The changing face of E9-1-1 and it's impact on the HEC


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The changing face of E9-1-1 and it's impact on the HEC

  1. 1. The changing face of E9-1-1 and it’s impact on the HEC Chris Peabody Net@EDU ICS Meeting February 2005 [email_address]
  2. 2. L ROBERT KIMBALL BACKGROUND <ul><li>13 Office Locations in Eastern US </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approximately 500 full time employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultants, Engineers and Architects at the core of the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently celebrated 50 th year in business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications & Technology Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams located throughout the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 50 full time employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialization in Public Safety - E911 / PSAP technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly growing Enterprise Network technology team </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. AGENDA <ul><li>Terms / Observations and Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Why it’s not working today </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues that will impact the HEC </li></ul><ul><li>Technology issues </li></ul><ul><li>Questions – Roundtable </li></ul>
  4. 4. 9-1-1 COMMON TERMS <ul><li>ALI Automatic Location Identification </li></ul><ul><li>ANI Automatic Number identification </li></ul><ul><li>CAMA Trunk Analog point-point circuit (original PSAP network circuit) </li></ul><ul><li>CBN Call Back Number (a dialable NANP number) </li></ul><ul><li>CGL Calling Geodetic Location (lat/long) </li></ul><ul><li>ELIN Emergency Location Identification Number: A dialable NANP number used to identify an Emergency Response Location on on a customer’s premises </li></ul><ul><li>ERL Emergency Response Location: A specific geographic area on a customer’s premises with a unique association to a PSAP ESN. </li></ul><ul><li>GIS Geographic Information System Database </li></ul><ul><li>MSAG Master Street Address Guide </li></ul><ul><li>P-ALI Location database of a wireless cell / sector, </li></ul><ul><li>PSAP Public safety answering point </li></ul><ul><li>SS7 Signaling protocol used by telephony carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Router Electronics that route callers to appropriate PSAP </li></ul><ul><li>$$$$$$ Or Lack of! --- smile </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>General Observations </li></ul><ul><li>This is “motherhood and apple pie” to many groups! Real passion exists in the PSAP community right now about VoIP – and it’s not LOVE! </li></ul><ul><li>The PSAP’s networks and call handling capabilities are “all over the map”. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the VoIP industry is “all over the map” on how they’re handling 9-1-1 call routing to the PSAP’s </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise 9-1-1 call routing issues are “all over the map” but this is not new. Enterprise 9-1-1 call handing is getting a very serious review by the FCC. </li></ul><ul><li>The HEC is, and must continue to follow this one closely. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>HEC MESSAGES FOR TODAY </li></ul><ul><li>9-1-1 is changing and evolving very rapidly ! The Higher Ed Community (HEC) needs to understand the drivers of this change, and what thee new rules mean when they’re created. </li></ul><ul><li>9-1-1 is important for Higher Ed ! Is your campus just doing the minimum? Is that good enough? Take stock of what you’re doing right now. </li></ul><ul><li>A successful 9-1-1 program involves multiple entities! Enterprise businesses like higher ed are going to be much more involved in this business in the future. One of the goals today is to share more about the PSAP side of this program. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Ed needs to start preparing for the future ! Cellular phones and VoIP are two technology drivers that have made 9-1-1 more “visible” these days. But many other technology and legislative drivers are evolving RIGHT NOW that will have a great impact on how campus’s will deal with 9-1-1 call routing in the future. Planning is essential. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Why it’s not working today….. #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the PSAP community up in arms and the FCC is listening! </li></ul>
  8. 8. THIS IS FROM A MAJOR VoIP CARRIER <ul><li>2.1 Non-Availability of Traditional 911 or E911 Dialing Service </li></ul><ul><li>You agree to inform any household residents, guests and other third persons who may be present at the physical location where you utilize the Service of the non-availability of traditional 911 or E911 dialing from your XXX Service and Device(s). If you activate XXX 911-type dialing service, you agree to inform any household residents, guests and other third persons who may be present at the physical location where you utilize the Service as to the important differences and limitations of XXX 911 dialing service as compared with traditional 911 or E911 dialing that are set forth in this Agreement. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Thanks for coming to my party. Before you have a beer, I must tell you that I have VoIP service. I’ve signed an agreement that says I’ll tell you about my VoIP service and that 9-1-1 dialing may not work………
