Evidence-based
Design
Drivers and Data for Design Teams
BECC Conference
Sacramento, CA
November 16, 2010

Cathy Higgins
Pr...
new buildings institute
•
•
•

Non-profit, think tank on commercial
building energy efficiency
Formed in December 1997
Fun...
Common Interests
Do design firms want to create buildings of
beauty that meet the clients program AND are
energy and envir...
CAMP

California Advisors on Measured Performance (CAMP)
A & E firm advisors to PIER and related measured performance proj...
Design team as Advocates for
Energy Efficiency
Design Tools

Design Team

Performance
Feedback

Policies &
regulations

Cl...
Policies & Regulations
6

12/6/2010
Rating & Disclosure Mandates
Enacted

Building types Disclosure

California

2007

Nonresidential

Point of Transaction: B...
Ratings & Labels

Benchmark first then: Label @ design and @ operations
Levels of Metering
• Whole building metering
• Tenant space sub-metering
• Load-type isolation (Design for Meterability)
–...
An outcome-based energy code
• Would be based on achieving actual post-retrofit
performance outcomes rather than applying
...
an outcome-based code is worth
exploring
• Can include typical “unregulated” loads
• Puts appropriate pressure on operatio...
Feedback on
Key Performance Indicators
Glazing performance – building orientation – cooling efficiency – infiltration –
operating hours – climate – weather – occ...
Glazing performance – building orientation – cooling efficiency – infiltration –
operating hours – climate – weather – occ...
Glazing performance – building orientation – cooling efficiency – infiltration –
operating hours – climate – weather – occ...
What do we measure?
CONNECTED
LOAD

LIGHTING
POWER DENSITY

Old System

1,564 W

1.04 W/SF

New System

2,076 W

1.32 W/SF...
Landmark System Performance
1.2

T24 max ‘Power’

T24 assumed energy

Lighting Power Density (W/SF)

1

0.8

Savings
0.6

...
San Francisco Office
Lumenergi ‐ Workstation Specific Lighting
1.40

1.20

W/SF

Lumenergi Weekday Average
Weekday average...
Plug Loads

19
Plug Load Existing Condition
3.5

3

W/SF
2.5

2

4 California 
commercial office 
buildings

1.5

1

0.5

0
0:00

1:12

2...
Comparing Models to Actual
Easier with Energy Signature
• Compare
EUIs

82.4
0

20

40
60
80
kbtu/sq ft/yr [Actual for yea...
Primary Performance Areas as
seen by First View tool
–Signature slopes
↔ Shell, HVAC

Tenants / Occupants:
Schedule & plug...
Relative vs. Absolute energy
180
160

Measured EUI (kbtu/sf)

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
"The Barn"

Certified

Silver

Gol...
Design team as Advocates for
Energy Efficiency
Design Tools

Design Team

Performance
Feedback

Policies &
regulations

Cl...
Snapshot Summary:
Designers need
• Receptive owners / clients
– Policies
• Disclosure, Labeling, Codes, Metering

– Incent...
Thank you
Questions?
Cathy Higgins
Program Director
New Buildings Institute
higgins@newbuildings.org
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Higgins becc nov 2010 evid based-design_final [compatibility mode]

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Feedback loops - bringing measured energy performance of commercial buildings to the designers, operators and tenants - can help current and future buildings meet design intent.
This presentation by Cathy Higgins, Research Director at New Buildings Institute, was given to the Behavior Energy and Climate Change Conference in Sacramento November 2010.

