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CAWASA E-source Newsletter Issue 4 - October - December 2012


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The Green Economy Page 2 …

The Green Economy Page 2
Secretariat News Page 3
S t. Lucia Water Rates Fact Sheet Page 5
CAWASA 2012 AGM Pages 6 and 7
Water in China Page 9
Minister says world can tap into China’s
water management Page 11
Successful Wastewater Treatment Plants Workshop Back Page

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  • 1. October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4Caribbean Water and Sewage Association Inc.The Atlantic Basin also experienced an above-average hurricane season for a third consecutive yearwith a total of 19 storms, with 10 reaching hurricane status, the most notable being Sandy,which wreaked havoc across the Caribbean and the US East Coast. Temperatures in 2012 were theninth highest on record since 1850,despite the effect of La Niña, a me-teorological phenomenon that issupposed to have a cooling influ-ence on the Earth’s atmosphere,says a new United Nations reportreleased on Wednesday.  High temperatures were ac-companied by unprecedentedmelting of the Arctic sea ice andmultiple weather and climate ex-tremes which affected many partsof the world.  The findings are among thehighlights of the provisional UNWorld Meteorological Organi-zation (WMO) statement on thestate of the global climate, whichprovides an annual snapshotof weather and climate eventsaround the world.  The report, which is based onthree global temperature sets, wasreleased at the last UN ClimateChange Conference in Doha, Qa-tar, where thousands of represen-tatives from governments, inter-national organizations and civilsociety are meeting to advanceways to cut global carbon emis-sions and pollution.  “Naturally occurring climatevariability due to phenomenasuch as El Niño and La Niñaimpact on temperatures andprecipitation on a seasonal toannual scale, but they do notalter the underlying long-termtrend of rising temperaturesdue to climate change as aresult of human activities,”said WMO secretary-gener-al Michel Jarraud.  “The extent of Arctic seaice reached a new recordlow. The alarming rate of itsmelt this year highlighted thefar-reaching changes takingplace on Earth’s oceans andbiosphere. Climate change istaking place before our eyesand will continue to do so asa result of the concentrationsof greenhouse gases in theatmosphere, which haverisen constantly and againreached new records,”he added.  Notable extremeevents wereobserved world-wide duringthe period ofJanuary–October 2012,the report stated, includ-ing heat waves in NorthAmerica and Europe, droughtin the United States, China, Braziland parts of Russia and Eastern Eu-rope, floods in the Sahel region, Pakistanand China, and snow and extreme cold inRussia and Eastern Europe.  The Atlantic basin also experienced an above-average hurricane season for a third consecutiveyear with a total of 19 storms, with 10 reachinghurricane status, the most notable being Sandy,which wreaked havoc across the Caribbean andthe US east coast.  East Asia was severely impacted by powerfultyphoons, the biggest one being Sanba, which im-pacted the Philippines, Japan, and the KoreanPeninsula, affecting thousands of peopleand causing millions of dollars indamage.  In March 2013, WMOwill publish final up-dates and figures for2012 in its annual state-ment on the status ofthe global climate.2012 Was Among Hottest Years On Record!What does this mean for Caribbean water in 2013?—In This Issue—The Green Economy Page 2 Secretariat News Page 3 St. Lucia Water Rates Fact Sheet Page 5 CAWASA 2012 AGM Pages 6 and 7Water in China Page 9 Minister says world can tap into China’swater management Page 11 Successful Wastewater Treatment Plants Workshop Back Page
  • 2. e-SourcePage 2 October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4  CAWASA Inc. concluded another successfulyear in 2012, during which affiliates and the col-lective entity navigated stormy seas and sailedcalm waters – meeting challenges while takingcare of members’ business, whatever the climate,however it changed.  The last year (2011-2012) saw CAWASA addtwo potential Associate Members to our member-ship list: Cole Engineering and the Virgin IslandsWaste Management Authority (VIWMA) bothapplied for membership, which applications [arebeing/were given] positive consideration.  Three training activities were hosted during2012: One for “Human Resource Training” for30 Non-Human Resource Managers took placein Grenada September 13 and 14, 2011 led by theCAWASA Executive Director Victor Poyotte. An-other followed – also in Grenada – for 16 partici-pants in “Procurement and Inventory Manage-ment”, this time from October 20 to 21, 2011, ledby Denis Lorde. The third training activity was a“Management Change” workshop held in Anti-gua June 18 to 19, 2012 for 30 participants, led bythe CAWASA Executive Director.  During the year under review, Executive Di-rector Poyotte also represented CAWASA at the20th Annual Conference of the Caribbean Waterand Wastewater Association (CWWA) held inGuadeloupe from October 2 to 7, 2011. That con-ference coincided with the island’s 10th annualcelebration of “The Water Days”.  Programme Officer Suzanne Joseph also repre-sented CAWASA at the 25th Annual Conferenceof the Association of the Board of Certification(ABC) held in TAMPA, Florida from January17 to 21, 2012. During the meeting she made apresentation on the topic “Overcoming OperatorCertificate Renewal Challenges in a CaribbeanMulti-island Environment”.  In the area of Operator/Analyst Certification,nine persons sat the certification exams in “Waterand Wastewater” on November 25, 2011 studying“Water Distribution, Water Laboratory, Waste-water Treatment and Wastewater Collection”.Another ten persons successfully sat anothersimilar exam on June 25, 2012 covering similarsubjects. A third exam – this one specifically for“Wastewater Treatment” -- was held in Trinidadfor 18 persons on March 25, 2012, while another12 persons also sat a similar exam in July 2012.  During the Financial Year just ended (2011-2012), some 38 Operators/Analysts renewedtheir certificates, while 21 renewed theirs by theend of June 2012.  The Small Scale Financing facility with UNEPcontinued throughout 2012, involving a baselinestudy and LBS Protocol, with CAWASA alsoworking on a related technical exchange pro-gram.  CAWASA also in 2012 continued its work onpresentation of a common Model Sector.  The year ended with the successful stagingin St. Lucia of three major regional CAWASAevents: an Operational Assessment Workshoptook place December 3 and 4, 2012; CAWASA’s2012 Annual General Meeting was held on De-cember 4, 2012; and CAWASA’s StakeholdersConference took place on December 5, 2012. (Allthree events are fully covered in this the final is-sue of e-Source for 2012).  The CAWASA Secretariat is also pleased tohave concluded another year of successfullymeeting the needs and promoting the interests ofour affiliates at home, in the region and beyond-- and we surely look forward to continuing toserve all the best we can in 2013.  Victor PoyotteExecutive DirectorFrom the Desk of theExecutive DirectorCAWASAconcludesanothersuccessful year  Effective management of wastewater in the WiderCaribbean Region (WCR) has for several decadesbeen, and remains, a significant challenge faced by theregion.  Regional governments have long recognized thatland-based sources of pollution from municipal, in-dustrial and agricultural sectors and their negativeimpacts on marine resources are a threat to the re-gion’s economic development and the quality of lifeof its people.  Recent studies have shown that untreated sewageis one of the major threats to public health and theRegion’s rich biodiversity and is the result of rapidlyexpanding urban populations, poorly planned devel-opment, and inadequate or poorly designed and mal-functioning sewage treatment facilities. As a result:• 85% of wastewater entering the Caribbean Sea re-mains untreated• 51.5% of households lack sewer connections• Only 17% of households are connected to accept-able collection and treatment systems.  With respect to biodiversity, the study found thatsewage was one of the main factors that had causedapproximately 80% of living coral in the Caribbean tobe lost over the past twenty years.  The high rates of pollution also negatively impactthe fishing industry and the tourism sectors. In evalu-ating the underlying reasons for this persistent prob-lem, studies have shown that there are three significantchallenges: inadequate policy and legal framework,insufficient financing and the low priority placed onwaste water treatment.  The WCR suffers from a dearth of integrated stra-tegic policy instruments and supporting laws andregulations to effectively and sustainably manage thewastewater sector.  The CReW project is intended to support the WCRin addressing these three main challenges.What af-fects development of wastewater infrastructure in theCaribbean region?• Low priority given to the development of the waste-water sector• Capacity constraints of many utilities and other ser-vice providers• A lack of sufficient and stable long-term funding forutilities• Inadequate and poorly enforced policies and laws• Poor communication and collaboration amongst in-volved agencies• Limited awareness, knowledge and understanding ofalternative and appropriate treatment technologies; and• Limitations in technical capacity for environmentalmanagement.  In 1999, acknowledging that sewage is the numberone point source of marine pollution in the region,Governments of the Wider Caribbean Region signaledtheir commitment to reduce marine pollution fromuntreated wastewater by agreeing to the Protocol onthe Control of Land Based Sources of Marine Pollu-tion (LBS Protocol).  The LBS Protocol forms part of the only legally bind-ing regional agreement for the protection and devel-opment of the Caribbean Sea - the Cartagena Conven-tion.  Its entry into force in 2010 committed the Govern-ments which ratified or acceded to making majorimprovements in wastewater management by in-troducing innovative and cost effective treatmenttechnologies, improving policy, regulatory and insti-tutional frameworks, and expanding access to afford-able financing. (Source: CReW)Wastewater Management inthe Wider Caribbean Region  ‘Green Economy’ is essentially a form of develop-ment that addresses, in a holistic way, the many eco-nomic and environmental challenges confronting ustoday.  In a green economy, growth in income and employ-ment are driven by public and private investmentsthat reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhanceenergy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss ofbiodiversity and ecosystem services.  