  10. 10. <ul><li>Why it’s not working today…..#2 </li></ul><ul><li>(from one of NENA’s Listserve’s this past Friday 2/4/05) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Technology trips over 911 call 08:12 AM CST on Friday, February 4, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>By Vicente Arenas / KHOU 11 News, Houston ( </li></ul><ul><li>A young girl found out the hard way Thursday that not all phone companies provide a connection to emergency services. As her mother and father were being shot during a home invasion, she tried to call 911, but couldn't get through. < > Joyce John tried to call 911, but the Internet phone service her family uses didn't offer that capability. This problem could affect thousands of people who use the Internet for their phone service. Peter John describes how bullets flew through his home as he and his wife tried to fight off two would-be robbers. &quot;And he point the gun toward me like this. The guy put the gun to my chest. I told him that my daughter's upstairs,&quot; said John. &quot;Next thing I know, I hear shots in two or three seconds. She was screaming Joyce, Joyce call the police call 911,&quot; said his daughter, Joyce. She dialed 911, and got this message, &quot;Stop you must dial 911 from another telephone. 911 is not available from this telephone line. No emergency personnel will be dispatched.&quot; Her father was already down, shot in the leg and her mother had also been hit. Both were in pools of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I picked up another phone cause I thought it was the phone's problem. But I picked up another phone and it still didn't work,&quot; said Joyce. The robbers ran, and so did Joyce, to call 911 from a neighbor's house. The 911 Emergency Network says the Peters subscribe to what is known as a voice over Internet provider, or an Internet phone company. The emergency network recommends that people find out if their providers offer the service. Many Internet phone companies claim to offer huge savings. And it's estimated that as many as 100,000 people in the Harris County area have signed up in the last two months. That's why Harris County's 911 network is starting a campaign asking people to check their Internet phones for 911 service -- before they need it. The Peters wish the warning had come a little sooner. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Why it’s not working today….. #3 </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the PSAP community up in arms and the FCC is listening! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Two major technology issues (Peabody Perspective – lots of smaller issues) <ul><li>Proper PSAP selection and routing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography means nothing any longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All the old boundaries mean nothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States, regions, LATA’s etc…. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones discovered this first, but resolved! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VoIP is easily portable and mobile </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Location determination will be difficult and require coordination and investment at the customer end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially for enterprise business calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple databases must be “meshed” in an enterprise business environment to determine where you are calling from on the network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s all technically “doable”, but getting the program together in the enterprise business is going to be a large task. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But 95% of MLTS provide limited ANI and no ALI today. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Regulatory Issues That Will Impact The HEC E9-1-1 Programs </li></ul>
  15. 15. FCC Is In Charge! <ul><li>The FCC ruled in November 2004 that they will be the regulatory agency for VoIP services. </li></ul><ul><li>Major re-write of the 1996 Telecom act is expected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will involve Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairman Powell has departed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsure of the impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-write of 1996 Act may take years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. More FCC <ul><li>Held numerous open meetings on VoIP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seem active and interested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant theme is that they are aware of the PSAP issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aware of the interest for them to rule – since IP service has no boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States and carriers are anxious for the FCC to make rulings as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chaos if each state makes their own rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Notice for proposed rule making (NFPRM) is underway to write “the rules” for VoIP and MLTS (multi-line telephone systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Line: The FCC is listening closely to Public Safety and technology community </li></ul>
  17. 17. FCC Is Engaged - 2 <ul><li>FCC has indicated “light touch” for regulating VoIP TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want the technology to flourish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want new competition and models to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However: FCC has been very clear that they will regulate the following issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiretap/Justice Dept issues (CALEA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Service Fees: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools and Library funding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriber Line Charges (supports affordable phones in rural areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly intercarrier compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(rural carriers rely on this revenue) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. FCC Is Engaged - 3 <ul><li>The PSAP community is monitoring this very closely, especially the impact of VoIP on E911 funding. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If regulated like cell phones – funding could increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every phone pays a fee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If regulated differently funding may decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi line businesses pay a “ratio” that varies by state. IP models may change the ratios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential users are taxed individually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today, VoIP services are not considered phone services, they’re considered information services. Information services have different regulations/taxes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One major issue being discussed is who controls the 9-1-1 fee, the FCC or the States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>412-362-xxxx may work in California now (TODAY!). Who should get the 9-1-1 fee? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phone 9-1-1 fee in DC goes to billing address. Is that an issue in VoiP? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>THE HEC NEEDS TO STAY INVOLVED IN THIS. THERE MAY NOT BE “PBX/CENTREX EQUIVALENCIES” </li></ul>
