Solar (or photovoltaic)
cells convert the sun’s
energy into electricity.
When photons strike a
PV cell, they may be
reflected or absorbed,
or they may pass right
Only the absorbed
A solar cell is a solidstate electrical device
(p-n junction) that
converts the energy of
light directly into
electricity (DC) using
the photovoltaic effect.
Totally nonvolatile with over 10 years of operation in the
absence of power
Self–contained subsystem includes lithium, quartz, and
Counts seconds, minutes, hours, days, day of the week,
date, month, and year with leap year compensation valid
up to 2100
Binary or BCD representation of time, calendar, and
12– or 24–hour clock with AM and PM in 12–hour mode
Daylight Savings Time option
Motor's position can then
be commanded to move
and hold at one of these
steps without any
Street light applications with out using normal power
In Remote areas implementing a small power systems
units at each home.
Using this system to getting hot water
The advantage of this unit is that to run the system it
does not need computer.
Solar cells directly convert the solar radiation into
electricity using photovoltaic effect without going
through a thermal process.
During the winter the sun has a low position, tracking
angle from sunrise to sunset is shortened.
Using this system at a time we can control only one
Higher hardware expenditure.
Weather condition can affect the system.
By Using controller
microcontroller we can
intelligent system in
In Future the
conventional energy is
not sufficient for use so
there is need of use non