The changing face of E9-1-1 and it's impact on the HECPresentation Transcript
The changing face of E9-1-1 and it’s impact on the HEC Chris Peabody Net@EDU ICS Meeting February 2005 [email_address]
L ROBERT KIMBALL BACKGROUND
13 Office Locations in Eastern US
Approximately 500 full time employees
Consultants, Engineers and Architects at the core of the company
Recently celebrated 50 th year in business
Telecommunications & Technology Division
Teams located throughout the country
Approximately 50 full time employees
Specialization in Public Safety - E911 / PSAP technology
Rapidly growing Enterprise Network technology team
Terms / Observations and Messages
Why it’s not working today
Regulatory issues that will impact the HEC
Questions – Roundtable
9-1-1 COMMON TERMS
ALI Automatic Location Identification
ANI Automatic Number identification
CAMA Trunk Analog point-point circuit (original PSAP network circuit)
CBN Call Back Number (a dialable NANP number)
CGL Calling Geodetic Location (lat/long)
ELIN Emergency Location Identification Number: A dialable NANP number used to identify an Emergency Response Location on on a customer’s premises
ERL Emergency Response Location: A specific geographic area on a customer’s premises with a unique association to a PSAP ESN.
GIS Geographic Information System Database
MSAG Master Street Address Guide
P-ALI Location database of a wireless cell / sector,
PSAP Public safety answering point
SS7 Signaling protocol used by telephony carriers
Selective Router Electronics that route callers to appropriate PSAP
$$$$$$ Or Lack of! --- smile
This is “motherhood and apple pie” to many groups! Real passion exists in the PSAP community right now about VoIP – and it’s not LOVE!
The PSAP’s networks and call handling capabilities are “all over the map”.
Much of the VoIP industry is “all over the map” on how they’re handling 9-1-1 call routing to the PSAP’s
Enterprise 9-1-1 call routing issues are “all over the map” but this is not new. Enterprise 9-1-1 call handing is getting a very serious review by the FCC.
The HEC is, and must continue to follow this one closely.
HEC MESSAGES FOR TODAY
9-1-1 is changing and evolving very rapidly ! The Higher Ed Community (HEC) needs to understand the drivers of this change, and what thee new rules mean when they’re created.
9-1-1 is important for Higher Ed ! Is your campus just doing the minimum? Is that good enough? Take stock of what you’re doing right now.
A successful 9-1-1 program involves multiple entities! Enterprise businesses like higher ed are going to be much more involved in this business in the future. One of the goals today is to share more about the PSAP side of this program.
Higher Ed needs to start preparing for the future ! Cellular phones and VoIP are two technology drivers that have made 9-1-1 more “visible” these days. But many other technology and legislative drivers are evolving RIGHT NOW that will have a great impact on how campus’s will deal with 9-1-1 call routing in the future. Planning is essential.
Why it’s not working today….. #1
Why is the PSAP community up in arms and the FCC is listening!
THIS IS FROM A MAJOR VoIP CARRIER
2.1 Non-Availability of Traditional 911 or E911 Dialing Service
You agree to inform any household residents, guests and other third persons who may be present at the physical location where you utilize the Service of the non-availability of traditional 911 or E911 dialing from your XXX Service and Device(s). If you activate XXX 911-type dialing service, you agree to inform any household residents, guests and other third persons who may be present at the physical location where you utilize the Service as to the important differences and limitations of XXX 911 dialing service as compared with traditional 911 or E911 dialing that are set forth in this Agreement.
Thanks for coming to my party. Before you have a beer, I must tell you that I have VoIP service. I’ve signed an agreement that says I’ll tell you about my VoIP service and that 9-1-1 dialing may not work………
Why it’s not working today…..#2
(from one of NENA’s Listserve’s this past Friday 2/4/05)
Technology trips over 911 call 08:12 AM CST on Friday, February 4, 2005
By Vicente Arenas / KHOU 11 News, Houston (www.khou.com)
A young girl found out the hard way Thursday that not all phone companies provide a connection to emergency services. As her mother and father were being shot during a home invasion, she tried to call 911, but couldn't get through. < http://www.consultant-registry.com/delivery/houstonphoto.jpg > Joyce John tried to call 911, but the Internet phone service her family uses didn't offer that capability. This problem could affect thousands of people who use the Internet for their phone service. Peter John describes how bullets flew through his home as he and his wife tried to fight off two would-be robbers. "And he point the gun toward me like this. The guy put the gun to my chest. I told him that my daughter's upstairs," said John. "Next thing I know, I hear shots in two or three seconds. She was screaming Joyce, Joyce call the police call 911," said his daughter, Joyce. She dialed 911, and got this message, "Stop you must dial 911 from another telephone. 911 is not available from this telephone line. No emergency personnel will be dispatched." Her father was already down, shot in the leg and her mother had also been hit. Both were in pools of blood.