  19. 19. PSC vs FCC <ul><li>Legacy phones services are mostly ruled by the PSCC. VoIP will be federally ruled. However, there are no current federal rules for E911 ANI/ALI information. It’s always been state controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately six states mandate station id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This does not address location in enterprise businesses in the traditional phone networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very few businesses even send station ID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Again – station ID is not location ID </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GU had phones all over the Washmet area. All routed with 37 th @ Ost NW as the ALI address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VoIP will add great complexity to this. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal rules may be needed for E911 routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted in the mid 1990’s – failed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most businesses will have some VoIP phones in place, so most will be impacted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NENA AND APCO ARE LOBBYING VERY HARD ON THIS! IT WILL IMPACT THE HEC BUDGETS AND PROGRAMS </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>CHANGING TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGING SOLUTIONS </li></ul>
  21. 21. NENA PHASES FOR IP IMPLEMENTATON <ul><li>NENA has 3 IP connectivity solutions being phased in for support of VoIP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“I-1” – In force today </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated line to PSAP (preferred) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routing to PSAP 10 digit Administrative Line </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous problems with the 10 digit solution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“I-2” In transition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All calls routed on existing 9-1-1 system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes ANI/ALI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I-3” – “Final Solution” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PSAP’s are IP enabled for IP connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- E9-1-1 for VoIP mobility cases with ANI, ALI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No proven / tested solution in place yet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. HEC – PSAP Connectivity <ul><li>Direct connectivity may be an option in the future, rather than routing through a carrier to a 911 tandem ( NENA phase III) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticated IP access to IP Enabled PSAPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately may “force” the HEC’s to build programs that improve enterprise ALI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some States already have requirements, but calls are routed to 9-1-1 tandem/carriers first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would dramatically improve campus location info to PSAP’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACUTA’s survey indicates that few are actively managing PSALI </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. A prototype i3 VoIP PSAP implementation Henning Schulzrinne, Anshuman Rawat, Matthew Mintz-Habib, Xiaotao Wu and Ron Shacham Dept. of Computer Science Columbia University Walt Magnussen, Willis Marti, Patti Urbina Chris Norton, Clark Yang, Karthik Kannan Internet2 Technology Evaluation Center Texas A&M University
  24. 24. Overview <ul><li>A quick review of I3 assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of project </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype architecture and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling and robustness </li></ul><ul><li>Next steps </li></ul>
  25. 25. Our I3 assumptions <ul><li>VoIP (SIP) capable end systems </li></ul><ul><li>SIP-capable PSAP </li></ul><ul><li>Location inserted by origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outbound proxy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>originating device (e.g., via DHCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>either geospatial or civic location </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Goals of prototype <ul><li>Provide a platform for quick experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine easy vs. hard parts of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment with redundancy and robustness </li></ul><ul><li>Use off-the-shelf components where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase II wireless (based on ALI lookup) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I3 VoIP end-to-end, with in-band location information </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Components No endorsement implied – other components likely will work as well geo-coding, PSAP boundaries SIP user agent sipc SQL database for call routing GIS software for call location plotting web server SIP phone database-backed DNS server SIP proxy server sipd
  28. 28. Prototype * gray features in progress.
