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Cawasa e source newsletter   july to september 2012
 

Cawasa e source newsletter july to september 2012

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In This Issue: ...

In This Issue:

- Secretariat News Page 2 and 3
- Managing Caribbean Waste Water Pages 3 and 4
- Desalination: Is it worth the cost? Page 5
- World Without Water? Pages 6 and 7
- Health Benefits of Water Page 8
- Climate Change Challenges for
- Caribbean Water Page 9
- Rain Water Harvesting Barbados-style Back Page

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    Cawasa e source newsletter   july to september 2012 Cawasa e source newsletter july to september 2012 Document Transcript

    • Caribbean Water and Sewage Association Inc. July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 CAWASA and UNEP Assessing Caribbean Waste Water Management CAWASA and UNEP Host Operational Assessment Workshop   The Caribbean Regional   The CAWASA Secretariat en- titudes, behaviors and practices Operational Fund for Wastewater Manage- gaged the World Water and Waste- on wastewater management in Assessment Workshop ment (CReW) is a four-year water Solutions (WWWS) to iden- the region;   Plans are well advanced project funded by the Global tify an appropriate baseline to assist • Guidance to participating utili- for WWWS to conduct a two- Environment Facility (GEF), in the design and implementation of ties in a self-assessment of their day Operational Assessment with the Inter-American De- future capacity building activities. strengths and weaknesses; Workshop in Saint Lucia on velopment Bank (IDB) and the   The consultant was expected to • Recommendations on key in- from the 3rd to 4th December United Nations Environment provide the following: stitutional entry points in each 2012. Programme (UNEP) as the co- • An overview of wastewater country for future capacity   The workshop will coin- implementing agencies. treatment in the participating building and training including cide with the hosting of the   Earlier this year, UNEP CAR/ countries including policies, media and educational institu- Annual General Meeting of RCU, as the regional execut- legislation and regulations and tions for sustainability. recommendations for regional CAWASA on 5th December ing agency, signed a small-scale   The main activities of the base- 2012. funding agreement SSFA with harmonization and improved line assessment were executed enforcement;   Following the workshop, CAWASA to coordinate four during August and September tasks on Wastewater Manage- • An overview of existing lab ca- the consultants will visit at (2012) and the consultant submit- ment in the English speaking Ca- pacity to support wastewater ef- ted a Draft Baseline Assessment least three selected utilities ribbean countries of Antigua and fluent monitoring and its impacts Report for review and verification participating in the CReW Barbuda, Barbados, Saint Lucia, on the marine environment; in October. project, to conduct a fol- St. Vincent & the Grenadines, • An update of the national coun- low-up operational assess-   Another component of this task Trinidad, Guyana and Suriname. try profiles developed in the is a review of the status of the ment on utility wastewater Project Preparation Phase; Land Based Sources of pollution management. Report for Baseline • Recommendations on priority (LBS) Protocol in the participating   At the end of this, the con- Assessment training needs for wastewater countries. sultants are expected to submit   One of the tasks involved is professionals in the beneficiary   This exercise is being undertaken an Operational Assessment the conduct of a regional base- countries; by Consultant Patricia Prudent- Report to the management line assessment on wastewater • Recommendations for improv- Phillips and a report was expected of each utility, as well as to management. ing the current knowledge, at- by the first week of November 2012. CAWASA. In this Issue Secretariat News Page 2 and 3 Health Benefits of Water Page 8 Managing Caribbean Waste Water Pages 3 and 4 Climate Change Challenges for Desalination: Is it worth the cost? Page 5 Caribbean Water Page 9 World Without Water? Pages 6 and 7 Rain Water Harvesting Barbados-style Back Page
    • Page 2 e-Source July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 CAWASA Secretariat News CEHI and CAWASA Collaborate on Waste Water Operations and MaintenanceDominica to host Waste Water Workshop in June  The Caribbean Water and Sewerage Associa-tion Inc. (CAWASA Inc.), in collaboration withthe Caribbean Environmental Health Institute(CEHI) is organizing a two-day Workshop on“Wastewater Operations and Maintenance” to beheld in Dominica from 26-27th November 2012.Twenty-five (25) participants from water andwastewater utilities that are members of CAWA-SA, as well as CEHI Member-States, are expectedto attend the workshop.  The workshop will focus on the safe and effec-tive operations and maintenance of wastewatertreatment plants and will provide participantswith hands-on practice in the operations andmaintenance of wastewater treatment plants.  This workshop has come against the backdropof an initiative by the Global Environment Fa-cility Caribbean Regional Fund for WastewaterManagement (GEF CReW) to reform Wastewater The Dominica meeting will seek to upgrade the performance of wastewaterManagement in the Caribbean. operations managers across the Caribbean.  It will address the current challenges facing • Understand basic hydraulics related to open- • Assume responsibilities of wastewater opera-wastewater management in the Caribbean, espe- flow channel as it relates to sewers not flowing tors to implement health and safety measures,cially the knowledge and skills needed to manage full; laboratory analysis and effluent quality;wastewater treatment systems and facilities. • Read and interpret the basic design of waste- • Appreciate the Do’s and Don’ts during operations  The workshop is also intended to complement water treatment plants; and maintenance of treatment plant and sewerage.other operational activities planned for imple- • Understand the sources of wastewater genera-   It is expected that the region will have a cadrementation by CAWASA and CEHI as part of their tion, types and quality wastewater; of utility operations and maintenance personnelgeneral program, as well as CReW project-related • Differentiate between different types of waste- who have acquired relevant knowledge and skillsactivities. water treatment plant; as well as practical experience in the operations  At the end of the workshop, participants will • Undertake the operations and maintenance of and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants.be able to: wastewater treatment plants; (More on Waste Water on Pages 3 and 4). CAWASA seeks CARICOM Accreditation 8th High Level for Operator Certification Programme Session of Caribbean Water Ministers attended by CAWASA   CAWASA’s representatives attended the 8th High Level Session of Caribbean Water Ministers held on 4th and 5th October 2012.   The Ministerial Forum focused on the theme “The Water and Energy Nexus in Caribbean Development,” was attended by ministers responsible for water from Baha- mas, Dominica, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Nevis and St. Kitts.   Guyana and Saint Lucia were represented by their Permanent Secretaries.   The session comprised seven sessions, each covering a topic of interest to the ministers.   In Session 1, the presenters examined re- gional experiences and lessons relating to energy and water. Session 2 looked at sus- tainable energy options for the water sector CAWASA is seeking accreditation from the CARICOM Secretariat in Georgetown, Guyana. while Session 3 discussed the implications of climate change for water.  Recent studies on the Caribbean water and sanita-   The CAWASA Secretariat is exploring oppor-   In Session 4, regional institutions gave antion sector acknowledge the fact that there is a growing tunities to expand the reach of the programme update on their water resource managementproblem of water quality management in the region. among the operators of private water and waste- activities while in Session 5 a representative  In most cases, the reports recommend skills water systems or facilities in the sector such as of the African Ministers Council on Watertraining and professional certification for water breweries, distilleries, hotels, bottled water com- (AMCOW) gave an overview of water re-and wastewater Operators and Analysts as one panies and manufacturers. source management at the ministerial levelof the approaches necessary to tackle the quality   In this regard, the CAWASA Inc Secretariat in Africa.management problem. wrote to the Accreditation Officer at the CARI-   Session 6 took the form of a Panel Discus-  The ABC/CAWASA Inc Operator Certification COM Secretariat requesting formal recognition sion where the ministers gave their perspec-programme administered by the CAWASA Sec- of the programme by Governments of the Carib- tives on national and regional issues and so-retariat has been gradually gaining acceptance bean Community (CARICOM). lutions for a water secure Caribbean.among the management of Caribbean Water and   The CAWASA Inc Secretariat submitted de-   During Session 7, the ministers reached con-Wastewater utilities as the basis for classifying tails of the programme for consideration of the sensus on the main conclusions of the Forumtheir systems and facilities as well as for certify- programme contents and is awaiting a response and approved resolutions for future action.ing their operators and analysts. to the request for formal accreditation.