"I picked up another phone cause I thought it was the phone's problem. But I picked up another phone and it still didn't work," said Joyce. The robbers ran, and so did Joyce, to call 911 from a neighbor's house. The 911 Emergency Network says the Peters subscribe to what is known as a voice over Internet provider, or an Internet phone company. The emergency network recommends that people find out if their providers offer the service. Many Internet phone companies claim to offer huge savings. And it's estimated that as many as 100,000 people in the Harris County area have signed up in the last two months. That's why Harris County's 911 network is starting a campaign asking people to check their Internet phones for 911 service -- before they need it. The Peters wish the warning had come a little sooner.
Why it’s not working today….. #3
Why is the PSAP community up in arms and the FCC is listening!
Two major technology issues (Peabody Perspective – lots of smaller issues)
Proper PSAP selection and routing
Geography means nothing any longer
All the old boundaries mean nothing
States, regions, LATA’s etc….
Cell phones discovered this first, but resolved!
VoIP is easily portable and mobile
Location determination will be difficult and require coordination and investment at the customer end
Especially for enterprise business calls
Multiple databases must be “meshed” in an enterprise business environment to determine where you are calling from on the network
It’s all technically “doable”, but getting the program together in the enterprise business is going to be a large task.
But 95% of MLTS provide limited ANI and no ALI today.
Regulatory Issues That Will Impact The HEC E9-1-1 Programs
FCC Is In Charge!
The FCC ruled in November 2004 that they will be the regulatory agency for VoIP services.
Major re-write of the 1996 Telecom act is expected.
Will involve Congress
Chairman Powell has departed.
Unsure of the impact
Re-write of 1996 Act may take years
Held numerous open meetings on VoIP
Seem active and interested
Constant theme is that they are aware of the PSAP issues
Aware of the interest for them to rule – since IP service has no boundaries
States and carriers are anxious for the FCC to make rulings as well
Chaos if each state makes their own rules
Notice for proposed rule making (NFPRM) is underway to write “the rules” for VoIP and MLTS (multi-line telephone systems)
Bottom Line: The FCC is listening closely to Public Safety and technology community
FCC Is Engaged - 2
FCC has indicated “light touch” for regulating VoIP TECHNOLOGY
Want the technology to flourish
Want new competition and models to develop
However: FCC has been very clear that they will regulate the following issues
Wiretap/Justice Dept issues (CALEA)
Universal Service Fees:
Schools and Library funding
Subscriber Line Charges (supports affordable phones in rural areas
Possibly intercarrier compensation
(rural carriers rely on this revenue)
FCC Is Engaged - 3
The PSAP community is monitoring this very closely, especially the impact of VoIP on E911 funding.
If regulated like cell phones – funding could increase
Every phone pays a fee
If regulated differently funding may decrease
Multi line businesses pay a “ratio” that varies by state. IP models may change the ratios
Residential users are taxed individually
Today, VoIP services are not considered phone services, they’re considered information services. Information services have different regulations/taxes.
One major issue being discussed is who controls the 9-1-1 fee, the FCC or the States.
412-362-xxxx may work in California now (TODAY!). Who should get the 9-1-1 fee?
Cell phone 9-1-1 fee in DC goes to billing address. Is that an issue in VoiP?
THE HEC NEEDS TO STAY INVOLVED IN THIS. THERE MAY NOT BE “PBX/CENTREX EQUIVALENCIES”
PSC vs FCC
Legacy phones services are mostly ruled by the PSCC. VoIP will be federally ruled. However, there are no current federal rules for E911 ANI/ALI information. It’s always been state controlled
Approximately six states mandate station id
This does not address location in enterprise businesses in the traditional phone networks
Very few businesses even send station ID
Again – station ID is not location ID
GU had phones all over the Washmet area. All routed with 37 th @ Ost NW as the ALI address
VoIP will add great complexity to this.