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Higgins becc nov 2010 evid based-design_final [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Evidence-based Design Drivers and Data for Design Teams BECC Conference Sacramento, CA November 16, 2010 Cathy Higgins Program Director
  2. 2. new buildings institute • • • Non-profit, think tank on commercial building energy efficiency Formed in December 1997 Funding – Sponsors: includes SCE, PG&E, NGrid, NYSERDA, CEC, SMUD, NEEA – Major Grants: EPA, EF, Doris Duke, Kresge – Contracts: USGBC, CEC PIER, DOE, EPA – Staff in Vancouver, Seattle, and White Salmon, Washington Evidence-based Design and Operations is a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project
  3. 3. Common Interests Do design firms want to create buildings of beauty that meet the clients program AND are energy and environmentally responsible?  Yes No
  4. 4. CAMP California Advisors on Measured Performance (CAMP) A & E firm advisors to PIER and related measured performance projects
  5. 5. Design team as Advocates for Energy Efficiency Design Tools Design Team Performance Feedback Policies & regulations Client / Owner Recognition, Image, Incentives
  6. 6. Policies & Regulations 6 12/6/2010
  7. 7. Rating & Disclosure Mandates Enacted Building types Disclosure California 2007 Nonresidential Point of Transaction: Buyers, lessees and lenders Utility assistance Austin, TX 2008 Nonresidential + multifamily Point of Transaction: Buyers + public display for multifamily Energy audits + some retrofits for multifamily Nonresidential Annual to public web site Disclosure of energy use estimations for new buildings Utility assistance; minimum ratings for state leases District of Columbia 2008 Also required Washington State 2009 Nonresidential Point of Transaction: Buyers, lessees and lenders New York City 2009 Nonresidential + multifamily Annual to public web site Energy audits & retro commissioning Seattle 2010 Nonresidential + multifamily Annual to city + Point of Transaction: Buyers, lessees , lenders + current tenants Utility assistance Others Pending Source: Institute for Market Transformation
  8. 8. Ratings & Labels Benchmark first then: Label @ design and @ operations
  9. 9. Levels of Metering • Whole building metering • Tenant space sub-metering • Load-type isolation (Design for Meterability) – HVAC – Lighting – Building Operations (elevators, automatic doors, etc.) – Miscellaneous (plug and process loads) • Metering of on-site renewables • All connected to a data acquisition system Process diagram for data collection from  meters to software tools Proposal for the International Green Code Council (IgCC)
  10. 10. An outcome-based energy code • Would be based on achieving actual post-retrofit performance outcomes rather than applying prescriptive codes • Would leverage current efforts toward annual disclosure and benchmarking of performance of all buildings Probable Pilots: Seattle, Vancouver B.C.
  11. 11. an outcome-based code is worth exploring • Can include typical “unregulated” loads • Puts appropriate pressure on operations and Cx to assure that equipment works and is properly controlled • Credits good daylighting design and natural ventilation – difficult now • Breaks policy silos by becoming a reference point for multiple entities • Narrows the gap between design and actual performance – puts pressure on design teams (or design build) to optimize the solution set.
  12. 12. Feedback on Key Performance Indicators
  13. 13. Glazing performance – building orientation – cooling efficiency – infiltration – operating hours – climate – weather – occupant density – heating efficiency – duct design – fan size – window area – HVAC control sophistication – building mass – interior shading – occupant habits – data centers – kitchen equipment – lighting power density – filter condition – wall color – lighting controls - furniture configuration – exterior vegetation - operable window use – insolation- glazing orientation – wall insulation – ventilation rate - exposed interior surface characteristics - domestic hot water use – number of computers – copiers and printers – elevators – exterior lighting - occupant gender ratio – elevation – photovoltaics - development density – register location – cooling distribution system – roof insulation – building manager training – cool roof – building surface to volume ratio – building use type – janitorial services – metering strategies – commissioning – structural system – acoustic treatment – slab edge detailing – night setback temperature – ground water temperature – humidity – occupant dress code – lamp replacement strategy – roof slope – daylight controls – sensor calibration – corporate culture – lease terms – utility meter characteristics – parking garage ventilation – HVAC system capacity – number of separate tenants – retail space – age of equipment – ceiling height – heating fuel – transformer capacity – window mullion pattern – terms of maintenance contract – wall thickness – building height – lighting fixture layout – overhangs – thermostat location – exit lighting – private offices – refrigerators – solar hot water – utility meter – load diversity