A May 2009 report entitled "Assessment of Waste-water Management in the Caribbean" found untreat-ed domestic wastewater had severe economic conse-quences for coastal ecosystems in the Wider CaribbeanRegion. This created many problems, including: In-creased fish mortality and negative effects on com-mercial fisheries; Declines in coral reeds estimated tocost the region up to US$ 870 million by 2050; Threatsto human health due to elevation of pathogenic micro-organisms; and Threats to the tourism sector.  In her presentation to the 6th Biennial CaribbeanEnvironmental Forum 6 in Saint Kitts & Nevis in May2012, CReWs Project Coordinator, Denise Forrest,looked at the links between wastewater management(WWM) and the Green Economy.  She raised the following points for consideration:Current dialogue on green economy places no empha-sis upon wastewater management; the focus tends tobe more on water and sanitation; Wastewater is a re-source that has a value although that value needs to beproperly determined; Treatment restores the value ofwastewater which is a commodity; and Lack of treat-ment negatively impacts key economic sectors suchas fisheries, health, shoreline protection (due to reefdestruction), tourism and biodiversity.  She pointed out that many countries in the WCRare affected by severe water scarcity. This has a directimpact upon sustainable development. Water stressis projected to increase with water supply satisfyingonly 60% of world demand in 20 years. Food secu-rity is also dependent upon water availability. Waterrecovery and integrated water management couldtherefore become a decisive factor in reshaping na-tional and regional food security policies.How can Wastewater Management be linked toGreen Economy?  Ms. Forrest asserted that more overtly insertingWWM into the green economy dialogue would havesocial, economic and environmental benefits.  It would constitute a paradigm shift in thinking andpractice which could, among other things: Reduce thevolume and extent of water pollution through preven-tative practices; Treat polluted water using appropriatetechnologies and techniques for return to the environ-ment; Where feasible, safely reuse and recycle waste-water thereby conserving water and nutrients; andProvide a platform for the development of new and in-novative technologies and management practices.  She said “specific enabling conditions” would be apolicy framework that views wastewater as a resource,supporting national regulations, economic incentives,the development of markets, and technical assistance.(Source: CReW)The Green Economy:Does it include Wastewater?In her presentation to the 6th BiennialCaribbean Environmental Forum 6 in SaintKitts & Nevis in May 2012, CReWs ProjectCoordinator, Denise Forrest, looked at thelinks between Wastewater Management(WWM) and the Green Economy.
  • 3. e-Source Page 3October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4CAWASA Secretariat NewsCAWASA’s 15th Annual General Meeting retained leadership  The Wider Caribbean Regionstretches from the Bahamas in theNorth to Trinidad and Tobago inthe South. Barbados to the East andall the islands in between; also theCaribbean coasts and watershedsof South and Central America.  The Caribbean Sea that links usall is threatened by pollution thatoriginates on land. This pollutionthreatens the livelihood of mil-lions: from village-based fisherfolk to multi-national hotel chainowners.  Creatures which inhabit streams,rivers, estuaries, mangroves, seagrass beds, coral reefs, and openocean areas are in danger.  This pollution erodes the basisfor the survival of entire humancommunities: fisheries, tourist at-tractions and valuable food sup-plies. Income generation opportu-nities could be lost forever. (Source:UNEP-CAP)  The Convention for the Protec-tion and Development of the Ma-rine Environment of the WiderCaribbean Region (Cartagena Con-vention) of 1983 outlines the threatsto the continued development ofthe Caribbean Sea and what wecan do to help protect it.  Its first protocol deals with OilSpills; its second protocol is de-signed to conserve Specially Pro-tected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW)and most recently, the LBS Proto-col addresses the problem of LandBases Sources of Marine Pollution.  This Protocol identifies the ma-jor sources of land-based pollu-tion and offers ways for decreasingtheir negative impacts on the coast-al and marine environment.  If all countries of the Wider Ca-ribbean Region formally ratify/accede and meet the obligationsof the LBS protocol, the fate of ourCaribbean Sea—and out lives, canbe changed from a dismal future tohope for sustainable developmentof the people.There’s HELP!Our THREATENEDCaribbean  The CAWASA membership, gathered at its 15th Annuual General meeting in St. Lucia, was satisfied with theleadership offered by the current executive of the regional organization and retained the same Executive Officers for2012-2013, as follows:Bernard Ettinoffe:PresidentChristopher husbands:Vice PresidentIvan Rodrigues:SecretaryJohn Joseph:Treasurer  Fifty-nine (59) water operators fromfour CAWASA member-utilities andone non-member utility, in five Carib-bean territories, sat the CertificationExaminationsinNovember2012,inwhicha 39% pass-rate was recorded. Participat-ing utilities iincluded:(Member Utilities)Antigua -- 21 operators; Dominica-- 1 op-erator; St Lucia -- 11 operators; and StVincent -- 9 operators. Non-memberutility Trinidad & Tobago also partici-pated with 17 operators.59 sat Water Operator CertificationExaminations in November  The Caribbean Water & SewerageAssociation Inc. (CAWASA) has beeninvited to participate in the 5th SteeringCommittee (SC) Meeting of the GlobalWater Operators’ Partnerships Alli-ance (GWOPA) on 28th February to 1stMarch 2013, in Paris.  The meeting in the French capitalwill be hosted by Syndicat Interdé-partemental pour lAssainissement delAgglomération Parisienne (SIAAP), amember of the GWOPA Steering Com-mittee, at their Paris headquarters.CAWASA is already a member or-ganization of the GWOPA SteeringCommittee.  The first day of the Paris meeting(February 28th) will feature presenta-tions by the GWOPA Secretariat, to befollowed by discussions.  The SC meeting will also includeRegional/National Platform Updatesfrom regions to be represented (Af-rica, Asia, Latin America and the Ca-ribbean, the Pacific, Southeast Europe,Brazil, Mexico, Pakistan) and thesepresentations will also be followed bydiscussion.  Partners Perspectives and Updateswill also be given at the meeting byparticipating institutions and organi-zations (ADB, AFD, AfDB, IDB, CSOs,USAID, OFID, IWA, Private Operators,Unions) followed by discussion.  The meeting will feature pre-sentation, discussion and adop-tion of GWOPA’s 5-Year Strategy(2013-2017) to be adopted by the SCmembers.  A meeting of the GWOP’s IntegritySub-committee will also take place onthe first day. On the second day, Fri-day, March 1st 2013, participants willengage in presentation, discussion andadoption of GWOPA’s Work Plan for2013, also to be adopted by the gath-ered SC members.  Discussion will also be held on rolesand contributions of SC members/GWO-PA partners to GWOPA’s activities.  The Paris meeting will also featurepresentation of new initiatives, includ-ing: UN-Water Task Force on Capac-ity Development for Water Operators(GWOPA); Development of Capac-ity Development Materials (UNESCO-IHE); and Review of WOPs profiles(McGill University). There will alsobe a special presentation by the host,SIAAP, of their international activities.CAWASA invited to 5th GWOPA SteeringCommittee Meeting in Paris  A Small Scale Funding Agree-ment (SSFA) was signed betweenthe United Nations EnvironmentProgramme (UNEP), an interna-tional intergovernmental organi-zation established by the GeneralAssembly of the United Nationsand represented by its RegionalCoordinating Unit of the Caribbe-an Environment Programme (CEP)of the United Nations Environ-ment Programme (UNEP) basedin Jamaica and the Caribbean Wa-ter and Sewerage Association Inc (CAWASA), one of the key region-al stakeholders for the Global En-vironment Facility (GEF)-fundedproject “Testing a Prototype Ca-ribbean Regional Fund for Waste-water Management in the WiderCaribbean”.  This was concluded as part ofthe GEF-funded regional projectentitled “Testing a Prototype Carib-bean Regional Fund for WastewaterManagement (CReW)”.  In particular, it addresses the UN-EP-CAR/RCU Assessment and Man-agement of Environmental Pollutionsub-programme (AMEP) of the UN-EP-CAR/RCU.  The AMEP sub-programme focuseson measures to prevent, reduce andcontrol marine pollution and to assistcountries in the implementation of theProtocol Concerning Pollution fromLand-based Sources and Activities inthe Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) –the LBS Protocol -- and in particularAnnex III on Domestic Wastewater.The LBS Protocol is the third protocoldeveloped under the Convention forthe Protection and Development ofthe Marine Environment of the WiderCaribbean (the Cartagena Conven-tion) for which UNEP-CAR/RCUserves as Secretariat.  The CReW Project for the WiderCaribbean was approved by theGlobal Environment Facility (GEF)in December 2010.  The overall objective of thisproject is to, “in the context of theCartagena Convention and LBSProtocol, pilot revolving financingmechanisms and their wastewatermanagement reforms that can besubsequently established as feasi-ble instruments to provide sustain-able financing for the implementa-tion of environmentally sound andcost effective wastewater manage-ment measures.”  The three interlinked compo-nents of the CReW Project are: (1)Investment and Sustainable Fi-nancing; (2) Reforms for Wastewa-ter Management and (3) Commu-nications, Outreach and Training.  To celebrate the 80th anniver-sary of Water En EnergiebedrijfAruba NV (WEB), the CaribbeanDesalination Association (Carib-DA) held a conference and exhi-bition on the island of Aruba inJune 2012.  Titled “80 Years of Desalina-tion Makes For One Happy Is-land”, intended subjects for theconference were: Technology &Innovations, Planning and Man-agement, Finance & Economics,Regulations and the Environ-ment, Seawater Reverse OsmosisApplications, Desalination Us-ing Green Energy and ThermalDesalination, among others.CARIBDAHostsSuccessful2012ConferenceCAWASA and CReW sign SSFA
