Developing a National Frameworkfor Connected Vehicles Stuart Ballingall Project Director - Cooperative ITS Austroads
Connected VehiclesCooperative ITS (C-ITS) refers to the use of wireless communicationsbetween vehicles & with roadside infrastructure, enabling systems thatcooperatively work together to deliver safety, efficiency & environmentaloutcomes
Benefits of C-ITSSafety• Reduce fatality and serious casualty crashes ‐ 80% of all road crashes involving a non-impaired driver could be positively addressed – US DOT ‐ Total number of fatal and serious casualty crashes could be reduced by 25- 35% - Austroads/MUARCMobility• Improved travel efficiency and transport productivityEnvironmental• Reduce vehicle emissions and fuel use
C-ITS ApplicationsA range of C-ITS applications are currently being developed for theinternational market. Key focus areas are safety, traffic efficiency andenvironmental benefits. Applications include:• Collision warning and collision avoidance• Intersection movement assistance• Emergency brake light, autonomous emergency braking• Lane departure, run-off-road, blind spot warning• Adaptive cruise control, vehicle platooning• Emergency vehicle pre-emption and prioritisation• Road works, road closures, traffic alerts, travel times• Eco-driving applications
C-ITS Applications Source: Volpe Centre/USDOTSource: Car 2 Car Communications Consortium Source: Car 2 Car Communications Consortium
International DeploymentC-ITS is progressively moving from research phase to deployment phase.Key activities in international jurisdictions include:Europe• Euro Commission Mandate M/453 for minimum standards• EC-funded projects and trials, including ‘Drive C2X’• Car2Car Consortium – agreement for 2015 deploymentUSA• US DOT Safety Pilot in Michigan, involving 3,000 vehicles• NHTSA rule-making planned for late 2013Japan• Various deployments have commenced, including 1,600+ ITS Spot (DSRC) stations across Japan expressways
Australian C-ITS FrameworkPolicy Framework for ITS in Australia• Endorsed by SCOTI in November 2011, this sets a robust policy framework and foundation actions for guiding ITS deploymentAustroads C-ITS Project• Establish the regulatory and operational framework to enable C-ITS to be deployed in AustraliaNTC regulatory policy review• Investigate regulatory and policy issues regarding privacy, liability, driver distraction, compliance and enforcementTechnical and platform requirements• Harmonisation with international standards & processes is critical, particularly for interoperability & security.
Positioning RequirementsPosition accuracy for C-ITS can be classified into 3 levels:• Road level – which road segment the vehicle is on• Lane level – which lane the vehicle is in• Where-in-lane – where the vehicle is in the laneSafety-of-life applications being developed will requireubiquitous access at highways speeds to ‘where-in-lane’accuracy (≤1 metre), with low latency (~0.1 seconds), andhigh integrity
International SituationInternational C-ITS developments access augmented GNSSto meet positioning accuracy and integrity requirements:Europe• European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS)USA• Wide Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS)Japan• Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS)
Australian Situation• Unlike our international colleagues, Australia does not have access to a ubiquitous augmented GNSS for C-ITS• If Australia cannot meet the C-ITS positioning requirements, will this restrict international harmonisation? And most importantly, will we forego the potential safety benefits?• A National Positioning Infrastructure (NPI) Plan is currently being finalised. Does this provide an opportunity?