  14. 14. Glazing performance – building orientation – cooling efficiency – infiltration – operating hours – climate – weather – occupant density – heating efficiency – duct design – fan size – window area – HVAC control sophistication – building mass – interior shading – occupant habits – data centers – kitchen equipment – lighting power density – filter condition – wall color – lighting controls - furniture configuration – exterior vegetation - operable window use – insolation- glazing orientation – wall insulation – ventilation rate - exposed interior surface characteristics - domestic hot water use – number of computers – copiers and printers – elevators – exterior lighting - occupant gender ratio – elevation – photovoltaics - development density – register location – cooling distribution system – roof insulation – building manager training – cool roof – building surface to volume ratio – building use type – janitorial services – metering strategies – commissioning – structural system – acoustic treatment – slab edge detailing – night setback temperature – ground water temperature – humidity – occupant dress code – lamp replacement strategy – roof slope – daylight controls – sensor calibration – corporate culture – lease terms – utility meter characteristics – parking garage ventilation – HVAC system capacity – number of separate tenants – retail space – age of equipment – ceiling height – heating fuel – transformer capacity – window mullion pattern – terms of maintenance contract – wall thickness – building height – lighting fixture layout – overhangs – thermostat location – exit lighting – private offices – refrigerators – solar hot water – utility meter – load diversity
  15. 15. Glazing performance – building orientation – cooling efficiency – infiltration – operating hours – climate – weather – occupant density – heating efficiency – duct design – fan size – window area – HVAC control sophistication – building mass – interior shading – occupant habits – data centers – kitchen equipment – lighting power density – filter condition – wall color – lighting controls - furniture configuration – exterior vegetation - operable window use – insolation- glazing orientation – wall insulation – ventilation rate - exposed interior surface characteristics - domestic hot water use – number of computers – copiers and printers – elevators – exterior lighting - occupant gender ratio – elevation – photovoltaics - development density – register location – cooling distribution system – roof insulation – building manager training – cool roof – building surface to volume ratio – building use type – janitorial services – metering strategies – commissioning – structural system – acoustic treatment – slab edge detailing – night setback temperature – ground water temperature – humidity – occupant dress code – lamp replacement strategy – roof slope – daylight controls – sensor calibration – corporate culture – lease terms – utility meter characteristics – parking garage ventilation – HVAC system capacity – number of separate tenants – retail space – age of equipment – ceiling height – heating fuel – transformer capacity – window mullion pattern – terms of maintenance contract – wall thickness – building height – lighting fixture layout – overhangs – thermostat location – exit lighting – private offices – refrigerators – solar hot water – utility meter – load diversity
  16. 16. What do we measure? CONNECTED LOAD LIGHTING POWER DENSITY Old System 1,564 W 1.04 W/SF New System 2,076 W 1.32 W/SF CA T24 code (2005) with controls allowance = 1.37 Office of the Future Pilot Project
  17. 17. Landmark System Performance 1.2 T24 max ‘Power’ T24 assumed energy Lighting Power Density (W/SF) 1 0.8 Savings 0.6 0.4 T‐24 ‐2008 Installed LPD ‐ Standard Controls Meter 15‐min Maximum (W/SF) Meter Average (W/SF) 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Weekday Hour (HH) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
  18. 18. San Francisco Office Lumenergi ‐ Workstation Specific Lighting 1.40 1.20 W/SF Lumenergi Weekday Average Weekday average GSA Baseline Connected load Connected Load Baseline 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 0:00 1:12 2:24 3:36 4:48 6:00 7:12 8:24 9:36 10:48 12:00 13:12 14:24 15:36 16:48 18:00 19:12 20:24 21:36 22:48 0:00 Time of Day
  19. 19. Plug Loads 19
  20. 20. Plug Load Existing Condition 3.5 3 W/SF 2.5 2 4 California  commercial office  buildings 1.5 1 0.5 0 0:00 1:12 2:24 3:36 4:48 6:00 7:12 8:24 9:36 10:48 12:00 13:12 14:24 15:36 16:48 18:00 19:12 20:24 21:36 22:48 0:00 Time of Day
  21. 21. Comparing Models to Actual Easier with Energy Signature • Compare EUIs 82.4 0 20 40 60 80 kbtu/sq ft/yr [Actual for year ending 12/2009] Design- • Compare Signatures Actual- 100 Baseline- Measured year 2008 & design model Design Model 4.0 4.0 Average Power Density, W/ft2 Average Power Density, W/ft2 95.0 98.1 3.5 3.5 Design total signature 3.0 3.0 Design electric Total measured signature signature 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 Electric design points Design total signature uel Design f signature 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 Fuel design points 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 40 40 50 50 60 60 70 70 Monthly Average Degrees F Monthly Average Degrees F 120
  22. 22. Primary Performance Areas as seen by First View tool –Signature slopes ↔ Shell, HVAC Tenants / Occupants: Schedule & plug loads  ↔ Internal gains 4.0 Average Hourly Usage, W/sf Design & construction: Operations: Controls‐related issues  ↔ Model interactions  and relationships Heat‐G 3.5 3.0 Heat‐E 2.5 Cool‐E 2.0 1.5 DHW (E  or G) 1.0 0.5 Int+Ext  Gain 0.0 35 Ref: 4 45 55 65 Mean Monthly Temperature, deg F First View
  23. 23. Relative vs. Absolute energy 180 160 Measured EUI (kbtu/sf) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 "The Barn" Certified Silver Gold NBI Study of the measured performance of 100 LEED buildings. Platinum
  24. 24. Design team as Advocates for Energy Efficiency Design Tools Design Team Performance Feedback Policies & regulations Client / Owner Recognition, Image, Incentives
  25. 25. Snapshot Summary: Designers need • Receptive owners / clients – Policies • Disclosure, Labeling, Codes, Metering – Incentives & Promotion • Evidence on performance – Feedback on their buildings – Comparative data
  26. 26. Thank you Questions? Cathy Higgins Program Director New Buildings Institute higgins@newbuildings.org

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