  • 4. e-SourcePage 4 October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4  In 2013 World Water Day (WWD)will share the topic of Water Coop-eration.  Now in its 21st year, World WaterDay has grown to become one of thekey dates in the United Nations cal-endar.  The WWD represents a culminat-ing event within the InternationalYear. Celebrations for the WWD willtake place around the world on thetheme of water cooperation.  The main UN international eventwill take place in The Netherlands,hosted by the Dutch Governmentand coordinated by UNESCO andUNECE with the support of UN-Wa-ter Members and Partners.  A High-Level Interactive Dialogueof the sixty-seventh session of theGeneral Assembly will also be con-vened in New York on 22 March 2013to mark the 2013 International Yearof Water Cooperation and the twen-tieth anniversary of the proclamationof World Water Day.About Workld Water Day  International World Water Dayis held annually on 22 March as ameans of focusing attention on theimportance of freshwater and advo-cating for the sustainable manage-ment of freshwater resources.  An international day to celebratefreshwater was recommended atthe 1992 United Nations Conferenceon Environment and Development(UNCED). The United Nations Gen-eral Assembly responded by des-ignating 22 March 1993 as the firstWorld Water Day.  Each year, World Water Day high-lights a specific aspect of freshwa-ter. Coming soon in this section ofthe website, we will present a briefoverview of the different themes thathave been the focus of World WaterDay celebrationsWORLD WATER DAY 22ndMarch 2013   The UN International Year 2013and the World Water Day, 22 March2013, was devoted to the theme"Water Cooperation".  The seminar officially launchedand introduced the preparations forboth, the year and the day, and in-formed about the planned activitiesand initiatives; it also offered theopportunity to gather inputs andcommitments from stakeholders.  Water cooperation has multipledimensions including cultural, edu-cational, scientific, religious, ethical,social, political, legal, institutionaland economic aspects.  A multidisciplinary approach isessential to grasp the many facetsimplied in the concept and to blendsuch parts into a holistic vision.Moreover, in order to be successfuland long-lasting, water cooperationneeds a common understanding ofwhat the needs and challenges arearound water.  Building a shared consensus onthe appropriate responses to thesequestions will be the main focusof the International Year and theWorld Water Day in 2013.  The seminar provided inspiringmessages to feed the programme ofthe UN International Year as wellas the campaign for the World Wa-ter Day 2013, both coordinated byUNESCO in cooperation with UN-ECE and with the support of UN-DESA, UNW-DPAC, UNW-DPC,on behalf UN-Water.Ready for World WaterCooperation 20135Numbersto rememberwhen drinkingwater  According to a report by FoxNews, ten signs a body is dehy-drated include: 1. Dry mouthand swollen tongue. 2. Darkyellow urine. 3. Constipation. 4.Skin becomes less elastic. 5. Pal-pitation. 6. Muscle cramps orspasms. 7. Dizziness. 8. Tired-ness. 9. Dry Tears. 10. Body al-ways feels hot.  Health, experts suggest fivenumbers to remember and todrink enough water each day:First, an adult needs at least1,200 milliliters of water everyday, which is two bottles ofmineral water.Second, it takes 21 minutesfor water to enter the cells ofthe body, therefore, drinkingwater a half an hour before ameal aids digestion.Third, water at 25-370C is bestfor your health.Fourth, going to the bathroomfive to seven times indicatesthat you are drinking a suffi-cient amount of water for yourbody.Fifth,four kinds of people needto pay attention to how muchwater they drink: Diabetics andpatients with heart disease, car-diovascular disease and kidneydisease cannot have too muchwater or drink too quickly,since over-drinking can put toomuch stress on the heart andkidneys.
  • 5. e-Source Page 5October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4(The year 2012 ended with St. Lucians anticipating an expected request from the island’s lone water utility, WASCO, for asubstantial increase in eater rates. But increases aren’t automatic. Any request must be published for public informationand a period of pubic consultation must also follow. The following facts were issued by the St. Lucia Ministry of the PublicService, which is also responsible for public utilities and the island’s water sector. The fact sheet was circulated at the startof a public information outreach by the ministry ahead of consideration of WASCO’s latest tariff increase application and theexpected period of national consultation at the beginning of 2013.)St. Lucia in National Consultation on Utility’sWater Rates Increase RequestSt. Lucia Water Rates Fact Sheet  The current Water Rates are asfollows: Domestic consumers payEC $7.35 (US $1 = EC $2.71) for 1000gallons of water for the first 3,000gallons they consume. In excess of3,000 gallons, they pay $15.00 per1,000 gallons. In other words, theprice of water for monthly con-sumption is less than 3,000 gallons,which is 0.73 cents per gallon. Theequivalent price for a liter of wateris 0.16 cents per liter.  The recommendation by the Na-tional Water and Sewerage Commis-sion is for this price to be increasedto $12.21 for 1,000 gallons for con-sumption that is less than 3,000gallons per month. This means, ef-fectively, that if the new rates areapproved, most consumers will bepaying 1.22 cents for a gallon of wa-ter. The equivalent price for a liter ofwater would be 0.27 cents.  To put this in perspective, weshould look at the price of bottledwater. A 1.5 liter bottle of water cur-rently sells for $2.17, while a 650 mlbottle sells for $1.14. At WASCO’scurrent prices for consumers, 1.5 li-ters of water sells to the public for0.24 cents, while 650 ml sells for 0.10cents. At the suggested new price,1.5 liters would be sold to the publicfor 0.405 cents, while 650 ml wouldbe sold for 0.18 cents.  For the hotels, WASCO currentlycharges $22.00 for 1,000 gallons ofwater. This equates to a rate of 2.2cents per gallon or 0.48 cents perliter. In bottled water sizes, this is0.72 cents for 1.5 liters and 0.31 centsfor 650 ml. The proposed new ratefor hotels is $36.55 for 1,000 gallons,which is 3.65 cents per gallon or 0.81cents per liter. For the equivalentbottled water volumes, this is 1.21cents for 1.5 liters and 0.53 cents for650 ml.  For commercial consumers, WAS-CO’s rate currently stands at $20 for1,000 gallons. This is 2 cents per gal-lon or 0.44 cents per liter. The equiv-alent bottled water rates are 0.66cents for 1.5 liters and 0.29 cents for650 ml. The proposed new rate forcommercial consumers is $33.23 per1,000 gallons, which is 3.32 cents pergallon or 0.74 cents per liter. Again,the equivalent bottled water rateswould be 1.11 cents for 1.5 liters and0.48 cents for 650 ml.  With respect to the sewerage orwastewater rates, these currentlystand at $5.45 per 1,000 gallons forthe first 3,000 gallons for domes-tic consumers, which will go upto $10.35 per 1,000 gallons for pro-duction in excess of 3,000 gallonsper month. The proposed increasewould be to $13.10 per 1,000 gallonsfor the first 3,000 gallons and $24.87per 1,000 gallons for sewerage in ex-cess of 3,000 gallons.  For commercial consumers, thecurrent rate is $13.70 per 1,000 gal-lons, with a proposed increase to$32.92 per 1,000 gallons.  The hotel sector currently pays$14.60 per 1,000 gallons for sewer-age, and the proposal is that this willincrease to $35.08 per 1,000 gallons.It should be noted that WASCOcurrently has only 3,896 accountsfor wastewater or sewerage, whichis equivalent to less than 7% of thepopulation.  The procedure with the proposedrates, according to the legislation(Water and Sewerage Act) is as fol-lows: A draft notice will be pub-lished in the newspapers and theGazette, to allow members of thepublic 2 WEEKS to comment.  The Commission shall then con-sider the comments made by thepublic and shall make the changesto the report as it sees fit. The Com-mission shall publish the summaryof the decision stipulating the newor modified tariff scheme in the Ga-zette and at least 2 newspapers, atwhich time the new tariff will comeinto effect.Some facts about WASCO  WASCO operates approximately26 water plants, over 80 reservoirsand storage tanks and a distributionnetwork comprising approximately500 miles of pipes, some of whichare over 60 years old. All of theseare in need of immediate attentionand maintenance.  Water loss is between 40% and60% -- due to leaks, water theft,meter issues and poor customerdatabases. This means that overhalf of the water that the companyproduces cannot be accounted for.The company has engaged a teamto aggressively look at reducing thepercentage of non-revenue water toaround 20%.  Electricity costs account for 35%of WASCO’s direct expenses. Thecompany has estimated that to re-store the national water system toPre-Tomas condition will require acapital injection of almost $20 mil-lion, while the de-silting of the Ro-seau/John Compton Dam will re-quire over $10 million.  Additionally, addressing the wa-ter supply problems in Vieux Fortwill necessitate over $25 million ininfrastructure works, with a similarsum needed to deal with the prob-lems of poor water supply and qual-ity in the Dennery Valley. There are59,998 accounts for water, of which40,976 are active.Moving Forward  A tariff increase will not solvethe water problems we are facingin Saint Lucia. It will merely allowWASCO to cover its operating ex-penses and get out of this peren-nial debt hole that it has been in foryears.  There are steps that WASCO musttake immediately to increase the ef-ficiency of its operations.• It must drastically reduce on thepercentage of non-revenue water.It has to reduce on the number ofinactive consumers, which cur-rently stands at over 19,000.• The amnesty announced by theGovernment in the 2012 Bud-get was supposed to have givenWASCO an avenue to addressthis problem and the companyhas to vigorously pursue this option.• WASCO must improve its re-sponse time to customer com-plaints.• WASCO must also establish met-rics against which it will judge itsquality and efficiency of service,such as the duration and frequen-cy of service interruptions.• WASCO must explore ways to re-duce its energy consumption, in-cluding the possibility of install-ing a hydroelectric facility at theRoseau Dam.• The monthly energy require-ments of the Roseau Dam run inthe hundreds of thousands of dol-lars, and this is one area whereexpenditure reduction should bepossible.• WASCO must also improve its cus-tomer management database andthere are opportunities to partnerwith LUCELEC in this regard.Water is still collected traditionally for free at public standpipes acrossthe Caribbean. But while the average regional consumer spends more onbottled water without realizing it, most also have serious misconcep-tions about what it costs to produce and distribute water nationally.