    • July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 e-Source Page 3 CAWASA Secretariat News CAWASA Supports Saint Lucia Labour Market Assessment CAWASA officials  In August 2012, the CAWASA Secretariat signed an local survey team.agreement with the firm of PEMConsult/Dunn, Pierre,Barnett & Company Limited, to provide support for   Activities undertaken by the Secretariat included the training of enumerators, supervision of the data collec- attend 21st Annualcarrying out a Labour Market Needs Assessment sur-vey in Saint Lucia. tion process, as well as organization of a series of focus group sessions at four locations on the island. CWWA Conference  The survey commenced 28th August and ended 20thOctober and forms part of the OECS Skills for Inclusive   The sessions were held in Gros islet, Dennery, Vieux Fort and Soufriere and the consultants lectured on is- in The BahamasGrowth Project. sues that included: Tourism and Hospitality, Construc-   Mr. Bernard Ettinoffe, President and Mr.  In keeping with the agreement, the CAWASA Secre- tion, ICT, Agriculture/Agri-Business, Manufacturing, Victor Poyotte, Executive Director, repre-tariat assumed responsibility for the overall coordina- Youth, Job Seekers, Education and TVET (Technical sented CAWASA at the recently-concludedtion, direction, quality assurance and reporting of the and Vocational Education Training). 21st Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Caribbean Water and Wastewater As- sociation (CWWA) held from 1-5th October CAWASA Supports CDB Regional Water Sector Review 2012 at the Atlantis Hotel in the Bahamas.   In May 2012, the Caribbean Development Bank a preliminary assessment of CDB’s policies and in-   Participation of CAWASA was made (CDB) launched an initiative to undertake an ini- volvement in water sector in its BMCs. possible with financial assistance from the tial assessment of the state of the Water Sector in   Specific attention will be paid to the existence and United Nations Environmental Programme, CDB’s Borrowing Member Countries (BMCs. The efficacy of policies and systems to reduce the risks Caribbean Regional Coordinating Unit countries being assessed are: Jamaica, Trinidad & to the sector associated with climate change. (UNEP-CAR/RCU). Tobago, Belize, Guyana, The Bahamas, St. Vincent   At the official opening ceremony, Mr. Et-   Regional collaboration would be beneficial to the tinoffe delivered brief remarks on behalf of and the Grenadines, St. Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla, Montserrat, Barbados, Antigua and Barbuda, Dom- improvement of the sector; and (b) potential areas CAWASA. He also gave the audience a sum- inica, St. Lucia, Cayman Islands, British Virgin Is- of focus for CDB interventions in water sector in its mary of the main regional initiatives current- lands, Grenada, and the Turks and Caicos Islands. BMCs. ly undertaken by CAWASA.   The CDB selected Cole Engineering as the main   The study will involve assessments of role of re- gional organisations, assessments of role of funding CAWASA attends consultant for the study, one of the main purposes of which is for the CDB to gain an understanding of agencies, the preparation of water sector profiles in the policies, systems and practices in water resource the CDB BMC’s and the evaluation of potential role management and to develop improved strategies.   The main objective of the CDB Study is to identify of the bank.   It will also involve a review of relevant CDB GWOPA Workshop the principal development challenges and needs fac- policy and strategy documents related to water sec- ing individual countries and the Caribbean region, tor with emphasis on water supply, environmental   At the joint Global Water Operators Alli- in the context of financing opportunities for CDB. management and agriculture. ance (GWOPA) and Caribbean Water Opera-   The consultants are expected to make recommen- tors (CariWOPS) workshop the CAWASA   The study will: (a) evaluate the role of regional dations on the areas of strategic focus for potential President, bernard Etinoffe, delivered brief institutions and active funding agencies in water sector in the Caribbean; (b) prepare water sector CDB interventions in water sector in the region. opening remarks while the Executive Direc- profiles and conduct initial assessments on the state   The CAWASA Secretariat is providing adminis- tor, Victor Poyotte, made a presentation on of water sector in individual BMCs; and (c) conduct trative support to the consultants. the achievements of CariWOP during the past year.   Mr. Jose Luis Martin Bordes, ProgrammeStakeholders discuss Caribbean Water Security in St. Lucia Officer of GWOPA made a presentation on Lessons Learnt and the Future of the WOP-  A two-day stakeholder workshop focusing on The LAC regional platform.Impact of Water and Climate on Development Within   An official of the USAID made a presenta-the Caribbean took place in St. Lucia on November 15 tion on the USAID Programme “Water andand 16, bringing together key players within the Carib- Knowledge.”bean in the area of Climate Change.   Mr. Jose Luis Martin Bordes, Programme  The participants provided input into the finalization Officer of GWOPA held a meeting with theof the Water, Climate and Development Programme Executive Director of CAWASA to discuss(WACDEP) Implementation Plan that was adopted by weaknesses in the current administration ofCARICOM Heads of Government in March 2012. the Caribbean Water Operators (CariWOPS).  The WACDEP is geared towards a Regional Frame-   They also examined a range of optionswork for Achieving Development Resilience to Cli- aimed at strengthening the regional platform.mate Change.  The information gathered during the workshop isbeing shared among the various stakeholder groupsthroughout the region as they too engage in formulat- Executive Director Attended Watering their own policies.  The WACDEP initiative will be monitored and eval-uated over the course of the next three years, by whichtime the stakeholders will make the necessary adjust-ments to enhance the regions water supply. Permanent Secretary in St. Lucia’s Water Ministry, Operator Certification Sylvester Clauzel, said Climate Change is not only  The 27 participants came from 10 territories withinthe Caribbean region and represented various disci- about environmental issues but also about handling and managing workers. Workshopplines, including planning, water resource agencies,Climate Change, agencies and forestry.   