INTRODUCTION• Generation of solid waste increases every year• Decrease of number of available landfills• Concerns about risks associated with disposal• Opposition to siting new waste managementfacilities• Increased awareness of environmentalproblems• Increase in costs associated with wastemanagement
Who is responsible?• Local, state and federal governments haveunderestimated the issue. • Industry has produced goods with little regard toeventual disposal.• Individuals consume products and generatewaste with little regard to disposal.• Disposal facility owners regard environmentalissues as secondary.
Definitions of waste• Household waste– Waste from residences – organic, recyclables,gardenwaste, etc– Source separated or mixed– Not hazardous waste – oil, paint, pesticides, cleaners• Industrial and commercial waste– all sources of waste that are not collected at thekerbside – restaurants, shops, offices, workshops, etc– largest component is wastewater sludge
Definitions of waste (cont.)• Construction waste– building and demolition sites– Variable composition with inerts (soils, cement, bricks),biodegradables (vegetation from land clearing) andhazardous waste (paints, solvents, glues etc)• Agricultural wastes– Plant and animal residues
Definitions of waste (cont.)• Regulated wastes– overtly dangerous materials– organic solvents, grease trap waste, oils, heavymetal solutions, medical waste, caustic or acidicchemicals and explosives, tyres, pathogenic (hospital)
Waste is a resource• Recyclables– Paper– Glass– Plastic– Aluminium and Ferrous metal– Building materials– Industrial recyclables– fly ash, water– Compost, soil conditioner• Energy– Conversion to methane– Direct incineration
Waste Management Hierarchy• Reducing the quantity and toxicity ofwaste.• Reusing the materials.• Recycling and recovering materials.• Combusting with energy recovery.• Landfilling• Combusting without energy recovery.
Waste Management HierarchyReducecleaner productionReuseno reprocessingTransformwaste to energy and treatmentRecyclereprocess to new goodsDisposelandfill
Reduce• reduction of the amount and the toxicity of waste throughout“the design, manufacture, and packaging of products withminimum toxic content, minimum volume of material, or alonger useful life.” (Tchobanoglous, et al, 1993)• concerns on many aspects such as the development of low-waste technologies, product recovery and reuse, thecreation of product design for recycling, and the increase ofthe overall product life (Bilitewski, et al,1996).
Reduce (cont.)• should be applied by both industries (e.g. by usingrecyclable material for packaging) and consumers (e.g.by buying reusable products) minimise the rawmaterial consumption in production and wastegeneration in the end of product life (Rhyner, et al, 1995)• How to reduce:– Implement cleaner production (next lecture)
Reuse• “…findings another or similar use for product ratherthan discarding it (McBean, et al, 1995, p. 20)• some applications of waste reuse (Tchobanoglous, etal. (1993):1. direct reuse (e.g. wooden pallets, furniture),2. raw materials for remanufacturing and reprocessing (e.g.aluminium, plastics, glass, paper and cardboard),3. feedstock for production of biological and conversion products(e.g. yard wastes, organic fraction of MSW),4. fuel source (e.g. waste oil, yard waste) and5. land reclamation (e.g. construction and demolition waste)
Recycle• “the separation and collection of waste materials; thepreparation of these materials for reuse, reprocessing, andremanufacture; and the reuse, reprocessing, andremanufacture of these materials, such as recovery plasticcontainers for the secondary material market.”(Tchobanoglous, et al, 1993, p.16)• Some environmental and economic benefits for industries(Rhyner, et al, 1995) :– energy and water saving,– material conservation, and– energy and pollution control cost saving.
Transform (waste to energy and treatment)• involves the physical, chemical, or biological alterations ofwastes which can be used “…to improve the efficiency ofwaste management; to recover reusable and recyclematerials; and, more importantly, to recover conversionproducts (e.g. compost) and energy from the heat andcombustible biogas.” (Tchobanoglous, et al, 1993, p. 16)• Disadvantages (BCSE, 2005):– no further practical values for reusing, recycling orreprocessing of the waste stream,– consumes much money and needs high technology.
Dispose (landfill)• Is accepted as a common way to handling thewaste problems in a community (Rhyner, et al,1995).• It is used if the wastes cannot be recycled or nofurther use (Tchobanoglous, et al. 1993).
Dispose (landfill) cont.• Disadvantages for the environment (Bilitewski, etal, 1996 and Mendes, et al, 2003):– high emission of methane, a potent greenhouse gas;– risk of leachate leakage and consequentcontamination of water streams;– lack of landfill sites.”– cannot be used for the long term period– needs high cost to maintain.
Integrated Waste Management• Involves using a combination oftechniques and programs to manage thewaste stream.• Based on the fact that solid waste is madeup of distinct components – recyclablesand combustibles
Integrated Waste ManagementIntegrated waste management has beendefined as the integration of waste streams,collection and treatment methods,environmental benefit, economicoptimization and social acceptability into apractical system for any region (WarmerBulletin 49, 1996).
Elements of anintegratedwastemanagementsystem?Source: Waste Treatment & Disposal
The 6components ofan integratedwastemanagementsystemSource: Waste Treatment & Disposal
Implementation• should recognize the rapid changes occurred infacilities, recovery of materials, and disposaloptions.• should be based on their characteristics,environmental impacts, economics, and societalacceptability.• varies among countries, societies ororganizations.
ExampleFigure 1 Waste Management in OEDC Countries (Zacarias-Farah and Geyer-Alle´ly, 2003)
ReferencesAustralian Business Council for Sustainable Energy (BCSE). 2005. Waste to energy aguide for local authorities. Victoria.Bilitewski, B., G. Hardtle, K. Marek, A. Weissbach, and H. Boeddicker. (1996), WasteManagement, Springer, Berlin.McBean, E. A., F. A. Rovers, and G. J. Farquhar. (1995), Solid Waste LandfillEngineering and Design, Prentice Hall HTR, New Jersey.Mendes, M. R., T. Aramaki, and Keisuke Hanaki. (2003). Assessment of theenvironmental impact of management measures for the biodegradable fraction ofmunicipal solid waste in Sa˜ o Paulo City. Journal of Waste Management 23,403–409. Retrieved September 18, 2006, fromhttp://www.elsevier.com/locate/wasman/htmlRhyner, C. R., L. J. Schwartz, R. B. Wenger, and M. G. Kohrell. (1995), WasteManagement and Resource Recovery, Lewis Publishers, New York.Tchobanoglous, G., H. Theisen, and S. Vigil. (1993), Integrated Solid WasteManagement: Engineering Principles and Management Issues, McGraw-Hill, Inc,New York.