  • 6. e-SourcePage 6 October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4CAWASA 2012 AGM andStakeholders Forum  Wastewater, alongside, waterhas been identified as a criticalcomponent of any county’s priori-ties. The Millennium Goals, aimedto eradicate poverty by 2015, thathave been endorsed by most na-tions are unlikely to be fulfilledunless more emphasis is put onthese critical sectors. The Caribbe-an Regional Environmental Waste-water (CReW) initiative fundedby the IDB and co-sponsored byUNEP, have ascertained that only3% of wastewater in the Regionis treated at an acceptable stan-dard. This lack of treatment hasserious repercussions for coun-tries both environmentally andeconomically.  The Caribbean Water and Sew-erage Association Inc. (CAWASA)ended 2012 hosting three impor-tant regional meetings assessingbest practices for running Caribbe-an wastewater facilities and to con-solidate strategic alliances for sus-tainable development in St. Lucia’sand the Caribbean region’s waterand sewerage sectors. Alongsidethe CAWASA AGM the objectiveof these meetings was to shareinformation between utilities, fos-ter greater understanding of BestPractices in the wastewater sector andpresent opportunities on moving thesector forward.  The first meeting was a two-dayOperational Assessment Workshopheld December 3rd to 4th at the BayGardens Conference Centre at Rod-ney Bay, Gros Islet. It featured pre-sentations related to Effective UtilityManagement (EUM). EUM identifiesBest Practices as documented by theAmerican Water Works Association(AWWA), the Water EnvironmentFederation (WEF), the US PublicWorks Association and the Environ-mental Protection Agency. The work-shop was conducted by the WorldWater and Wastewater Solutions(WWWS), which had been engaged toconduct studies and assessments andto lead the discussions on findings.  Presentations included a case studypresented by the local Water andSewage Company (WASCO), as wellas an overview of a project earlier un-dertaken by the Caribbean RegionalFund for Wastewater Management(CReW).  The workshop began with an over-view of the CReW project by DeniseForrest and Christopher Corbin, fol-lowed by presentation and discus-sion of the Baseline Assessment. TheCaribbean Wastewater UnderRegional Scrutiny in St. LuciaCAWASA hosts successful Operational AssessmentWorkshop, Annual Stakeholders Forum and 2012 AGMWWWS representative, Valerie Jen-kinson, made several presentationsindicating the concepts, principles,benefits and challenges of utility oper-ation water assessments, offering casestudies undertaken by her entity. Re-lated issues presented and discussedalso included data requirement andsources, data collection methodolo-gies for conducting operational as-sessments and presentation of reportsof findings. Also discussed was effec-tive management and certification ofutility operations and operators, aswell as certificate programme and op-erational assessments, and hiring ofthe right personnel for the best job.Continued on Page 10   I wish to extend a pleasant wel-come to everyone especially our re-gional participants. I wish to alsocongratulate the Caribbean Water andSewerage Association (CAWASA) forhosting yet another conference whichbrings together stakeholders of thewater sector throughout the region.  I feel very honoured yet humbled tohave been asked to present the featureaddress especially because the requestcame from Mr. Victor Poyotte, an as-tute gentleman who I rank among thehighest professionals in Saint Lucia.He was my former teacher and bossso to be considered by him says thatI’ve received a passing grade at bothends.“Consolidating Strategic Alliances for SustainableDevelopment in the Water and Sewerage Sector”  Iwilltrymybesttomakeyouproud,Mr. Poyotte.Your theme, “Consolidat-ing Strategic Alliances for SustainableDevelopment in the Water and Sew-erage Sector” is most appropriate fortoday’s changing circumstances of thewater sector especially with issues ofclimate change where we experienceextremes of drought and flooding. Asa result, our water intakes are con-stantly under serious threat causingour companies and water authoritiesto operate at levels below demand.  The climatic changes strongly influ-ence the reduction of water amountand quality because the large level ofincrease in carbon emission by the ef-fects of global warming pollutes thedrinking water resources dangerous-ly. Mountainous forested watershedsare the most important freshwateryield areas in the world. But we arelosing the supply of quality water dueto poor land management and defor-estation. Therefore, sustainable andequitable water management is neces-sary for saving the world from humanand economic tragedy.  Manzoor (2011) emphasized that,“Water crisis is a serious human issuethat exists when supply of water is lessthan demand”. This situation is there-fore certainly untenable given the rapiddevelopment of our countries in the re-gion. The impact of water on tourism,manufacturing, agriculture, healthcare,construction and domestic consumersis quite profound. As the old adagegoes, “Water is Life”, we cannot butover emphasize the importance of thisvital resource to our nations.  This therefore calls for collaborationand alliances of various parties andagencies in ensuring that we have thriv-ing water agencies in our individualcountries. To this end, the Governmentof Saint Lucia has created a structurefor regulating the water sector by estab-lishing the National Water & SewerageCommission under the chairmanshipof Mr. Truscott Augustin, as well as theWater Resource Management Agencyheaded by Mr. Michael Andrew.Continued on Page 7Following is the full text of the Feature Address by Mrs. Allison A. Jean, Permanent Secretary, Ministry ofInfrastructure, Port Services & Transport of Saint Lucia, at the CAWASA Annual General Meeting & StakeholderForum held at the bar Gardens Hotel, Rodney Bay, Gros Islet, St. Lucia on 5th December 2012Chris Corbin Denise Forrest
  • 7. e-Source Page 7October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 41CAWASA 2012 AGM andStakeholders ForumContinued from Page 6   You have heard from these twoagencies on the manner in which theyboth regulate the water company toensure the affordability of rates andquality of service for our citizens. Thethree agencies working together isone of the first and primary alliancesthat must be created if Saint Lucia is toachieve the Millennium DevelopmentGoals of the United Nations to “halveby 2015, the proportion of the popula-tion without sustainable access to safedrinking water and basic sanitation”(United Nations, 2010, p. 58).  The other alliances that must be de-veloped are among other agencies ofgovernment that aid in enhancing thedelivery of safe drinking water andwaste water services. Agencies such asthe Ministries of Infrastructure, Finance,Agriculture, Physical Development andSustainable Development must all worktowards assisting the government-owned company in reducing obstaclesthat impede progress and facilitatingavenues that enhance sustainability.  For us in Saint Lucia, the ailing wa-ter company needs urgent assistancein several forms – political will, cor-porate governance, technical support,financial resources, human resourcecapacity building, and institutionalstrengthening. To my mind, we areplaying with the economy, as a failedwater sector is inevitably detrimentalto economic and social development.  Paramount to sustainability of thewater sector is also the appreciation ofconservation measures by all consum-ers. My Ministry supported this initia-tive through the implementation of theWorld Bank-funded Mosaic Project thatsought to, inter alia, channel waters toreduce infrastructural damage throughthe installation of guttering and watertanks for rain water harvesting.Continued on page 10Regional Environmental Health expert says:‘Caribbean Waste Water ManagementFaces a Serious Capacity Deficit!’Waste Water Management is very important, due to the potentially high long-term cost of continuing to treat it just assomething that can be put on the back burner. e-Source spoke briefly to Program Director at the Caribbean EnvironmentalHealth Institute (CEHI) Christopher Cox, PhD about the importance of the Water and Waste Water. The brief interview wasconducted during the Stakeholders Forum and Operational Assessment Workshop hosted by the Caribbean Water andSewerage Association (CAWASA) in St. Lucia on December 5th 2012.  Q: How important is the workshopand how important tor relevant willbe its results for the future of WasteWater Management in the participat-ing countries from across the Carib-bean, including islands and mainlandterritories?  A: It contributes to many effortsthat have been gone before, lookingat the best thing is, how will we findthe domestic waste, industrial wasteand the problem is that we all know,waste water is something that peoplesweep under the rug.  