The Space Race Group Presentation<br /><ul><li>Jeffrey Aaron Brookshire
Michelle Brown
Anthony Douglas
Paul McVeigh
Saud Queshi
Bradley Roberts
Jeremy Shaffer
Heather Smith</li></li></ul><li>Early Rocketry<br /><ul><li>Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky
No support from the science community
Developed a series of sophisticated wind tunnels, late 1890s
Conducted aerodynamic experiments on various aircraft designs
Studied the stratosphere
Published books:
theoretical problems of using rocket engines
issues of navigation
reentry heating
fuel needs
Ideas of using oxygen and hydrogen as a fuel for space travel
Finally gained support near the end of his lifetime</li></li></ul><li>Early Rocketry<br /><ul><li>Robert Hutchings Goddard
Worcester Polytechnic Institute of Clark University,1908
Graduate Studies
Received his Doctorate
Taught physics
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Space Race Presentation With Works Cited[1]


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Space Race Presentation With Works Cited[1]

  1. 1. The Space Race Group Presentation<br /><ul><li>Jeffrey Aaron Brookshire
  2. 2. Michelle Brown
  3. 3. Anthony Douglas
  4. 4. Paul McVeigh
  5. 5. Saud Queshi
  6. 6. Bradley Roberts
  7. 7. Jeremy Shaffer
  8. 8. Heather Smith</li></li></ul><li>Early Rocketry<br /><ul><li>Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky
  9. 9. (1857-1935)
  10. 10. No support from the science community
  11. 11. Developed a series of sophisticated wind tunnels, late 1890s
  12. 12. Conducted aerodynamic experiments on various aircraft designs
  13. 13. Studied the stratosphere
  14. 14. Published books:
  15. 15. theoretical problems of using rocket engines
  16. 16. issues of navigation
  17. 17. reentry heating
  18. 18. fuel needs
  19. 19. Ideas of using oxygen and hydrogen as a fuel for space travel
  20. 20. Finally gained support near the end of his lifetime</li></li></ul><li>Early Rocketry<br /><ul><li>Robert Hutchings Goddard
  21. 21. (1882-1945)
  22. 22. Worcester Polytechnic Institute of Clark University,1908
  23. 23. Graduate Studies
  24. 24. Received his Doctorate
  25. 25. Taught physics
  26. 26. Conducted rocketry experiments
  27. 27. 1914, two U.S. patents
  28. 28. for liquid fueled rocket engines
  29. 29. March 16th, 1926: Tested the first liquid fueled rocket
  30. 30. Designs were very primitive
  31. 31. set the path for future liquid fueled rocket success
  32. 32. Helped launch the first scientific payload in 1929
  33. 33. Did not receive much credit during his lifetime</li></li></ul><li>Early Rocketry<br /><ul><li>Hermann Oberth
  34. 34. (1884-1989)
  35. 35. Pursued studies in Astronautics
  36. 36. Conducted experiments to simulate weightlessness
  37. 37. Worked out a design for a long-range liquid fueled rocket
  38. 38. Published:
  39. 39. The Rocket into Interplanetary Space, 1923
  40. 40. mathematically explained how a rocket could escape Earth’s gravitational pull using stages
  41. 41. Ways to Space Flight, 1929
  42. 42. described the development of electric and ion propulsion
  43. 43. Liquid-propellant rocket, patent in 1931 from the Romanian Patent Office
  44. 44. Wernher von Braun was an assistant to Oberth</li></li></ul><li>Testing<br /><ul><li>Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky
  45. 45. Developed his own experimental methods
  46. 46. Built many wind tunnels in Russia
  47. 47. From experiments he derived:
  48. 48. a formula relating the rocket’s velocity at any moment, the fuel’s specific impulse and the rocket’s mass in initial and end time
  49. 49. the basic equation of rocket propulsion
  50. 50. Analysis of rocket behavior under zero gravity
  51. 51. Solved the problem of landing on planets lacking atmospheres
  52. 52. Founded the theory of interplanetary navigation
  53. 53. Showed the possibility of reaching orbital velocities and interplanetary flight
  54. 54. Studied the problems with Earth’s artificial satellites
  55. 55. Studied medical and biological issues with long term space flight</li></li></ul><li>Testing<br /><ul><li>Robert Goddard
  56. 56. Assistant professor at Clark University, Worcester, in 1915
  57. 57. Began experimenting the efficiency of rockets
  58. 58. Conservation of momentum
  59. 59. Momentum measured equals the momentum burned
  60. 60. Mass of rocket before and after firing gives the mass of the ejected gas
  61. 61. Then the velocity could be deduced
  62. 62. Knowing the mass and velocity the kinetic energy given to the gas found
  63. 63. A specific amount of fuel is burned, Measured the heat given off, the total amount of chemical energy converted to heat could be determined
  64. 64. Findings are disappointing, only about 2% of the available energy contributed to the speed of the jet
  65. 65. Experimented with various nozzle designs
  66. 66. Found the nozzle by Gustav DeLaval obtained efficiencies up to 63%
  67. 67. Experiments showed that rockets could work in a vacuum
  68. 68. It was possible to achieve escape velocity with a rocket
  69. 69. Optimum efficiency would be produced from a multi-staged rocket
  70. 70. Shared his results with the Smithsonian Institution in Washington
  71. 71. he wanted support to build a rocket that could reach the high atmosphere
  72. 72. 1917 the Smithsonian responded with a grant of $5000
  73. 73. Launch of the first liquid fueled rocket on March 16th, 1926 in Worcester, MA</li></li></ul><li>Space Race<br />
  74. 74. The Cold War<br /><ul><li>The Cold war was an era of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union. It started in mid-1940s and lasted till the early 1990s.
  75. 75. One of the ways the two superpowers competed was the Space Race.