A special workshop was recently held,   "The point being made here is that when we speak aimed at introducing the Operator Certifi-  It is the believed that the real and positive changes about Climate Changes impact on water, its not just cation Programme to Caribbean Water andregarding the regions water supply will only be real- about purely environmental issues. Were also dealing Wastewater Operators and Analysts.ized when there is a more conscious effort on the part of with industrial relations and managing workers and   The topics covered include: certificationthe populace to gain an appreciation for whats at stake. managing people." policies, institutional arrangements, inspec-  Saint Lucia’s Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of   Clauzel added that the devastating effects of Hur- tion and classification of systems and facili-Public Service, Sustainable Development, Energy, Sci- ricane Tomas on the islands infrastructure resulted in ties, operator training, examination admin-ence and Technology, Sylvester Clauzel, was one of the additional stress to WASCOs financial viability andfeatured speakers. istration, certificate renewal and benefits of the utilitys ability to adequately supply its consumers with potable water on a regular basis. certification.  Clauzel referenced the situation that was playing   The Executive Director of CAWASA madeout at the islands main water supply, WASCO, where   Other speakers included Ermath Harrington, con-employees staged a ‘sit-out’ over outstanding wage a formal presentation and answered ques- sultant/facilitator of the WACDEP programme forissues. “The issues surrounding water are broad,” he the Global Water Partnership-Caribbean (GWP-C); tions from participants relating to the Opera-indicated. Avril Alexander, Regional Coordinator, Global Water tor Certification examinations.  "Although there are only about 10% of the workers Partnership-Caribbean (GWP-C); Trevor Thompson,   He also distributed brochures and oth-on strike, because of the strategic areas that those 10% Chair, Global Water Partnership-Caribbean (GWP-C); er materials providing information on theof workers are involved in, it obviously does have an and Carlos Fuller, Deputy Director, Caribbean Com- courses available, fees and sources fromimpact on the provision of water, particularly in the munity Climate Change Centre (CCCCC). CAWASA which the students can obtain text books re-northern part of the island where we have the hotel was represented by Program Officer Suzanne Joseph. quired for the programme.plants, our main economic drivers," Clauzel said. The Voice.
    • Page 4 e-Source July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 Waste Water Management Caribbean experts assess financing mechanisms for Wastewater Management   The Caribbean Regional Fund for WastewaterManagement (CReW) -- a four-year project which Untreated domestic wastewater has severe consequences for coastalbegan in 2011 and is financed by a special arrange-ment that involves the Global Environmental Fa- ecosystems in the Wider Caribbean region. It has resulted in increased fishcility (GEF), Inter-American Development Bank mortality and native effects on commercial fisheries; declines in coral reefs(IDB), United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP) and the Governments of some Caribbean estimated to cost the region up to US $870 million by 2050; threats tocountries -- hosted its first Regional Workshop in human health and threats to the tourism sector.Belize City, (Belize) on September 18th and 19th(2012) to introduce the concept of Revolving Funds.  Revolving funds are among the more flexible,innovative and effective financial managementmechanisms that can provide sustainable financ-ing for the development of much-needed waste-water treatment facilities, which are costly prop-ositions for regional governments struggling tomaintain those that already exist.  A 2009 UNEP report entitled “Assessmentof Wastewater Management in the Caribbean”found untreated domestic wastewater had severeconsequences for coastal ecosystems in the WiderCaribbean region.  This has resulted in: increased fish mortalityand native effects on commercial fisheries; de-clines in coral reefs estimated to cost the regionup to US $870 million by 2050; threats to humanhealth and threats to the tourism sector.  Belize is one of four participating countries inwhich GEF-CReW is piloting financing mecha-nisms that can be used to provide sustainablefinancing for environmentally sound and cost-effective wastewater management.  US $5million of GEF-CReW funds are beingprovided directly to the Government of Belize asa capitalization grant for Belize Wastewater Re-volving Fund (BWRF) to establish a regional sew-age collection, treatment and disposal system forthe Placencia Peninsula.  This is the first generation project of the BWRF, DANGEROUS PRACTICE: Raw waste disposed directly into the sea attracts both fish and fishers,which will provide zero or below market interest but is a dangerous and costly practice.loans for eligible wastewater treatment projects.  The Ministry of Finance is the pilot executing gally binding regional agreement for the protec-   The Workshop sought to provide participantsagency for the BWRF. Eligible projects include lo- tion and development of the Caribbean Sea. -- who came from the Caribbean Developmentcal wastewater projects that advance the obliga-   The LBS Protocol entered into force in 2010, Bank (CDB) and utility, finance and environmen-tions of the Cartagena Convention’s Land-based committing signatories to making major im- tal sectors in CReW’s thirteen participating coun-Sources of Pollution (LBS) Protocol, the only le- provements in wastewater management. tries (Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Panama, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Gren- adines, Suriname and Trinidad & Tobago) -- with a broad view of the operation of revolving funds with particular reference to the experience in de- veloping countries.   It is also expected to assist the pilot countries in the operation and design of their own national funding mechanisms to be developed under the GEF-CReW Project, and, promote a network of expertise that could facilitate the replication and/ or development of similar funding mechanisms in other non-pilot Caribbean countries.   Martin Baker, an environmental lawyer with extensive experience in the planning, financing and operation of water, wastewater and other in- frastructure projects in Latin America, Asia, East- ern Europe and the Gulf States, led the Workshop.   Peter Shanaghan, Team Leader of the National Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) Program for the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) shared their experi- ence in operation of revolving funds.   Paul Marchetti, an Economist and Executive Director of the Pennsylvania Infrastructure In- vestment Authority (PENNVEST) since 1988, shared practical experience in maintaining, re- plenishing and growing revolving funds.   The GEF-CReW Project aims to provide sus- tainable financing for the wastewater sector, sup- port policy and legislative reforms and foster re- HEALTHY PRACTICE: For many years hotel waste from the North of the island has been treated at gional dialogue and knowledge exchange among this WASCO wastewater treatment facility at Beausejour. key stakeholders in the Wider Caribbean Region.