Waste water goes into places thatyou cannot see -- into the rivers andout in the sea. But in this context, it’sin the environment and it not onlydegrades the eco-systems, but it alsopresents a clear and present dangerfor us as users – as bathers every day,as users of water for drinking, usingwater for recreation. Tourists and lo-cals alike all make use of water…  But a big problem weve had in allthese islands is the massive amountof degradation of the environment,whether through farming or fertiliz-ing, polluted water, oils and greasefrom garages, industrial effluence(and all the kinds of toxins insidethere)...  So, the thing about it is coming upwith the kinds of strategies the Gov-ernments or the Private sector canput in place to minimize the clear andpresent danger to public health andalso the danger to the economic assets-- our beaches, our marine reserves,our fishing and tourism areas…  The thing that we find, though, is thatWaste Water follows in an even worseposition than water because potable wa-ter supply is already in a bad position --people have the general perception thatwater should be free, the payment forwater should be something that the gov-ernment bears example, entirely, etc.  I mean -- granted that we all rec-ognize this as an essential service -- aright -- we need to have water. It isessential. But the thing is: theres acost for it. Similarly, theres a cost forWaste Water treatment.  So, there are many questions: For ex-ample, How do we strategically positionby way of a policy, by way of gettingand giving support? (Were not onlytalking about ministers or politicianshere, were talking about the society --the private industries, the stake holders.But the question remains…) How do weget the processes paid for? How do wewrite a policy that ensures that what wedo supports what other economic sec-tors are doing? How does the waste wa-ter strategy link into tourism, planning,and all those other sectors?  Now, that is where the utilities -- whotypically have (in most of the countries)the management responsible for waterand waste water sectors -- how do youget them to interface or interlock moreeffectively with those other sectors?(Continued on Page 11)CEHI Project CoordinatorDr Christopher Cox PhD.Sewerage Sector”=======================================================ollowing is the full text of the Feature Address by Mrs. Allison A. Jean,ent Secretary, Ministry of Infrastructure, Port Services & Transport oft the CAWASA Annual General Meeting & Stakeholder Forum held at thardens Hotel, Rodney Bay, Gros Islet, St. Lucia on 5th December 2012The banner at the meeting said it all...
  • 8. e-SourcePage 8 October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4Caribbean Water News  Jamaican Member of Parliament,D.K. Duncan, has stopped short ofsaying the social realities of someof his Eastern Hanover constitu-ents is a factor which has workedagainst them getting potable wa-ter.  Speaking in the island’s theHouse of Representatives recentlyDuncan said that in a section ofhis constituency, the hotels areblessed with the life-saving com-modity while the "black people"are forced to carry water in panson their heads.  "Our definition of drought inHanover is not that there is no rain,it is just the absence of potable wa-ter," Duncan said. He noted thatthere is water in the area, pointingfor example at the Great River Wa-ter supply, which takes water tohotels in that section of the west-ern parish.  "All the hotels, whether its Try-all, Round Hill, Fiesta, they alwayshave water," Duncan said. "But onthe left hand side, where the blackpeople live, there is no water."  The MP, who likened conditions ofpeople carrying water in pans on theirheads to an advertisement placed inthe media in 1972, which detested theway people were living, expressedsadness that 41 years later not muchhas changed.  "There seems to be a systemic prob-lem in terms of implementation,"Duncan said, as he blamed the pro-curement process for standing be-tween policy objectives and deliveryof service to people.  "I have found that one of the majorproblems we have where you find thebureaucrats even being helpful is thesystem that we have put in, the systemof procurement, which has broughtthe country almost to a standstill,"Duncan said.  He noted that the procurement sys-tem has been put in place "in order torespond to the publics outrage at thepossibility of corruption", but arguedthat "we have gone overboard".  Duncan said the problems faced byhis constituents, as well as other Jamai-cans, was not because Robert Pickers-gill, the minister of water, land, envi-ronment and climate change, had notbeen working. According to Duncan,Pickersgill had been accessible and hadlaid out a clear plan for his portfolio.  He pointed to Pickersgills 2012-2013 Sectoral Debate presentation inwhich the minister announced thatthe Rural Water Supply Limited, incollaboration with the National WaterCommission, will be embarking on amajor rural water-supply upgradingprogramme.  But Duncan said despite this com-mitment, the snails pace at which theproject is moving is very frustrating."We dont expect miracles, but whenyou are there with your constituentsand the water commission tells themand tells you that water is life, you getsome sarcastic letters from constituentswho continue not to have water, abouttheir conditions of mortality," Duncansaid. (Source: MP D.K. Duncan sayswhile procurement processes wereinitiated to combat corruption,they’ve been taken overboard, result-ing in bureaucratic delays in deliveryof water services where most needed.Procurement processes blamed for snail’s paceof delivery of Jamaican rural water suppliesJamaican MP D.K. Duncan says while procurement processes were initiated to combat corruption, they’ve been takenoverboard, resulting in bureaucratic delays in delivery of water services where most needed.===================================================================Jamaican Member of Parliament, D.K. Duncan, has stopped short of saying the social realities ofsome of his Eastern Hanover constituents is a factor which has worked against them gettingpotable water.Speaking in the island’s the House of Representatives recently Duncan said that in a section ofhis constituency, the hotels are blessed with the life-saving commodity while the "black people"are forced to carry water in pans on their heads."Our definition of drought in Hanover is not that there is no rain, it is just the absence of potablewater," Duncan said.He noted that there is water in the area, pointing for example at the Great River Water supply,which takes water to hotels in that section of the western parish."All the hotels, whether its Tryall, Round Hill, Fiesta, they always have water," Duncan said."But on the left hand side, where the black people live, there is no water."Procurement processes blamed for snail’s paceof delivery of Jamaican rural water supplies  St.Lucia’s Water and Sewage Com-pany (WASCO) has applied for a tariffincrease via the National Water andSewage Commission. The NationalWater and Sewage Commission isan independent regulatory author-ity, whose mandate is to regulate thewater and sewage sector on the islandunder stipulations of the Water andSewage Act of 2005.  According to Executive Directorof the National Water and SewageCommission, Kelly Joseph, WAS-CO has not increased their Tariffin over 12 years which will also beconsidered.  “WASCO submitted an applicationfor a Tariff review in October of lastyear and that Tariff application wasfurther amended in December lastyear. They are seeking an increase intheir rate. As you might be aware, theCommission has three choices eitherto increase or leave the rate as is”  According to Mr. Joseph, the Waterand Sewage Act of 2005 which wasamended in 2008 outlines three claus-es under which a utility companycan apply for a tariff review - the An-nual, Tri - Annual and Extraordinaryclause, with Saint Lucia applying un-der the Extraordinary item. Tariffscan be adjusted under this clause dueto extenuating circumstances such asthe case of a natural disaster.  The regulatory body will reviewthe request of WASCO, taking intoconsideration factors such as the util-ity companys balance sheet and cashflow. “WASCOs application is forninety eight percent tariff increase,however the commission wouldhave to consider all factors to deter-mine whether such an increase canbe awarded but bearing in mind theCommission can choose to reduce itor leave it as is, but a final determi-nation has not yet been made. That isimportant to highlight”  The National Water and SewageCommission will be assisted in the re-view by The Office Of Utility Regula-tion (OUR) from Jamaica. OUR is amulti sector Regulator with extensiveexperience in the regulation of watersewage, transportation and telecom-munications.Truscott Augustin, Chairman of theSt. Lucia National Water CommissionNational Water Commission ReviewsSt. Lucia Tariff Increase Request  A show of unity between St.Lucia’s bottled water manufac-turers is expected to intensify asthey seek to convince the buyingpublic that they meet the highestquality standards and local de-mand. This comes in the face ofa widening of the local market tooutside brands.  The first statement of unity andsolidarity was made when St. Luciahosted the Caribbean T20 tournamentin January this year.  The boundary advertising boardpromoting the St. Lucia Manufac-turers Association was beamed toover 40 million viewers and througha deal with the West Indies CricketBoard, five local water companieswere given the right as the officialbottle water suppliers for the week-long event.  The five water companies -- Bam-boo Springs, Forest Springs, H20, Par-adise Water and Crystal Clear -- havevowed to continue the spirit of collab-oration with major events coming up,including St. Lucia Jazz, Carnival 2013and other local and cultural events.  This is part of a Buy Local campaignspearheaded by the St. Lucia Manu-facturers Association, which arguesthat local bottle water companies cancompete in quality and standards andcan adequately meet local demand forboth spring and purified water.  They also point out that they arecontributing directly to the local econ-omy through job creation, taxes andsupport for local events.  In addition, they say, all profits re-main in the country. (Source: Carib-bean Business Report)Bottled water companies say theycan meet local demand