Federal rules may be needed for E911 routing
Attempted in the mid 1990’s – failed
Most businesses will have some VoIP phones in place, so most will be impacted
NENA AND APCO ARE LOBBYING VERY HARD ON THIS! IT WILL IMPACT THE HEC BUDGETS AND PROGRAMS
NENA PHASES FOR IP IMPLEMENTATON
NENA has 3 IP connectivity solutions being phased in for support of VoIP
“I-1” – In force today
Dedicated line to PSAP (preferred)
Routing to PSAP 10 digit Administrative Line
Enormous problems with the 10 digit solution
“I-2” In transition
All calls routed on existing 9-1-1 system
I-3” – “Final Solution”
PSAP’s are IP enabled for IP connectivity
- E9-1-1 for VoIP mobility cases with ANI, ALI
No proven / tested solution in place yet
HEC – PSAP Connectivity
Direct connectivity may be an option in the future, rather than routing through a carrier to a 911 tandem ( NENA phase III)
Authenticated IP access to IP Enabled PSAPs
Ultimately may “force” the HEC’s to build programs that improve enterprise ALI
Some States already have requirements, but calls are routed to 9-1-1 tandem/carriers first
Would dramatically improve campus location info to PSAP’s
ACUTA’s survey indicates that few are actively managing PSALI
A prototype i3 VoIP PSAP implementation Henning Schulzrinne, Anshuman Rawat, Matthew Mintz-Habib, Xiaotao Wu and Ron Shacham Dept. of Computer Science Columbia University Walt Magnussen, Willis Marti, Patti Urbina Chris Norton, Clark Yang, Karthik Kannan Internet2 Technology Evaluation Center Texas A&M University
A quick review of I3 assumptions
Goals of project
Prototype architecture and experiences
Scaling and robustness
Our I3 assumptions
VoIP (SIP) capable end systems
Location inserted by origin
originating device (e.g., via DHCP)
either geospatial or civic location
Goals of prototype
Provide a platform for quick experimentation
Determine easy vs. hard parts of problem
Experiment with redundancy and robustness
Use off-the-shelf components where possible
Phase II wireless (based on ALI lookup)
I3 VoIP end-to-end, with in-band location information
Components No endorsement implied – other components likely will work as well geo-coding, PSAP boundaries SIP user agent sipc SQL database for call routing GIS software for call location plotting web server SIP phone database-backed DNS server SIP proxy server sipd
Prototype * gray features in progress.
Demo prototype Ft. Wayne, IN: August 17, 2004
PSAP lookup depends on location type:
DNS for civic locations
Mapinfo Envinsa for geo location
Detail: I3 - DNS-based resolution 151.algonquin-dr.addison.vt.us.sos-arpa.net Perl sip-cgi script DNS NAPTR: addison.vt.us algonquin-dr.addison.vt.us … psap.state.vt.gov psap.state.vt.gov proprietary TCP-based protocol DHCP INFORM SIP w/location MAC loc
GeoLynx displays location GeoLynx receives commands and displays location. Caller location displayed on map. Caller information displayed in GUI. GeoLynx listens for commands from SIPc…
Demo Ft. Wayne, IN (August 17, 2004)
Close-up of PSAP call taker station
Using IP phones for voice XML display with HTTP retrieval XML display shows caller location redundant sipd’s Apache web server
Emergency call conferencing 3 rd party call control Conference server PSAP Recorder Fire department Hospital PSAP brings all related parties into a conference call Caller INVITE INVITE INVITE INVITE REFER REFER REFER INVITE media info INVITE media info
NENA: “estimated 200 million calls to 9-1-1 in the U.S. each year”
approximately 6.3 calls/second
if 3 minute call, about 1,200 concurrent calls
typical SIP proxy server (e.g., sipd) on 1 GHz PC can handle about 400 call arrivals/second
thus, unlikely to be server-bound
Next steps for our prototype
Custom user interface for call taker
Add voice recording and conferencing
using our software conference server
“ Data mining”
collect and display statistical data about calls
Integration of police/fire/EMS
direct transmission of call-related data via simple IM application requires only Internet access
Difficult to get good test environment
access to PDE
IP access to ALI (often, jury-rigged telnet interfaces)
access to MSAG and ALI data
“ friendly” PSAPs one option
but open, network-accessible test lab would be better
longer-term: may need “plug fests”
see SIPit effort – vendors collaborating in friendly, non-public interop test efforts rapid elimination of protocol and implementation problems
A first prototype of I3 PSAP
integrates Phase II wireless call delivery
Shown that it is possible to integrate existing GIS applications with I3
Based on COTS technology, with modest modifications
Additional operational support in progress
NTIA VoIP i3 PSAP Project
Texas A&M University
Columbia University (Dr. Henning Schulzrinne co-PI)
The University of Virginia
National Emergency Number Association (NENA)
The State of Texas Commission on State Emergency Communications (CSEC)
The State of Virginia Division of Public Safety Communications of the Virginia Information Technologies Agency (VITA).
Brazos County Texas E911 District
City of College Station Texas
Project Goals & Duration
To build and install in an operational PSAP an i3 PSAP prototype system
Provide functional comparison to existing i2 systems
Provide VoIP E911 workshops designed to expand Internet based 911 services awareness
Project to begin on 1 October, 2004 and conclude on 31 September, 2006
Columbia University – development of I3 components.
TAMU ITEC – I3 field trial and coordination with PSAP entities.