    • July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 e-Source Page 5 Desalination Turning ‘Sea Water’ into ‘Drinking Water’ Without any other sources for freshwater, desalination is quickly becoming vital to many regions. St. Martin’s desalination plant is run by France’s Veolia Water Caribbean Desalination is an expensive undertaking, but is becoming more economically viable as the technology improves…  Desalination of seawater, brack- gapore and the USA. tion of this feed water is then dis- desalination capacity grew 43%ish groundwater or river water for   Desalination is an expensive charged without passing through and since 1990 has experienceda public potable water supply is undertaking, but is becoming the membrane. an average annual growth rate ofincreasingly being considered. more economically viable as the   A Brackwish Water Reverse Os- 17%.  This method of securing wa- technology improves. Desalina- mosis (BWRO) desalination plant   About 14,380 desalinationter supply can be found in areas tion plants can be provided in a at Spring Garden in Barbados is plants operate across the world,where water demand has been in- wide range of outputs to cater for used by the Barbados Water Au- said Global Water Intelligence,creasing beyond sustainable sup- small isolated communities or to thority (BWA) to reduce the over- with a total contracted capacity ofply and where water sources are contribute substantially to water all energy requirements and pro- 62 million cubic meters, or 16.3 bil-fragile and climate change is mak- supplies for large cities and even vide high-quality potable water to lion gallons, per day.ing previously reliable sources un- for irrigation (Spain, United Arab a section of the island.   The Middle East has long beenreliable. Emirates). Desalination Around The World the dominant market, with Saudi  Rapidly increasing populations   One of the processes for desali- Arabia producing more than 10are also placing pressure on exist- nation is reverse osmosis (RO). It   Drier and warmer climates, million cubic meters a day and theing water sources, forcing govern- is a membrane separation process the unyielding movement of the United Arab Emirates producingments to turn to desalination to in which the water from a pressur- world’s rural people to cities and almost 8.5 million cubic meters aprovide additional water supplies ized saline solution is separated the need to fortify supplies have dramatically increased the need day, according to Global Waterwhen existing sources are fully ex- from the dissolved material by for alternatives to fresh water. This Intelligence.tended. flowing through a membrane. No  There is also potential for desal- has led Metropolitan and national   The United States is now the heating is necessary for this sepa-ination to process already treated ration. governments on five continents to world’s third leading builder ofwastewater, normally returned the building of record numbers desalination plants. Other top   The major energy required forto the environment, to a higher of desalination plants to produce markets are Spain, Kuwait, Alge- desalination is for pressurizingquality level for use in industry or drinking water from the sea. ria, China, Qatar, Japan and Aus- the feed water, typically up tomining processing, thus taking in-   Over the last five years, an aver- tralia. 62 atmospheres for seawater. Industrial demand away from pub- principle, the saline feed water age of 800 new desalination plants   Almost two-thirds of all desali-lic water supplies. is pumped into a closed vessel have been constructed annually, nation plants use seawater, with  Desalination for major public where it is pressurized to over- according to various industrial re- 19 percent drawing from brackishsupply is not only used in Barba- come the osmotic pressure of the ports, and the global market could sources.dos and other areas in the Carib- solution before diffusing through reach $58 billion a year.   Caribbean islands such as Trini-bean, but it is already employed the membrane. As a portion of the   In 2006 and 2007 alone, accord- dad, Cayman Islands, the Baha-fairly extensively in areas the Mid- water passes through the mem- ing to Global Water Intelligence, mas, St. Martin and Bermuda aredle East and North Africa, Austra- brane, the remaining feed water an industry research group that among countries in the world thatlia, Southern Europe, China, Sin- increases in salt content. This por- tracks water trends, the world’s have tuned to desalination.
    • Page 6 e-Source July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 The Spectre of a Whole Wide World Without Water Editorial World Without Water? Waterless WHAT?   It’s hard to imagine our – or our to equal levels of understanding in 2030? country -- world without water. But it’s quite possible. And it could happen sooner than we think or or appreciation of the importance of saving, conserving and protect- ing water. Water companies still Scientists and Executives would want – and in our lifetime, as well.   Yes, there’s more water than have to publish annual DO’s and DON’Ts to educate and encourage consumers about the importance differ on how quickly and earth on Earth. But there’s not enough drinking water for ev- eryone on Earth; and if we don’t of water conservation.   We’ve never faced a region-wide or even a national fatal drought of by how much, but all agree mend our ways, we may very well see ourselves causing the world to die of thirst. the types we see on TV in other parts of our world. There are no international news reports about that world demand for Impossible? Think again.   Just look at our own Caribbean islands and continental territo- Caribbean children dying of thirst due to unavailability of or access to drinking water. We therefore don’t water can outstrip supply ries. Our rivers are drying fast in St. Lucia and other Windward Is- lands due to a combination of bad see ourselves as among those in this whole wide world who would or could be affected by the real- in just 17 years… ecological practices, while exist- ity, far less the notion of “a world ing water sources are becoming without water”. increasingly under threat from   But we’d be making a very big contamination and several other mistake if we, anywhere in the factors. Caribbean, continue to take false   Hurricanes and erratic weather comfort in our current ease of patterns continue to create havoc availability and access to drinking with water dams while Climate water, whether from our pipes or Change continues to create in- plastic bottles. creasing periods of worsening   International studies have prov- droughts, reducing water avail- en that if we don’t get our act to- ability and increasing demand. gether around the world (includ-   And, to crown it all, national wa- ing the Caribbean) we stand to ter companies are coming under see a world without water by 2030 increasing financial pressure as a – just 17 years from now. Some of result of lower incomes from high- the experts disagree on how soon er debts due to the declining eco- it could happen, but all agree that nomic situation in most countries it is possible for us to see, in our and increasing pressure on income lifetime, “a world without water”. earners and unemployed alike. (See accompanying article entitled   Governments find it harder to “Waterless in 2030”) fund water expansion and consum-   Still unconvinced? Still in doubt? In some countries water is already so scarce that its locked away from ers continue to neglect paying wa- Skeptics are encouraged and in- free access. Whatll it be like if it all runs out by 2030? ter bills while spending many times vited to go all out and find out. But more on purchasing bottled water. those who care, who’ve seen the   In the Caribbean, underground signs and who better understand   A recent study by the Economist demand, that ability will be ampli- water resource reserves are scarce. the woes the world will face with- Intelligence Unit (sponsored by fied or hampered by government We depend more on rain and river out water, just can’t wait