Moisture penetration

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The quality and compatibility of material components and care in installation are key to wall performance. …

The quality and compatibility of material components and care in installation are key to wall performance.

The recommended specification for products and workmanship for masonry construction are covered in the latest editions of:

Masonry Standards Joint Committee
ACI 530.1 / ASCE 6 / TMS 602

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  • 1. Designing Concrete Masonry Walls to Resist Moisture PenetrationNCMA Program #: 0508-01ContinuingEducation Services 1
  • 2. AIA Disclaimer NoticeContinuingEducation This program is registered with the AIA/CES for Services continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. 2
  • 3. Satisfying the OwnerContinuingEducation Services 3
  • 4. Associated Effects of MoistureContinuingEducation Services • Efflorescence • Corrosion of Metals & Reinforcement • Staining / Mold / Mildew • Leaks • Rotting & Degradation of Insulation
  • 5. Keys to Providing Moisture Penetration ResistanceContinuingEducation Services • Quality Materials • Good Construction – following specifications – full head joints • Proper Detailing and Specifying – locations of flashing, weeps, etc.. – back-up systems 5
  • 6. Concrete Masonry UnitsContinuingEducation Services • ASTM C 90 Properties – Compressive Strength – Absorption – Dimensional Tolerances – Density Definitions – Linear Drying Shrinkage
  • 7. Concrete Masonry Units • Unit Properties Not in C 90ContinuingEducation Services – Color – Texture – Density – Water Repellency – Fire Ratings – Thermal Properties – Sound Properties
  • 8. Masonry MortarsContinuingEducation Services • Specify ASTM C 270 • Mortar Options: – Portland Cement and Lime – Masonry Cement – Mortar Cement • Mortar Types: M, S, N, and O • Mortar Quality Control 8
  • 9. Products & WorkmanshipContinuingEducation • The quality and compatibility of material Services components and care in installation are key to wall performance. • The recommended specification for products and workmanship for masonry construction are covered in the latest editions of: Masonry Standards Joint Committee ACI 530.1 / ASCE 6 / TMS 602 9
  • 10. The Role of the ArchitectContinuingEducation Services • Design, Detailing and Specifying 10
  • 11. Components for MitigationContinuing • FlashingEducation Services • Weeps • Vents • Water Repellent Admixtures • Sealants & Coatings • Vapor Retarders
  • 12. Good Performance Requires...Continuing • FlashingEducation Services Integration of • Weeps ALL • Vents Components • Water Repellent Admixtures • Sealants & Coatings • Vapor Barriers
  • 13. Masonry Barrier Wall TypesContinuingEducation Services • Solid Wall – Solid grouted single-wythe – Solid grouted composite cavity • Multi-Wythe Drainage Wall – Veneer – Noncomposite cavity • Single-Wythe Drainage Wall – Ungrouted – Partially grouted
  • 14. The Solid WallContinuingEducation Services 1 Grout fill 2 Finish Sealed and integral repellent 3 Mortar Integral repellent 14
  • 15. 6 Multi-Wythe 1 Drainage WallContinuingEducation 1 Unit concrete 2 Services 2 Vertical air space 3 Mortar and masonry 3 veneer 4 Flashing 5 Weep holes 4 6 Vents 5 15
  • 16. Single Wythe 5 Drainage Wall 1ContinuingEducation Services 1. Unit Concrete Masonry sealed and/or integral 2 repellent 2. Mortar 3. Through Wall Flashing 4. Weep Holes 5. Vents 3 4 16
  • 17. Best Performance Is Achieved By RedundancyContinuingEducation Services Level of Defense Defense Mechanism 1 Surface Protection •Tooling of Mortar Joints • Sealants /Coatings 2 Internal Protection • Integral Water Repellents 3 Drainage • Flashing, weeps and vents
  • 18. Weather Resistant Mortar JointsContinuingEducation Services Concave joint "V" joint (preferred)
  • 19. Full Thickness of Mortar JointsContinuingEducation Thickness no less Services than t f tf Inadequate head joint Properly mortared 19 head joint
  • 20. Clear Surface Treatment RepellentsContinuingEducation Services Clear Film Treatments Acrylics - form elastic film over surface. Quick drying. $ Penetrating Repellents (Silicones) Silicone Resins - good penetration. Drying time 4-5 hours. $ Silanes - good penetration. More volatile (quick evaporation). Can be applied to damp surfaces. $$ Siloxanes - similar benefits of silanes. Effective on wider variety of surfaces. $$ Others Water Based 20 Solvent Based