  • 9. e-Source Page 9October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4Water in Chinaby Asit Biswas    Chinas ambitions are high. By 2020,it aims to double its 2010 GDP and percapita income of urban and rural resi-dents both. Chinas economic trackrecord has been impressive. It nowhas a middle class population of morethan 300 million and has experiencedthe fastest ever economic growth overthe past 30 years. But it may not beable to maintain this momentum un-less it overcomes one of its core policychallenges: water, both in terms ofquantity and quality.  Economic growth is no rocket sci-ence. Abundant supply of cheap la-bor and energy powers a countrysindustrialization. Without affordableenergy, however, energy-intensivebusinesses are driven out of the mar-ket and many factories are unable toproduce goods at competitive prices.This link between economic growthand energy - the energy-growth-nexus - is widely acknowledged. Butmost analysts and policymakers to-day ignore what really an energy in-dustry is powered by: abundant andsustainable supply of water.  Indeed, Chinas economy runs onwater. Water is needed at one stage oranother to generate energy. Chinasindustry is the second largest waterconsumer - it consumes 139 billioncubic meters of water a year - withonly the agriculture sector consum-ing more. And by 2030, Chinese in-dustrys water consumption is pro-jected to increase to 265 billion cubicmeters.  Energy generating plants in Chinaare the largest industrial users of wa-ter, consuming about 42 million cubicmeters of water a year. Since Chinasinstalled energy capacity is projectedto double by 2020, energy producersshare of water will continue to rise.This growing demand will not bematched by the availability of water.For example, the Water ResourcesGroup, projects that if China carrieson with business as usual, its demandfor water will outstrip supply by 199billion cubic meters.China is runningout of water, which could soon curbits growth unless immediate counter-measures are taken.  What exacerbates this shortage isthe vicious circle of energy and wa-Will China run out of water by 2030?ter - if power-generating plants needwater then water treatment and sup-ply facilities need energy. The ThirdWorld Centre for Water Managementestimates that the water sector con-sumes as much as 25 percent of theelectricity generated globally. ThoughChinas water sector is not yet amongthe countrys most energy-intensiveindustries, it will gradually becomeso with new hubs of growth emerg-ing in the water-scare western regionand the increasing demand for waste-water treatment. Already, about 52percent of Chinas economic outputcomes from water-scarce regions.  Unfortunately, China does not havemuch water to begin with. It is hometo almost 20 percent of the worldspopulation but has only 7 percent ofits freshwater reserves. Water is oneof its scarcest resources. And it is ex-tremely inefficient in the use of waterand a world leader in water pollu-tion.  China is the worlds largest pro-ducer and consumer of coal, whichmeets more than 70 percent of its en-ergy needs. The country produced 3.8billion tons of coal in 2011 - almosthalf of the worlds total. Coal maybe considered a cheap source of en-ergy, but the air and water pollutioncaused by the mining and use of themineral is devastating. According toGreenpeace, 2.5 tons of water is pol-luted for each ton of coal produced.About 25 percent of all wastewater inChina comes from washing coal, andit contains large amounts of chemicalsand heavy metals that are almost im-possible to recycle. All this makes thetrue cost of coal in China as high as1.7 trillion yuan ($272.82 billion), orabout 7 percent of its GDP.  So what can the country do to com-bat these problems? As a first step to-ward tackling water pollution, Chinaneeds to rapidly reduce its relianceon coal. A more ecological alterna-tive could be shale gas. According tothe US Energy Information Adminis-tration, China has the worlds largestshale gas reserves - up to 36.1 trillioncubic meters . And China does want toincrease its shale gas production to 6.5billion cubic meters by 2015. Naturalgas emits 45 percent less CO2 per unitof energy produced compared to coal.And though hydraulic fracturing, thetechnique used to exploit shale gas,requires about 4.5 million gallonsof water per well, it is equal to whata 1,000-megawatt coal-fired powerplant consumes in just 10 hours. Frac-turing, nevertheless, could contami-nate groundwater. No wonder, Francebanned hydraulic fracturing in 2011.The use of shale gas, therefore, maynot result in cleaner water in China.  If China takes the water-energy-growth nexus into account, it wouldmost certainly seek a more balancedenergy mix and not focus solely on ex-ploiting shale gas, for its planned rapidexploitation of shale gas may reduceits CO2 footprint but it will also exac-erbate its water shortage. Admittedly,Chinese policymakers are taking thewater problem seriously. But water isstill isolated from the countrys energyand growth policies. China aims to re-duce its water intensity by 30 percentduring the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) period. It has also set new pollu-tion-reduction targets, particularly forthe agriculture sector.  The country must adopt a coordi-nated approach to water, which willgradually price in the external costs ofshale gas or coal. Yet there is no signof China recognizing that water has tobe managed cross-sectorally. Its latestplans do say that "water is the sourceof life, production and ecology", butit does not have a coordinated policyapproach to manage water, energyand economic development holistical-ly, without which it will not be able tofuel its economic growth indefinitelybecause it will run out of water.  ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Asit Biswasis distinguished visiting professor at LeeKuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singa-pore, and founder of Third World Centrefor Water Management. Julian Kirchherris a graduate student on public policy andmanagement at the London School of Eco-nomics (LSE) and National University ofSingapore.  China’s Ministry of Environmen-tal Protection has ordered local gov-ernments to enhance management ofdrinking water quality during floodingperiods after a southwestern city hadits main water source contaminated bywaste chemicals through heavy rains.  With the arrival of last years floodseason, floods and rainfall eroded soiland possibly washed waste from riverbanks into the water, thus "seriouslythreatening drinking-water sources,"the statement said.  The ministry asks local govern-ments to strengthen the monitoring ofwater quality, especially in areas sus-ceptible to pollution, and also to pro-vide greater supervision of factories,such as pharmaceutical, chemical, pa-permaking, smelting and other heavyindustries.  Key pollution sources, tailings andurban sewage treatment plants arealso under strict supervision, it said,adding that measures should be takenimmediately if water quality is foundsubstandard.  The warning system should alsobe improved so that environmentalpollution incidents would be re-ported promptly to reduce damage,the statement said, adding that actsof covering up pollution accidentsmust be strongly prohibited.  Waste chemicals from the Xich-uan Minjiang Electrolytic Manga-nese Plant in the city of Mianyangof southwestern Sichuan Provincewere washed into the Fujiang River,the citys main source of water, byheavy rains last year. Mianyang resi-dents resorted to buying bottled wa-ter after local authorities reported thecontamination. (More on Page 11)China orders strict management of drinking water qualityChina’s economy runs on water, but there’s concern about just how much of acoordinated approach it has to this important source and resource.What lessons for the Caribbean and the developing world?