until ev- Oracle Utilities) reveals that if wa- action and consumer education -- water, both of which are under eryone else is convinced. ter utilities plan on meeting water and all water purveyors will have pressure in the continuing battles   The pace at which we are caus- supply, large-scale infrastructure to “think outside the box.” between Man and Nature. ing water to disappear, decrease investments must be made—or   “The leading overall response   We, in these parts of our world, or simply go away, seems faster else demand will outstrip supply to water stress in the future is ex- are fully surrounded by sea water. than the pace of education and re- by 2030. pected to be a sharp focus on de- But the cost of desalination is pro- alization. It therefore means more hibitive at most, very costly at least. needs to be done to reverse the   The study, entitled “Water for mand management,” explains a   The continental Caribbean coun- trend, even while intensifying lo- All?”, compared the water resource statement released by Oracle in tries (Belize, Guyana, Surinam, cal, regional and global efforts at management strategies of 10 coun- relation to the report. “This repre- French Guiana, etc) are blessed sensitizing the world to the reality tries—the US, Canada, UK, Aus- sents a shift in utilities’ traditional with large and long rivers, but of the danger of a waterless world. tralia, France, Spain, Brazil, Russia, emphasis on continuing to supply there too the water pressures exist, CAWASA remains as committed India and China—and surveyed increasing quantities of water in re- even though with different mani- as ever to the cause of the preserva- 244 water utility managers and ex- sponse to increasing demand.” festations. In Guyana, for exam- tion, conservation and protection ecutives, including 20 “in-depth”   Meanwhile, developing coun- ple, the sheer size of the country of the Caribbean’s water resources (83,000 square miles) makes distri- and to the process of education to interviews with water executives tries have a tougher row to hoe. bution of piped drinking water a avert the ever woeful and wretch- and independent experts.   The study’s survey of water re- very daunting task. ed reality of even the consideration   The participants’ answerers led source management strategies in   In all Caribbean territories, of the real fact that we can see “a researchers to conclude that while the developing world reveals that people still haven’t been brought world without water”. water providers are optimistic climate change and erratic weather about their ability to meet future patterns will increasingly influence
    • July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 e-Source Page 7 The Spectre of a Whole Wide World Without Water. 1 The spectre of a world without water is already real in many countries in the developing world where parched earth and dried rivers leave millions who never knew pipes wondering whether they will ever cease depending on the heavens for water. more than one in five (22%) in- creasing investment by 15% or more within the next three years. * Innovative industry: Prompted by necessity, the water sector is becoming an increasingly promi- nent innovator, due to the imple- mentation technologies such as smart meters and desalination solutions. For instance, one-fifth (20%) of water utilities in devel- oped markets regularly evaluate new technologies, compared to one-third of developing coun- tries. However, more water utili- ties must improve their ability to identify and implement suchthe creation and maintenance of in- ply by 2030 is “highly likely,” * Encouraging consumer engage- advances, with over one-thirdfrastructure in those countries. while 54% believe such a risk is ment: Half of respondents (49%) (36%) unaware of the innovation  “Utilities in the developing coun- “moderately likely”. Failure to believe pricing structures need options available to them.tries, in contrast, are more likely to address this could result in sig- to be changed to encourage con- nificant economic, social, and * Stumbling blocks: Drought andfocus on rolling-out or expanding servation, while less than four health implications. increased water pollution arebasic infrastructure,” states the in 10 water utilities think water seen by respondents as the big-report. * Barriers to conservation: Forty- prices must be held down to en- gest risks faced by water utili- five percent (45%) of utilities— sure fair access to water for all especially in developed mar- ties and are considered the mostOther key findings: (38%). With consumer behavior kets—see wasteful consumer likely to occur. Similarly, half of* Increased water stress by 2030: being the biggest barrier to con- respondents polled felt that that behavior as their biggest barrier Due to growing demand for wa- servation, it is critical for water information and support from to progress, while another 33% ter caused by increasing popula- utilities to engage with consum- government bodies is lacking; believe tariffs are too low to tions, changing climate patterns stimulate greater investment. ers to overcome this challenge. while 43% recognize they must and wasteful consumer behav- In developing countries, a lack of * Increased investment: Almost all develop their management tech- ior, 39% of executives surveyed capital for investment tops the list respondents stated that they are niques to more precisely mod- believe that the risk of national (41%), while worries over climate increasing investment to meet el future water availability or water demand outstripping sup- change stand third overall (34%). supply challenges (93%), with rainfall.
    • Page 8 e-Source July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 Health Benefits of Water In this issue, e-Source offers some Healthy Hints about The Benefits of Drinking Water every day! Lose weight: Drinking water helps lose weight because it Less Cramps and Sprains: Proper hydration helps flushes down the by-products of fat breakdown. Drinking water reduc- keep your joints and muscles lubricated, so you’ll less likely get cramps es hunger. It’s an effective appetite suppressant so you’ll eat less. Plus and sprains. water has zero calories. Less Likely to Get Sick and Feel Healthy: Natural Remedy for Headache: Helps to relieve Drinking plenty of water helps fight against flu and other ailments like headache and back pains due to dehydration. Although many reasons kidney stones and heart attack. Water adds with lemon is used for ail- contribute to headache, dehydration is the common one. ments like respiratory disease, intestinal problems, rheumatism and ar- Look Younger with Healthier Skin: You’ll look younger when your skin thritis etc. In another words one of the benefits of drinking water is that is properly hydrated. Water helps to replenish skin tissues, moisturizes it can improve you immune system. skin and increases skin elasticity. Relieves Fatigue: Water is used by the body to help flush Better Productivity at Work: You brain is mostly out toxins and waste products from the body. If you body lacks water, made up of water, thus drinking water helps you think better, be more your heart, for instance, needs to work harder to pump out the oxygen- alert and more concentrated. ated blood to all cells, so are the rest of the vital organs, your organs will be exhausted and so will you. Good Mood: Your body feels very good and that’s why you feel happy. Better Exercise: Drinking water regulates your body tem- perature. That means you’ll feel more energetic when doing exercises. Water also helps to fuel your muscle. Reduce the Risk of Cancer: Related to the digestive system, some studies show that drinking a healthy amount of water Helps in Digestion and Constipation: Drink- may reduce the risks of bladder cancer and colon cancer. Water dilutes ing water raises your metabolism because it helps in digestion. Fiber the concentration of cancer-causing agents in the urine and shortens the and water goes hand in hand so that you can have your daily bowel time in which they are in contact with bladder lining. movement.