  29. 29. Demo prototype Ft. Wayne, IN: August 17, 2004
  30. 30. Call routing <ul><li>PSAP lookup depends on location type: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS for civic locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapinfo Envinsa for geo location </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Detail: I3 - DNS-based resolution Perl sip-cgi script DNS NAPTR: … proprietary TCP-based protocol DHCP INFORM SIP w/location MAC  loc
  32. 32. Call taker setup SIPc client receives calls GeoLynx software displays caller location
  33. 33. sipc receives call
  34. 34. GeoLynx displays location GeoLynx receives commands and displays location. Caller location displayed on map. Caller information displayed in GUI. GeoLynx listens for commands from SIPc…
  35. 35. Demo Ft. Wayne, IN (August 17, 2004)
  36. 36. White PSAP
  37. 37. Red PSAP
  38. 38. Blue PSAP
  39. 39. Close-up of PSAP call taker station
  40. 40. Using IP phones for voice XML display with HTTP retrieval XML display shows caller location redundant sipd’s Apache web server
  41. 41. Emergency call conferencing 3 rd party call control Conference server PSAP Recorder Fire department Hospital PSAP brings all related parties into a conference call Caller INVITE INVITE INVITE INVITE REFER REFER REFER INVITE media info INVITE media info
  42. 42. Scaling <ul><li>NENA: “estimated 200 million calls to 9-1-1 in the U.S. each year” </li></ul><ul><li> approximately 6.3 calls/second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if 3 minute call, about 1,200 concurrent calls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>typical SIP proxy server (e.g., sipd) on 1 GHz PC can handle about 400 call arrivals/second </li></ul><ul><li>thus, unlikely to be server-bound </li></ul>
  43. 43. Next steps for our prototype <ul><li>Custom user interface for call taker </li></ul><ul><li>Add voice recording and conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using our software conference server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Data mining” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collect and display statistical data about calls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of police/fire/EMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct transmission of call-related data via simple IM application  requires only Internet access </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Difficulties <ul><li>Difficult to get good test environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access to PDE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP access to ALI (often, jury-rigged telnet interfaces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to MSAG and ALI data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ friendly” PSAPs one option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but open, network-accessible test lab would be better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>longer-term: may need “plug fests” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>see SIPit effort – vendors collaborating in friendly, non-public interop test efforts  rapid elimination of protocol and implementation problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Conclusion <ul><li>A first prototype of I3 PSAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>integrates Phase II wireless call delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shown that it is possible to integrate existing GIS applications with I3 </li></ul><ul><li>Based on COTS technology, with modest modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Additional operational support in progress </li></ul>
  46. 46. NTIA VoIP i3 PSAP Project <ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas A&M University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbia University (Dr. Henning Schulzrinne co-PI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Emergency Number Association (NENA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The State of Texas Commission on State Emergency Communications (CSEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The State of Virginia Division of Public Safety Communications of the Virginia Information Technologies Agency (VITA). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazos County Texas E911 District </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City of College Station Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nortel </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Project Goals & Duration <ul><li>To build and install in an operational PSAP an i3 PSAP prototype system </li></ul><ul><li>Provide functional comparison to existing i2 systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide VoIP E911 workshops designed to expand Internet based 911 services awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Project to begin on 1 October, 2004 and conclude on 31 September, 2006 </li></ul>
  48. 48. Project Responsibilities <ul><li>Columbia University – development of I3 components. </li></ul><ul><li>TAMU ITEC – I3 field trial and coordination with PSAP entities. </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco and Nortel – Support I2 installations </li></ul>
  49. 49. Thank you – Now for Questions <ul><li>Contact info – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walt Magnussen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ph 979-845-5588 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henning Schulzrinne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ph 212-939-7005 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chris Peabody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ph 703-288-0445 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>