  • 10. e-SourcePage 10 October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4Caribbean Wastewater UnderRegional Scrutiny in St. Lucia“Consolidating StrategicAlliances for SustainableDevelopment in the Waterand Sewerage Sector”Continued from Page 6  Participants identified specificand general water and wastewaterchallenges and how operationalassessments can help, as well asoperational best practices thatcan be employed. The represen-tatives from 15 Caribbean states,discussed recommendations basedon individual presentations on keyinstitutional entry points in eachcountry for future capacity build-ing and training. Recommenda-tions included training for mediaand educational institutions to en-sure sustainability of awareness.  The two days of discussions andpresentations – including an over-seas video link with WWWS’ DougMcRae in Canada – at the opera-tional assessment workshop coin-cided with and led into the CA-WASA Stakeholders Forum andAnnual General Meeting, held atthe same venue, on 5th December.  The CAWASA Stakeholders Fo-rum and AGM heard welcomingremarks from CAWASA PresidentBernard Ettinoffe, an overview ofthe Forum from CAWASA Execu-tive Director Victor Poyotte andthe need for ongoing collaborationamong partners from WASCOManaging Director John Joseph.Michael Andrew, Director of St.Lucia’s Water Resource Agencymade a presentation on Water Re-source Management in St. Luciawhile Truscott Augustin, Chair-man in St. Lucia’s National WaterCommission delivered a presenta-tion on the State of Water SectorRegulations in St. Lucia.  Participants at the StakeholderConference/AGM were presentedwith an overview of the OECS Wa-ter Sector Reform Project by ProjectCoordinator Suzanna Scott, whileUNEP (United Nations Environ-mental Program) and CReW repre-sentative, Christopher Corbin, pre-sented highlights on OpportunitiesOffered by the CReW project.  The feature address at the AGM/Stakeholders Meeting on the theme“Consolidating Strategic Alliancesfor Sustainable Development” wasdelivered by Mrs Alison Jean, Per-manent Secretary in the Ministryof Infrastructure, Port Services andTransport, which is also responsi-ble for Public Utilities.  The regional aspects of the Ca-ribbean’s water and wastewaterchallenges and prospects were alsodiscussed at the CAWASA AGM/Stakeholders Meeting.  A comprehensive presentationon regional Water Sector Initia-tives undertaken by the Carib-bean Development Bank CDB)was made by O’Reilly Lewis, theCDB’s Operations Officer and An-drew Dupigny, Division Chief ofthe CDB’s Economic InfrastructureDivision.  Findings of the Land Based Pro-tocol (LBS) were presented by theCReW representatives, while an-other session on prospects for re-gional collaboration was also pre-sented by O’Reilly Lewis, this timein his capacity as President of theCaribbean Waste Water Associa-tion (CWWA).  CAWASA Executive Director,Victor Poyotte, is pleased with theoutcome of the two sessions overthree days, which addressed waterand wastewater issues in the partic-ipating countries and came up withrecommendations for solutions.”He says on behalf of the CAWASASecretariat “It is now for us to workon implementation of our recom-mendations both at the nationaland regional levels, individuallyin each country and collectively asa region,” he added. “There is of-ten a lot of talk, much enthusiasmwhen we meet then little action af-terwards. Going forward this mustchange. The Region sits in a precari-ous position. Water and Wastewa-ter is often called the “silent ser-vice” and people take little noticeuntil there is something wrong. Allparties from the Utilities to seniorpoliticians have to recognize thatunless changes are made and fund-ing available to provide basic ser-vices to the citizens of the Regionour children and grandchildren willpay the price both in terms of healthand economic security”  Poyotte said that “CAWASAstands ready, as always, to fa-cilitate the initiatives necessaryto create conditions for better un-derstanding and application ofall the related factors necessary toimprove our management of theregion’s water and wastewateroperations.”  CAWASA’s Projects Officer Su-zanne Joseph, who both participat-ed and implemented operationaland administrative matters associ-ated with the three consecutive andtwo simultaneous meetings, alsoexpressed satisfaction with the out-come of the important gatheringsin St. Lucia of local, regional andinternational water and wastewa-ter utility managers, operators andconsultants.Continued from Page 7  This project has been regarded asa success story for Saint Lucia and isbeing replicated in other parts of theworld. We must therefore continueto encourage our citizens to practicesuch conservation measures that areaimed at preserving water resourcesand also reducing the strain on thedelivery of water services.   In addition to this project, my Minis-try has provided tremendous supporttowards the restoration of the waterinfrastructure following the passageof Hurricane Tomas. We sought to re-store the Ravine Poisson and Vanardwater intakes but were unsuccessfulwith Vanard given the magnitude ofthe structural damage and river re-alignment which occurred. It is myhope that the much needed assistancewill be received to allow for the com-pletion of this project as it is not onlya substitute source to the Roseau Dambut also a complement to meet the de-mands of the country.  Yet again, a call was made to a fewFriendly Governments for urgent re-sponse to restore the water sector, spe-cifically the Roseau Dam which hasbeen deemed heavily silted as a resultof the tremendous landslides that oc-curred during Hurricane Tomas. I amaware that the Cuban Governmentresponded and continued to showinterest in providing assistance indredging the Dam so that its capacitycould return to its original levels. Allof these, and there are many more, areexamples of the alliances that have al-ready been created to ensure the sus-tainability of the water company andby extension, the water sector.Not-withstanding the collaboration high-lighted above, the most urgent needfor the company is meaningful capitalinjection.  I am aware that a proposal has beensubmitted to the Water & SewerageCommission for tariff review whichto my mind is long overdue, how-ever the question is: should the ratesfor water be set at a level that wouldcause self-sustainability for the com-pany or must government alwaysprovide subsidies to guarantee the af-fordability of water for all?  The indifference of consumers torate increases for water is amazing ina country where mobile penetration isabove 100 per cent. There appears tobe a paradox where citizens deem mo-bile phones as necessities but are notwilling to pay more for water, whichis life. On the other hand, the level ofgovernmental support also does notseem equitable. There are issues thatmust be settled.  In financing the water sector, an-other approach that could be consid-ered is public private partnershipsbut, social water policies must be ex-plored to clarify the definition of wa-ter affordability and water poverty;provide analysis of regulations aimedat helping low-income households interms of water affordability; and pro-vide empirical analysis of water af-fordability. Saint Lucia pursued thePPP procurement process but wasthereafter aborted.  In moving forward to the achieve-ment of sustainable development inthe water and sewerage sector, con-sumers must be reminded that whatflows through our taps is not rawwater but actually a transformed re-source called treated water.  So, while water is important for life,treated water that has been purifiedmakes the quality of that water safefor drinking, food production, manu-facturing, bathing, among other uses.I trust therefore that all stakeholderswill work synergistically to enhancethe quality of service meted out in thesector thereby causing, not only suc-cess, but sustainability of the watersector in the Caribbean.  I wish you success in your delibera-tions throughout this Annual GeneralMeeting and look forward to a solidwater and wastewater sector through-out the region. Thank you.CAWASA Executive Director Victor Poyotte makes a telling point at theDecember 2012 workshop.Mrs. Allison A. Jean - Permanent SecretaryMinistry of Infrastructure, Port Services and Transport
  • 11. e-Source Page 11October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4Continued from Page 7  That is of a capacity deficit that wefind exists, because the guys who arein the water utilities are mostly en-gineers and their job is charged withproviding water to the public. But youalso have a middle-ground to travel:to convince people of the kind of ser-vice that Waste Water is; what wastewater is all about; and how you com-municate that effectively and broadenthe discussion beyond the water utili-ties.  There are many things that needto be done so that waste water andwaste water management is regardedas something that we all share respon-sibility in. So, this workshop is look-ing at some of those issues that can beRegional Environmental Health Expert says:‘Caribbean Waste Water ManagementFaces a Serious Capacity Deficit!’more effectively dealt with at and by autility level, but also considering whatutilities need to do to win support ofpersons outside of the water utility --the Ministries of Health and Tourism,the Private Sector Enterprises, yourBusiness Community, your Chamberof Commerce, your ManufacturersAssociation, etc.  Alltheseareallpeoplethatareusingwater in their enterprises. They mod-ify the water and pollute it by throw-ing pollutants into it and dischargingit. So, they too have a responsibilitylike everybody else. Therefore, the re-sponsibility for water, in all its forms,does not only lie with the water util-ity, but with the society in general.  Q. Are there any waste-water treat-ment plants or facilities in St. Luciaand how effective are they?  A. There are a few. The main one isthe Beausejour one covering the Rod-ney Bay area and which includes mostof the major hotels, in addition to thehouses that surround from South CapEstate, Bonne Terre, Reduit Heights,Reduit Orchard and those areasaround the catchment area, includingRodney Bay itself. But there are alsoother processing plants and systems,one in Vieux Fort at the brewery andother private enterprises that havetheir own.  At Cul de Sac, Lucelec also has itsown waste water treatment plant.Then there are the hotels, like Sandalswith its private packaged water treat-ment plant. There was also one at Mi-coud at one time.  But beyond that, most waste wateris on site. When you have a privatetoilet, you flush into a septic tankthat has a soak-away, but once thesolid waste settles in the tank, the wa-ter itself would have been “safe” todischarge into the soil environment,where it is further broken down bybacteria and so, that further renders itrelatively clean.  