    • beanCaribbean Water Ministers ministers address regional July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 e-Source Page 9urity and climate change challen address Regional Water Security and Climate Change Challenges Critical to the Declaration signed by the ministers was their recognition that high level political leadership is a key factor for meeting water security and climate change challenges faced by the Caribbean.aration signed byof nine (IWRM)and keep the was Ca- ronment RobertClimate Changethat high their respective coun-   At the first-ever meeting ter ministers in the Caribbean, the ribbean implementation in the their recognition of similar waterlevel challenges wa- ministers implementa- Jamaica, and Pickersgill, viewed are faced in resource politicalfor meetingmanagement com- water resources water security and climate change critical issues to bechallenges faced by the Cari ministers with responsibility for tion of IWRM under continuous Climate Change as one of the most tries and a clear means of moving review. addressed in re- forward on these issues should be mitted to making all essential ef- lation to water security.   During the two-day HLS, min- charted. forts in addressing water security isters and senior government of-   This view was endorsed by Dr   The ministers through their dis- and climate change in the region. ficials offered their perspectives David Estwick, Minister of Agri- cussions and informed technicalmeeting of water ministers in the Caribbean, nine ministers with   The assurance was given dur- on national and regional priorities culture, Food, Fisheries and Water inputs from national, regional and ing the first week of October at for water security in the Caribbean Resource Management of Barba- international agencies such as the the 8th Annual High Level Session and discussed regional water re- dos, who gave support to building Caribbean Community (CARI-es management committed to making all essential efforts in add (HLS) Ministerial Forum in The Bahamas. source coordination at the ministe- rial level.   Included in the main issues climate change resilience but ad- vised that a lot of preliminary work should first be done nationally to COM), the Caribbean Environ- mental Health Institute (CEHI), the Caribbean Development Bankate change in the region.   The Forum is a joint initiative of brought to the table were the need better understand how water and (CDB), the United Nations En- the Global Water Partnership-Ca- for greater focus on IWRM; disaster other sectors such as sanitation are vironment Programme (UNEP), ribbean (GWP-C) and its partner risk reduction; closer integration integrated. among others, agreed on seven the Caribbean Water and Waste- of the water sector with other sec-   He pointed out that it is crucial critical concerns toward achiev- water Association (CWWA). tors; access to water; water tariffs; that national research is conducted ing national and regional water   Critical to the declaration signedas given during the first week of October at the 8th Annual High for Caribbean countries to be fully security. by the ministers was their recogni- the need for more water experts in the region; raising water conserva- aware of the status of their water   These comprised water as a na- tion that high level political leader- tion consciousness at the national resources. tional development issue; Integrat- l Forum in The Bahamas. ship is key for meeting water secu- and regional level; looking into   Carlisle Powell, Minister of ed Water Resources Management rity and climate change challenges various water technologies to con- Communications, Works, Pub- (IWRM); climate change and wa- faced by the Caribbean. ter; wastewater; regional coopera- trol resources; the use of rainwater lic Utilities, Post, Physical Plan-   This, along with other recom- ning, Natural Resources and tion; capacity building, and public harvesting as a mitigation practice; mendations, was sanctioned by Environment of Nevis, stressed awareness. water’s impact on health; and cli-oint initiative of the Global Water Partnership-Caribbean (GWP ministers from The Bahamas, An- that the Caribbean needs to do   Global Water Partnership-Carib- mate being key to addressing wa- guilla, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, more in promoting and commu- bean (GWP-C) and its partner the ter security. Jamaica, St Kitts and Nevis, and St. nicating the importance of water Caribbean Water and Wastewaterbean Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA). Vincent and the Grenadines.   Deputy Prime Minister and Min- conservation, and articulated the Association CWWA) are commit-   It was also deemed imperative ister of Natural Resources and Ag- need to educate communities on ted to supporting the realisation of that Caribbean governments in col- riculture of Belize, Margarito Gas- conserving water and reporting the recommendations coming out laboration with regional partners par Vega, cited legislation passed leaks. of the 8th High Level Session (HLS) should conduct national assess- in Belize in 2010 to introduce an   Varying national priorities on Ministerial Forum, in cooperation IWRM Act.claration signed by the ministers was their recognition that high ments on the status of Integrated water notwithstanding, there was with regional governments and Water Resources Management   Minister of Water, Land, Envi- a consensus among ministers that other partners. (Caribbean360.com) for meeting water security and climate change challenges faced
    • Page 10 e-Source July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 WASCO Workers Hold- Minister says back their Labour for WASCO workers Back-pay for Christmas! were ‘misled’ into taking illegal action The following statement was issued by the Ministry of Sustainable Development, Energy, Science and Technology on November 16, 2012, in relation to the Industrial Action at WASCO over outstanding back-pay   The Ministry of Sustainable Devel- opment, Energy, Science and Technol- ogy views, with serious concern, the ongoing industrial unrest at the Water and Sewerage Company Inc. (WAS- CO). Each day during their work stoppage, a few WASCO workers milled   The Ministry has been made to un- outside the companys headquarters to protest not being told exactly derstand that a group of workers has what date they will be paid. decided to engage in a work stoppage to demand a date for the payment of   Staff at St. Lucia’s Water and company acknowledges owing the retroactive wages, consequent upon Sewage Company (WASCO) $4 million to its workers and says the successful conclusion of negotia- downed tools in November to press it is “in the process of concluding tions between WASCO’s management the company to speed-up an over- funding arrangements to meets its and the Labour Unions representing due $4 million payout due by the commitment under the agreement.” Water Minister Senator Dr James the workers. end of December. It wasn’t an offi- But it won’t be drawn into giving in Fletcher says WASCO is insolvent   It is important to note that negotia- and deep in hot water over debt cial strike or withdrawal of labour, to the workers’ demand for a firm tions between WASCO and the Unions more a muscle-flexing exercise un- date, leading to a minority of work- was illegal under law have been amicably completed, with dertaken with the knowledge but ers mounting a few days of daily the Parties agreeing to a 10% increase not consent of the two unions in- protests outside the company’s main Long-term Viability Plan in wages for all workers for the negoti- volved, both of which pleaded not offices at L’Anse Road in Castries. ated triennium 2010-2012.   