  76. 76. The Space Race was initiated on October 4, 1957 by the Soviet Union, when they launched Sputnik 1.
  77. 77. The launch caused a huge shock to the United States. It was through that the United States was no longer safe behind its ocean barriers. The Soviet Union could launch missiles directly on United States. </li></li></ul><li>The Space Race<br /><ul><li>On April 12, 1961 the Soviets launch another satellite, Sputnik 2. This time they were able to put a dog in orbit around the earth. The flight lasted for 1 hour and 48 minutes.
  78. 78. The first step that the United States made in catching up to the Soviets was in the successful launch of Alan Shepard into space on May 5, 1961
  79. 79. Then President Kennedy gave a speech on May 25, 1961 which challenged to travel to the moon by the end of the decade, congress fully funded NASA to get this accomplished. </li></li></ul><li>USA vs. USSR<br /><ul><li>While both sides were advancing in technology at the same time they had a few setbacks.
  80. 80. USA: The first Apollo mission on January 27, 1967 was a tragic failure.
  81. 81. USSR: 1967, a Soviet spacecraft, Soyuz 1 was landing and had control failure then crash landed. As for the passenger, Cosmonaut Komarov, he was unable to survive the crash. </li></li></ul><li>The United States During the Space Race<br /><ul><li>Attempts to launch a satellite
  82. 82. “Folpnik” or “Kaputnik”
  83. 83. Steps towards ultimate goal: The Moon
  84. 84. Mercury Program
  85. 85. Gemini Program
  86. 86. Apollo Program</li></li></ul><li>The Soviet Union During the Space Race<br /><ul><li>Successful Satellite Launches
  87. 87. Vostok series of rockets
  88. 88. Soyuz series or rockets
  89. 89. Lunokhod unmanned robot vehicles</li></li></ul><li>Winner of the Race<br /><ul><li>On July 20, 1969 the crew of Apollo 11 landed on the moon.
  90. 90. Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first men on the Moon.
  91. 91. Though the landing on the moon ended the Space Race, NASA and the Soviets continued to develop their space technology and began working on a project, Apollo-Soyuz which eased tensions between the two nations.
  92. 92. The success of Apollo-Soyuz mission essentially put the Cold War on hold long enough for the two rival nations to prove that they could successfully work together. </li></li></ul><li>First Time Space Achievements<br />Soviet Union Firsts<br />United States Firsts<br /><ul><li>Satellite
  93. 93. Dog in space
  94. 94. Man in space
  95. 95. Rendezvous
  96. 96. woman in space
  97. 97. Three man crew
  98. 98. Spacewalk
  99. 99. Sets endurance records
  100. 100. Leave Earth orbit
  101. 101. Orbit the moon
  102. 102. Land on the moon </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Space Race made people more fearful of the unknown
  103. 103. The prospect of reaching the cosmos allowed peoples minds to wander
  104. 104. During the Space Race UFO sightings increased dramatically
  105. 105. Stories of abduction began to run rampant
  106. 106. As these new thoughts began to make news, they caused the Sci-Fi era</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Since people were overly </li></ul>interested in space and what it <br />may hold, authors like H.G. Wells<br />began writing about fantastic accounts of extra terrestrial activity.<br /><ul><li>H.G. Wells’ WAR OF THE WORLDS raised people’s fears of alien invasion
  107. 107. More and more films and novels were being written about aliens and outer space</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>In Roswell, New Mexico an </li></ul>unidentified object crash landed in<br />an open field in July 1947<br /><ul><li>Because of the new fears of outer </li></ul>space, the Roswell incident exploded into fame<br /><ul><li>People feared that either the Soviet Union had some part in the incident or the wreckage was of alien decent
  108. 108. All of the questions rose because of the fears caused by the space race.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The space race also contributed</li></ul>to Area 51’s nation wide fame<br />because of all of the secrets <br />people began to wonder what went on there<br /><ul><li>Stories of alien corpse at Area 51 began getting more frequent
  109. 109. Since the US was looking to get the upper hand in space it was believed that the government held top secret UFO testing there</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>As a result of the new interest in the cosmos the Sci-Fi era was born
  110. 110. It’s impact on our culture is still visible today
  111. 111. Science Fiction is an extremely popular genre of movie and television show
  112. 112. The Space Race is solely responsible for creating extra terrestrial awareness, thus being the catalyst for what we know today as Science Fiction or Sci-Fi</li></li></ul><li>Future<br /><ul><li>Teamwork
  113. 113. Dedication
  114. 114. Deadlines
  115. 115. The New Frontier: Space
  116. 116. Relations with Russia
  117. 117. Now
  118. 118. Future</li></li></ul><li>Future<br /><ul><li>“Today NASA is moving forward with a new focus for the manned space program: to go out beyond earth orbit for purposes of human exploration and scientific discovery. The ISS is now a stepping stone on the way, rather then being the end of the line” (Griffin 1).</li></li></ul><li>Summary of the Space Race<br /><ul><li>A tough rivalry that ended with benefits for each side.
  119. 119. Started on October 4, 1957.
  120. 120. Ended on July 20, 1969.
  121. 121. Both sides suffered casualties.
  122. 122. Many technological achievements were made.</li></li></ul><li>Works Cited<br /><ul><li>Moon Race: U.S. Not Alone in Future Lunar Exploration
  123. 123. The Space Race
  124. 124. Space Race Rekindled? Russia Shoots for Moon, Mars</li></li></ul><li>Works Cited Cont’d.<br /><ul><li>The Cold War & Space Race Era
  125. 125. Early Astronomy
  126. 126.
  127. 127. Evolution of Space Flight
  128. 128.</li></li></ul><li>Works Cited Cont’d.<br /><ul><li>Basic Rocketry
  129. 129. Space Race</li>
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