However, in many instances,they are no properly sized, theyare not constructed properly andthey are not disposed properly intothe soil, so they still create a lot ofproblems.Water is managed in several places through plants and other facilities,but direct draining of waste and waste water into rivers and thesea remains a problem in several territories.y, by way of getting and giving support? (Were not only talking about ministers orcians here, were talking about the society -- the private industries, the stake holders. Butuestion remains…) How do we get the processes paid for? How do we write a policy thates that what we do supports what other economic sectors are doing? How does the wastestrategy link into tourism, planning, and all those other sectors?Now, that is where the utilities -- who typically have (in most of the countries) thegement responsible for water and waste water sectors -- how do you get them to interface orock more effectively with those other sectors?Waste water is managed in several places through plants and other facilities, but direct draining of waste and wastewater into rivers and the sea remains a problem in several territories.That is of a capacity deficit that we find exists, because the guys who are in the wateres are mostly engineers and their job is charged with providing water to the public. But youhave a middle-ground to travel: to convince people of the kind of service that Waste Waterhat waste water is all about; and how you communicate that effectively and broaden thession beyond the water utilities.There are many things that need to be done so that waste water and waste watergement is regarded as something that we all share responsibility in.So, this workshop is looking at some of those issues that can be more effectively dealtat and by a utility level, but also considering what utilities need to do to win support ofns outside of the water utility -- the Ministries of Health and Tourism, the Private Sectorprises, your Business Community, your Chamber of Commerce, your Manufacturersciation, etc.All these are all people that are using water in their enterprises. They modify the waterollute it by throwing pollutants into it and discharging it. So, they too have a responsibilityverybody else.Therefore, the responsibility for water, in all its forms, does not only lie with the waterWASCO’s Beausejour waste water plant handles and processes solidwaste from hotels, business places and residences in Gros Islet, RodneyBay, Choc and surrounding areas.utility, but with the society in general.Q. Are there any waste-water treatment plants or facilities in St. Lucia and how effective arethey?A. There are a few. The main one is the Beausejour one covering the Rodney Bay area and whichincludes most of the major hotels, in addition to the houses that surround from South Cap Estate,Bonne Terre, Reduit Heights, Reduit Orchard and those areas around the catchment area,including Rodney Bay itself.But there are also other processing plants and systems, one in Vieux Fort at the brewerySt. Lucia’s WASCO has for many years had an effective waste water treatment plant at Beausejour in the island’s north (near theBeausejour Cricket Ground) that treats waste from hotels and residences, docks and private sector companies.and other private enterprises that have their own.At Cul de Sac, Lucelec also has its own waste water treatment plant.Then there are the hotels, like Sandals with its private packaged water treatment plant.There was also one at Micoud at one time.But beyond that, most waste water is on site. When you have a private toilet, you flushinto a septic tank that has a soak-away, but once the solid waste settles in the tank, the wateritself would have been “safe” to discharge into the soil environment, where it is further brokendown by bacteria and so, that further renders it relatively clean.However, in many instances, they are no properly sized, they are not constructed properlyand they are not disposed properly into the soil, so they still create a lot of problems.  China is not only committed toworking more closely with other na-tions to find solutions for the globalwater crisis, but is also willing to shareits unique experiences in water man-agement and conservation, said ChenLei, minister of water resources.  “The water crisis has become a bot-tleneck for sustainable developmentacross the globe and there needs tobe concerted efforts among nations tocome up with solutions,” Chen said.  Chen, who led the Chinese delega-tion to the 6th World Water Forumin Marseille, France, last March , saysChina and the European Union willsign an agreement on sharing experi-ences on water management.  “Water shortages and water-relateddisasters are becoming more and moreserious, due to rising populations, ad-vanced urbanization and global cli-mate change,” Chen said.  The forum, organized by the WorldWater Council (WWC) every threeyears, is the main international meet-ing to discuss water issues.  “The water crisis is a major concernfor all nations,” Chen said. The Mar-seille meeting is the first global plat-form on water issues that China isparticipating in as a full member afterjoining the WWC in 2009.  “As a WWC member, China will joinmore international exchanges duringthe forum, especially on disaster con-trol and relief operations,” Chen said.  According to the minister, Chinaand Japan will hold a ministerialroundtable during the meeting to dis-cuss solutions to water-related disas-ters.Despite the constant threat of floodand drought, China has made remark-able progress in the water sector, Chensaid.  The biggest achievement of success-ful water management has been therecord harvests, which have ensuredthat nearly 95 percent of the grainneeds are met from domestic sources,he said.  The national grain output reached571 million tons in 2011, an annualincrease of 4.5 percent and the eighthconsecutive year of growth.  Climate change has worsened in re-cent years and many parts of the globeare facing extreme weather situations.China is no exception as droughtshave now become a major threat tograin security.  From 2003 to 2009, the total grainloss from natural disasters was 303.35million tons - more than four timesthe increase in output over the sameperiod.  During this period, the grain lostdue to drought alone was 185.38 mil-lion tons, according to informationprovided by the Chinese Academy ofAgricultural Sciences.  To combat this, China decided toinvest 4 trillion yuan ($633 billion)on water conservation projects in the10 years from 2011. This represents asharp increase on the 200 billion yuanspent on the water sector in 2010,Chen said.  To ensure that there is adequatefunding for water conservation proj-ects, the government will utilize 10percent of the land transaction rev-enues for farmland irrigation projects.China invested a record 345.2 billionyuan on water conservation projectsin 2011, gave priority to improvingthe irrigation infrastructure for grainsecurity and came up with projectsto deal with drought and flood, Chensaid.  Irrigated land in China reached60.33 million hectares compared with49 million hectares in 1980, accordingto information provided by the Wa-ter Ministry. Irrigated land producesmore than 75 percent of China’s grainoutput and more than 90 percent of itsvegetables and economic crops.  “The government will take steps tofurther improve water conservancy,such as increasing investment andspeeding up construction,” Chen said,adding that, “such huge investment isunparalleled anywhere in the world”.  More efforts have also been made toimprove the water quality and the na-tional flood-control and drought-reliefsystem, the minister said.  The government has set a goal toprovide safe drinking water to allrural residents by 2013. As of today,nearly 300 million rural residents lackaccess to safe drinking water.  Steps to repair 50,000 old and haz-ardous reservoirs will be undertakenon a priority basis, the minister said.Nearly 7,356 large and medium-sizedreservoirs have already been rein-forced or rebuilt by the end of 2010.Repairs on another 5,400 small-sizedreservoirs will be completed this year.Besides highlighting China’s achieve-ments in the water sector, the ministeralso revealed that more efforts will betaken to enhance China’s involvementin global water movements.  The six-day forum in Marseillebrought together more than 35,000participants from 180 countries.Minister says world can tap into China’s water managementChen Lei, China’s Minister ofWater ResourcesMinister says world can tap into China’swater managementChina is not only committed to working more closely with other nations to find solutions for theglobal water crisis, but is also willing to share its unique experiences in water management andconservation, said Chen Lei, minister of water resources.Chen Lei, China’s Minister of Water Resources[China Daily]"The water crisis has become a bottleneck for sustainable development across the globe andthere needs to be concerted efforts among nations to come up with solutions," Chen said.Chen, who led the Chinese delegation to the 6th World Water Forum in Marseille, France, lastMarch , says China and the European Union will sign an agreement on sharing experiences onwater management."Water shortages and water-related disasters are becoming more and more serious, due to risingpopulations, advanced urbanization and global climate change," Chen said.The forum, organized by the World Water Council (WWC) every three years, is the maininternational meeting to discuss water issues.
  • 12. e-SourcePage 12 October to December 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 4  The Caribbean Water and Sew-erage Association Inc. (CAWASAInc.), in collaboration with the Ca-ribbean Environmental HealthInstitute (CEHI), as well as GIZ(Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Interna-tionale Zusammenarbeit) organizeda two-day workshop on “Waste-water Operations and Maintenanceof Wastewater Treatment Plants”in Dominica from 26th to 27thNovember 2012.  TheFacilitator–AlphonsusDan-iel of Daniel & Daniel Engineering,Grenada-- used a combination ofPower Point presentations to leaddiscussions on each of the topics inplenary sessions. He invited par-ticipants to make inputs on the is-sues raised and responded to ques-tions from time to time. Emphasiswas placed on experiential learn-ing and sharing of information.  Participants were assigned togroups to engage in small groupactivities. One of the activities thatformed a critical part of the train-ing was a site visit to the BaytownWastewaterTreatmentPlant.Afterthe visit, participants commentedthat the plant was the most mod-ern and among the best in the re-gion. Over the two-day period,participants addressed 12 topicsin separate sessions that providedan overview of wastewater opera-tions and maintenance.  Among the topics discussedwere: Chemical Analysis; How toalter times and processes to im-prove effluent quality; Removal ofgrit; Activated sludge system; Sitevisit elements of wastewater treat-ment and meters and their main-tenance; Understanding and iden-tifying basic design of wastewatertreatment plant; Knowledge ofturning sullage into reusable wa-ter; Practical design information;Effluent polishing, nitrificationchart and process rising sludge,bulkins sludge, sludge disposaland uses; Actual detailing of whatis involved in the treatment pro-cess and how much control canbe exercised over the entire opera-tion; Types of treatment plant andeffectiveness; Basic mathemat-ics; Treatment and safety in theworkplace; and Sludge treatment,wastewater disposal and reuse.  Twenty-three (23) participantscame from water and wastewaterutilities that are members of CA-WASA as well as CEHI MemberStates attended the workshop.Also included were representa-tives from CEHI and the CAWA-SA Secretariat.  The Secretariat was satisfied with theadministrative and logistical supportprovided by the Human Resource De-partmentofDOWASCOtofacilitatethetraining.  Participants made recommen-dations are made for follow-upactivities, including that CAWA-SA should consider repeating thecourse for persona pursuing theABC certification examination.Also recommended was a fol-low-up workshop on Health andSafety for wastewater operators.  It was also recommended thatManagers, Heads of Departmentand Supervisors attached to themember utilities provide supportand facilitate trainees in the appli-cation of the knowledge and skillsacquired from the workshop.  CAWASA Executive Direc-tor Victor Poyotte, following theworkshop, said, “From all indica-tions the workshop was a resound-ing success and is likely to havea positive impact on the futureimplementation of the operationsand maintenance programmes ofmember utilities.”  Participants came from Antigua,British Virgin Islands, Belize, Barbados,Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Montser-rat, Nevis, St Lucia and St Vincent & theGrenadines.Dominica HostedSuccessful WastewaterOperations andMaintenance WorkshopSome participants at the workshopsFacilitator at Workshop – Alphonsus Danielof Daniel & Daniel Engineering, GrenadaParticipants touring Baytown Waste Water Treatment Plant.Tour of Wastewater Treatment Plant in Roseau.