  • 21. Other Surface TreatmentsContinuingEducation Services Cementitious Coatings Portland Cement Plaster (Stucco) $$ Paints Cement-Based - good durability (including alkalis). Fills small voids. Apply to damp surface and damp cure. $ Latex - water based. Good durability (including alkalis). Breathable. Applied to damp or dry surfaces and cure quickly. Good hiding characteristics. Easy application - brush, roller, spray. $ Alkyd Paints - Durable, flexible, gloss retention, quick dry.Low alkali resistance. Hard to brush apply. $ 21
  • 22. Surface Barrier LimitationsContinuingEducation Services If the surface barrier is compromised, moisture can move through the wall by: • gravity • pressure • capillary action Integral Water Repellent admixtures inhibit capillary action 22
  • 23. Integral Water RepellentsContinuingEducation Services • Polymeric material which does not alter the finished appearance of the block • Lasts the lifetime of the unit • Cuts down on possibility of efflorescence • Incorporate a compatible integral water repellent admixture into the mortar 23
  • 24. Rigid Insulation Vapor Barrier Vertical Reinforcement Wall Finish Z-FurringContinuing Horizontal &Education Reinforcement Services Fasteners Section Surface Coating Detail at Base of Single Wythe Wall Weeps @ 32”o.c. Wall Flashing Water Repellent Admixture
  • 25. Flashing Material OptionsContinuingEducation Services • Sheet Metals • Composite Materials • Plastic and Rubber Compounds 25
  • 26. Flashing Materials Sheet MetalsContinuing MaterialEducation Services Advantages Disadvantages Stainless Steel Durable, Hard to form non staining Cold-Rolled Copper Flexible, durable, Damaged by excessive easily formed and flexing and can stain joined Galvanized Steel Easy to paint and Corrodes early in acidic durable and salty air
  • 27. Flashing Materials CompositesContinuing MaterialEducation Advantages Disadvantages Services Lead-coated copper Flexible, durable, Difficult to seal joints, non-staining damaged by excessive flexing, metal drip edge suggested Copper laminates Easy to form Degrades in UV light, more easily torn than metal
  • 28. Flashing Materials Plastics and Rubber CompoundsContinuing MaterialEducation Advantages Disadvantages Services EPDM Flexible, easy to form, Aesthetics if not used with a non-staining metal drip edge, full support recommended Rubberized Fully adhered, separate Full support required, asphalt lap adhesive not degrades in UV light, metal needed, self healing, drip edge required flexible, easy to form and join PVC Easily damaged, full Easy to form and join, support required, metal drip non-staining, low cost edge required, questionable durability
  • 29. SplicesContinuingEducation Services 4”
  • 30. Splicing Metal FlashingContinuingEducation Services Metal Flashing 4 in. (102 mm) lap min. 1 /4 in. (64 mm) Fully adhere gap in flashing membrane Step 1 Step 2
  • 31. WeepsContinuingEducation Services • Cotton sash cord for drainage path (remove after wall is laid up) • Partially open head joints (preferred)
  • 32. Flashing LocationsContinuingEducation Services Needed anywhere the downward vertical path of water to the weeps is interrupted: • base and foundation • lintels • bond beams • parapets • intermediate roofs 32
  • 33. Flashing Detail at Reinforced CellContinuingEducation Architectural unit Services with inside faceshell and part of webs cut off to fit (typ. a & c) 3 in. (76 mm) unit for 8 in. (203 mm) wall, 4 in. (102 mm) unit for > 8 in. (203 mm) wall 33
  • 34. Flashing Detail at Unreinforced Cell Continuing Cavity filter* Education Services (typ. b & c) Weep holes @ 2 ft. 8 in. (813 mm)r o.c. partially open "L-shaped" heador jointsl 1 in. (25 mm) 34
  • 35. Typical Detail at Inside Face ShellContinuingEducation Services Edge of flashing Stop flashing at sealed by mortar inside of faceshell from joint Cavity filter*Solid unit orfilled hollow unitto support flashing Flashing Typical detail at inside of faceshell 35
  • 36. Optional Flashing Detail at Unreinforced Cell Mortar net*ContinuingEducation Services #5 (#16) min. @ 48 in. (1219 mm) o.c. 4 in. (102 mm) unit Drip edge (typ.) 36
  • 37. ContinuingEducation Services Copings and Caps
  • 38. Drip Drip Wall FlashingContinuing SolidEducation Horizontal Services Reinforcing Sealant Reglet Water repellent Ad-Mixture Flashing Insulation Coping and Rake & Caulk Parapet Detail Weeps @ 16”o.c. Bond Beam Insulation Solid Vapor Barrier Standard
  • 39. Great Performance!!NCMAContinuingEducation Services When proper detailing is combined with good materials and good construction - masonry provides excellent protection against water penetration. Please call us if you need more information about how to construct a water-tight structure. 39