On the strength of a mandate from guilty of authorizing their mem-   All the company was prepared to the Cabinet of Ministers, a special com- bers’ actions. say is that it is involved in negotia- A Generous Package mittee has worked on developing a   The workers, represented by the tions to pay up as promised – and plan to secure the long-term viability   Given the very precarious financial St. Lucia Civil Service Association that “the payment of retroactive of WASCO. state of WASCO and the present eco- (CSA) and the National Work- wages would be concluded by the This involves some immediate mea- nomic climate, this was a generous ers Union (NWU), are pressing end of 2012” and that “there has sures to improve the Company’s bal- settlement. WASCO about an agreed and now been no change in that schedule.” ance sheet and actions to attract new   The wage increase for the triennium investments and improve the cash outstanding 10% increase over the It however regretted that a minor- is broken down into a 4% increase for flow. three-year period ending Decem- ity of workers had taken action and 2010, 4% increase for 2011, and a 2% ber 2012. thanked the majority who remained   The Cabinet of Ministers recently increase for 2012.   The two unions say they are be- on the job to provide services to cus- approved a payment of $3.1 million to This 4-4-2 Agreement over the nego- ing pressed by the workers to get tomers island-wide. WASCO to allow for the commence- tiated period is above the increase in Pay Day dates from WASCO, but   WASCO has been cash-strapped ment of some critical work on the John the cost of living for the correspond- the company hasn’t been able to of- for decades, especially since it was Compton Dam to address the heavy ing period. As a consequence of the fer any assured dates. saddled with the massive $150 mil- siltation at the Dam, which is compro- wage settlement, there is a retroactive lion cost of the giant Sir John Comp- mising its ability to ensure a reliable   The press described it as “a wild- payment (or back-pay) owed to the ton Dam at Roseau, built with Cana- supply of water during the upcoming cat strike”. But the workers said WASCO workers of approximately $4 dian help in the 1980s. 2013 dry season. they downed their tools tom press million. the company to give then dates by   The company’s revenue earnings   Therefore, in the current circum-   It is our understanding that WAS- which they will get paid. “We have have always been dented by indebt- stances, the company is going above CO’s management, by letter dated to pay VAT and Christmas is com- edness of consumers, many of which and beyond its means to address the October 8th, 2012. gave a written com- ing, but we were not hearing any- end up being disconnected. concerns of the staff with respect to the mitment to both Trade Unions “to do thing from management,” said one new Collective Bargaining Agreement.   WASCO’s water does not attract all within (its) capacity to complete the striking worker. the Value Added tax (VAT) imple- retroactive payments as efficiently as   CSA President David Demacque mented on October 1, but the compa- Illegal Action possible by year end”. and NWU President Tyrone May- ny isn’t in the very profitable bottled   It should also be noted that the cur- nard addressed a joint meeting water business, which many on the Insolvent Company rent action by this minority group of of monthly and fortnightly paid island see as a lucrative possibility for workers is illegal based upon the stipu-   WASCO is an insolvent company, workers, at which both leaders reit- the cash-strapped water company. lations of the Essential Services provi- whose liabilities far exceed its assets. erated the position that the workers sion of the Labour Act.   There have been efforts to priva- As a result, it is virtually impossible were “not on strike or go slow, pro- tize WASCO, with reputable inter- for the company to raise any finance   The timeframe for the payments of test action or any form of industrial national water firms invited to bid. for its operations, expansion or proj- retroactive wages agreed to between action.” ects to improve the provision of pota- WASCO’s management team and the But the process was discontinued   “They just want a date on which ble water to the people of Saint Lucia. Trade Unions is not in dispute. prematurely after one of the bid- WASCO will pay the back-pay that ding companies raised questions   The Company is unable to meet   We are also aware that no notice has is due,” Maynard said. They two and threatened legal action regard- its expenses, which include a debt of been given to WASCO, the Labour De- union Presidents said the workers’ ing how the then government han- over $12.8 million to the Saint Lucia partment or the Minister with respon- request “is fully justified” and they dled the process. Electricity Services (LUCELEC). Our sibility for Labour of a grievance over are “in full support”. Government commends LUCELEC the payment schedule.   Eventually, while still pointing to   The monthly paid workers its high debt woes -- especially its on its exemplary patience and under-   Therefore, it appears that some of eventually joined the work stop- monthly electricity bill payments to standing in working with WASCO WASCO’s workers are being led into page, but both union leaders side- LUCELEC -- and its state of insolven- and Government to reduce this liabil- illegal action under the provisions of stepped issues relating to the gov- cy, the company relented and assured ity, which grows by approximately the Labour Act. ernment questioning legality of the the two unions it will seek to pay the $400,000 every month.   The Ministry is pleased to note, how- work stoppage under the Essential workers during the week of Decem-   Currently, WASCO’s total debt ever, that this action notwithstanding, Services Act. ber 17-21, 2012. (See Water Minister’s stands at over $100 million and its the management of WASCO is con-   The island’s cash-strapped water statement, also on this page.) monthly working capital deficit is ap- tinuing to work to ensure that the mat- proximately $600,000. ter is resolved.
