileo 100 GLONASS 90 GPS 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 The number of satellites in different GNSS visible in Australia for the period of 2009-2021 (Donets 2012)Space Based Augmentation System (SBAS) Feng, Higgins et al 2012
  • 23. How can the CRCSI support C-ITS? What are the options and opportunities? Safety application Horizontal accuracy (95%) Road level Stop Sign Assistant-warning 5-10m Curve speed assistant-warning 5-10m Location-based Hazard- 5-10m warning Lane-level Stop Sign Assistant-control 0.3-1m Absolute Traffic signal 0.3-1m Intersection Collision Warning 0.3-1m Curve speed assistant-control 0.3-1m Lane departure warning <0.3m Lane-level Blind spot warning <0.5m Relative Emergency Brake Lights <0.5m Cooperative Collision Warning <0.5m Forward collision warning <0.5m Pre-cash sensing <0.5mSource: Feng et al 2012
  • 24. Known GNSS vulnerabilities GNSS Vulnerabilities and Dependencies Space weather System level U.S. GPS Interference Detection and Mitigation (IDM) Program Interference User levelSource: CRCSI 2012
  • 25. GNSS alternatives and backupRadio Location Technology is being designed to provide an affordable,terrestrially based, location system that closely parallels GNSS in systemdesign and performance. The technology is considered an extension andexpansion of GNSS that can either work with GNSS or operate independentlywhen GNSS is not sufficient. Image Source: Locata, InsideGNSS, Leica JPSRadio location technology is represented by technology developed by theLocata Corporation through a LocataLite (transceiver) and a Locata (receiver) Locata positioning Concept Source: Rizos et al. (2010).
  • 26. Questions