    • July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 e-Source Page 11 Mexico and USA sign water-sharing deal Mexico and the US have agreed to cent droughts and increased water treaty in 1944 governing the alloca- three million homes, no matter new rules on sharing and manag- usage have put pressure on the river. tion of resources from the Colorado how low the river level. ing water from the Colorado Riv-   "We have chosen collaboration over River, which supplies seven US and   But now, Mexico will forgo er, which serves some 30 million conflict, we have chosen co-operation two Mexican states. But in the en- some of its share during drought, people in the two nations. and consensus over discord," said US suing decades, population growth, a practice already followed by the Under the deal, the US will send Interior Secretary Ken Salazar. increased industry and farming, as states of California, Arizona and less water to Mexico during a well as droughts, have put pressure Nevada.   "The Colorado River, in so many drought, while Mexico will be on the river. ways, makes us one people, and to-   In return, Mexico, which has able to store water north of the   The latest accord, which runs un- gether we face the risk of reduced little storage capacity, is allowed border during wet years. til 2017, is a major amendment of to store water in times of surplus supplies in years ahead." Treaty   The Colorado River flows 1,450 changed. the original treaty, which stipulates in Lake Mead, a vast reservoir by miles (2,230km) from the Rockies that the US must send a set amount the Hoover Dam on the Arizona-   The US and Mexico signed a into the Gulf of California and re- to Mexico, enough to supply some Nevada border.   There are seven billion peo- • Follow a healthier, sustainable ple to feed on the planet today diet; and another two billion are ex- • Consume less water-intensive pected to join by 2050. products;   Statistics say that each of us • Reduce the scandalous food drinks from two to four litres wastage: 30% of the food pro- of water every day. However, duced worldwide is never most of the water we ‘drink’ is eaten and the water used to embedded in the food we eat: produce it is definitively lost! producing one kilo of beef, • Produce more food, of better for example, consumes 15,000 quality, with less water. litres of water, while 1 kilo of   At all steps of the supply chain, wheat ‘drinks up’ 1,500 litres. from producers to consumers,   When a billion people in the actions can be taken to save wa- world already live in chronic ter and ensure food for all. hunger and water resources   And you? Do you know how are under pressure we cannot much water you actually con- pretend the problem is ‘else- sume every day? How can you where’. change your diet and reduce   Coping with population your water footprint? Join the growth and ensuring access World Water Day 2012 cam- to nutritious food to everyone paign “Water and Food Secu- call for a series of actions we rity” and find out more! There’s can all help with: still time…
    • Page 12 e-Source July to September 2012 | Vol. 4 No. 3 Rain Harvesting The Barbados Experience  Rainwater harvesting is the gath-ering, or accumulating and storing,of rainwater and although the termsounds new to us, rain harvestinghas been practiced for more than4,000 years.  Catching rain water and using itto assist our daily lives is a meansof removing total dependency forwater from the Barbados WaterAuthority (BWA) and although itmight conjure up images of an oldfarm cistern, the reality is that rain-water harvesting is becoming a vi-able alternative for supplying ourhouseholds and businesses withwater.  Across the Caribbean rainwa-ter harvesting has been in use formany years. In St Lucia, polyeth-ylene plastic tanks, steel drumsand underground concrete cisternsare used to catch rain water. TheTurks and Caicos Islands have anumber of government-built, pub-lic rainfall catchment systems asit is mandatory that all develop- White roofs are common throughout Bermudaers construct a water cistern largeenough to store 400 l/m2 of roof   In rural Northeastern Thai- cannot supply water to some ar- Disadvantagesarea. land, a house is not a home if it eas and life can continue without   There are however some disad-  In Bermuda, most residents do does not have at least one huge much interruption. vantages to rain harvesting. Rainnot connect to the local water au- rainwater jar. Ev ery household   The fact that you own your “rain from the roof tops may be subject-thority as they all catch rain water depends on their rain jar for their water” gives you control over how ed to contamination by leaves, birdand treat it for use for all purposes. daily water needs and some de- you use it. It is simple to construct droppings and other pollutantsRoofs in Bermuda are all white and pend on rain jars sales for their and easy to maintain with little that can enter the water.are treated and designed to catch livelihood. cost and your rain water harvest-   When there is little or no rain-the water which filters into under-   Rainwater harvesting has be- ing system can be designed accord- fall, water levels would drop sig-ground tanks. Catching rainwater come essential in areas where ing to what you can afford or want. nificantly and to avoid this house-from roof tops is also used through- rainfall is the only means of wa- Some persons might start with one holders would need to own a largeout the Bahamas and in Jamaica ter supply and where there is the plastic tank while others might enough system that can reservenearly 100 000 Jamaicans depend possibility of drought. It has also build a more elaborate system. enough water that can last foron water from rain harvesting for become a reality where there is   Rainwater is better for landscape weeks and this might be costly.the majority of their needs. plentiful rainfall but where gov- plants and gardens because it is not   House holders must secure all ernments are not equipped to pro- chlorinated and it can solve drain-  In Brazil and Argentina rainwa- water tanks/cisterns, etc from ac- vide the needed system to pipe the age problems on your property.ter harvesting is used in semi-arid cess by young children and pets. water to all households.regions and in Central Honduras, How You Can Use Rain WaterCosta Rica, Guatemala, and El Sal-   In 1996 all newly constructed homes in Barbados were required   Rainwater can really be usedvador, rainwater harvesting using to construct water storage facilities anywhere you use tap water androoftop catchments is used exten- if the roof area or living area equals even for cooking and drinkingsively in rural areas and on The or exceeds 3 000 square feet and 1 as long as it is treated. However,Islas de la Bahía off the shores of 000 square feet or more for com- without any treatment thousandsHonduras the population supplies mercial buildings. of gallons of water can be saveda substantial portion of their pota-   In the Caribbean most of the rain and used as follows:ble water needs by using rainwater falls during the wet season leav- • Flushing of toilets from rooftops. ing the dry months in danger of • Laundry   Germany and Australia are very • In the garden and for wateringinvolved in rain harvesting and in drought conditions and rain har- vesting is important in these con- the lawnsNew Zealand, communities away • Irrigation systems for agricul-from the larger towns and cities ditions to secure a constant flow of water throughout the year. tural purposesroutinely rely on rainwater collect- • Washing vehiclesed from roofs as the only source of Benefits • Bathing of petswater for all household activities.   The collection of rain wa- • Refill your fountains, fish ponds  China rooftop rainwater harvest- ter takes a hugh burden off the and aquariumsing is being practiced for providing BWA and it is an excellent back • Washing your driveways anddrinking water, domestic water, up source in times of drought, sidewalkswater for livestock, water for small low water pressures and when • Use it for industrial processesirrigation and as a way to replen- there are problems with the pub- instead of municipally treatedish ground water levels and in lic supply and especially during waterthe Gansu province in China one disasters.   Rain Water Can also be treatedmay find some of the largest roof-   If rain harvesting is put in prac- in your own home to be used fortop Frainwater harvesting ongoing tice, schools and businesses would drinking and cooking. (Barbadosprojects. not need to close when the BWA A Jumbo Thai Water Jar Water Authority)