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  • Generall
  • Basic Background on Surveillance Laws Court authorized Real time acquisition (not records via subpoena) Acquiring actual communications (often referred to as “ wiretaps ”) or “call identifying information” (which is information about communications) (often referred to as “ pen register/traps and traces ”) Relatively rare (“chances are” if you have never received an order Difficult to obtain by LE Used in the most serious of crimes (kidnapping, Organized crime, drug traffiking, terrorism) and sometimes national security cases >>> Your assistance is thus greatly needed and very valuable CALEA supports ALL of LE (federal, state, local) Applicable to all carriers: Initially common carriers (wired and cellular) FCC decided in September 2005 – facilities based BB; interconnected VOIP
  • Importance to LE is 2-fold: As already described, interception is a valuable and critical crime-fighting tool Your assistance is necessary due to technological change “ wiretap of local loop” vs. “switch based” or network-based interception and because the law requires that only carriers activate lawful interceptions
  • Capabilities: 4 Duties Safe Harbor create 3-Part Role: Industry FBI (consultative only – FBI does not set the requirements under the law) FCC (decisions on “deficiencies”) Section 105 – requires filing of carrier polices/procedures and notification of 24/7 POC Section 109 is the safety valve but FCC requires strict showing of financial and technological necessity

The CALEA Challenge Law Enforcement Requirements for VoiP and ... The CALEA Challenge Law Enforcement Requirements for VoiP and ... Presentation Transcript

  • COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT (CALEA) Law Enforcement Requirements for VoIP and Broadband Access
  • Introduction
    • CALEA Background
    • Development of Law Enforcement End-User Requirements
    • CIU Standards Capability Policy
      • Voice
      • Data
    • Responsibilities for Interception
  • WHAT IS CALEA?
    • Legislation preserving Law Enforcement’s ability to intercept communications involving advanced telecommunications technologies
    • Mandates that the telecommunications industry consider Law Enforcement when designing new services and features
    • Applicable to all telecommunications carriers regardless of the underlying technology
  • WHY CALEA IS IMPORTANT TO LAW ENFORCEMENT
    • Electronic surveillance undergoes a paradigm shift
      • Information available
      • How it is conducted
      • Who controls (administers) it
    • Effects on Law Enforcement
      • Technology used in collection
      • Cost (collection and delivery)
    • Law Enforcement now has recourse when the industry introduces advanced technologies with no commensurate capabilities to conduct electronic surveillance
  • CALEA Main Legal Requirements Quick Overview
    • duties to ensure capability (section 103) –
      • Isolating and enabling interception of communications
      • Isolating and enabling acquisition of call-identifying information (CII) that is “reasonably available”
        • and correlated with the communications
      • Delivering communications and CII
      • Facilitating interception such that it is “unobtrusive” and secure
    • Safe-Harbor for industry standards (Section 107)
    • FCC may adopt rules if standards are determined to be “deficient”
      • FCC requires System Security filings (Section 105)
      • FCC determines cost petitions (Section 109)
  • Methods for Carrier CALEA Compliance
    • Carriers have two alternatives to meet their obligations under CALEA:
      • Adoption of an Industry Standard
        • Industry initiates and participates in the development of lawful intercept standards in order to be afforded the “Safe Harbor” provision of Section 107 of CALEA
          • A carrier shall be found in compliance with Section 103 of CALEA if the carrier has implemented the capabilities set forth in an industry accepted standard
        • The FCC concluded in its Second Report and Order that absent the filing of a deficiency petition under CALEA section 107(b), it would be premature for the FCC to intervene in the standards development process
      • Direct Compliance with Section 103(a) of CALEA
        • Carriers may implement an ad-hoc solution which meets the four objectives of 103:
          • Expeditious isolation of the targets communications
          • Expeditious isolation of the targets communication-identifying information
          • Delivery of the target’s communications and communication identifying information to law enforcement in a means which can be correlated
          • Assuring unobtrusive and transparent interception of the targets communications and communication identifying information.
    • Wireline and wireless service providers are moving from circuit-based technologies to packet-based technologies for voice services
    • Surveillance of voice services in circuit-based networks is covered under J-STD-025A
    • The number of standards organizations developing lawful interception capabilities has expanded as industry’s approach has fragmented
      • Different legal and regulatory backgrounds (e.g., cable vs. DSL)
      • Different philosophies on how to approach CALEA obligations
    • FCC First Report and Order has resulted in additional standards groups initiating working on “Safe Harbor” intercept solutions
      • Broadband Over Powerline
      • WiMAX
    Law Enforcement is working with industry to ensure surveillance capabilities are maintained as networks evolve
  • Development of FBI Standards Requirements
    • The development of law enforcement requirements for CALEA interception of packet-based services can be broken down into two areas: Carrier Grade Voice over Packet and Broadband Data Access
    • Carrier Grade Voice over Packet Service (CGVoP)
      • Addresses Voice over Packet carriers offering managed service
      • Development of positions for VoIP began in 2000
      • State and Local law enforcement as well as FBI provided input to CIU’s position
      • Document was completed and released to Industry on January 23, 2003
        • Can be requested by Industry at www.askcalea.net
  • Development of FBI Standards Requirements (cont’d)
    • Broadband Data Access Service
      • Addresses broadband technologies for both fixed and mobile implementations
      • Work on developing positions for Data Access began in 2002
      • CIU developed position on broadband data access with input from State and Local LE
        • FBI has had significant operational experience with broadband intercepts
      • Publicly available document does not exist for this service
        • Industry can contact CIU for additional information on Broadband Data Access service interception requirements
  • General Characteristics of a VoIP Intercept Solution
    • Standardization efforts focus on delivery from carrier to law enforcement
    • Call-Identifying Information : The carrier is required to map their specific VoIP protocols to a generic set of messages for delivery to law enforcement
      • Messages based on circuit-switched message set with inclusion of new capabilities specific to VoIP
      • Messages have a “catch-all” field which will delivery any additional information not anticipated in the generic messages
    • Call Content : The carrier provides content in a wrapper, unaltered
      • Content is defined as all VoIP packets which contain subject’s communication
    • Correlation : Carrier must correlate interception product (e.g., timestamps, case ID) and deliver it over a single interface
      • Critical as more than one Intercept Access Point (IAP) per intercept is required to provide the necessary data to law enforcement
    • The carrier is required to provide the intercepted data to law enforcement in near real-time
  • General Characteristics of a Data Access Intercept Solution
    • Standardization efforts focus on delivery from carrier to law enforcement
    • Communication-Identifying Information : The carrier is required to provide basic information about the management of the data access service to law enforcement
      • The data access solutions do not address application-level data extraction (e.g. e-mail, chat, VoIP) or application pen register solutions
    • Communication Content : The carrier provides content in a wrapper, unaltered
      • Content is defined as ALL packets sent or received by the subject
    • Correlation : Carrier must correlate interception product (e.g., timestamps, case ID) and deliver it over a single interface
      • Critical as more than one Intercept Access Point (IAP) per intercept may be required to provide the necessary data to law enforcement
  • Data Access Intercept Delivery Requirements
    • Delivery solutions for data access interception must allow for open IP network connectivity for transmission from the carrier premises to law enforcement
      • Assures rapid establishment of connectivity from carrier to law enforcement where preexisting connections do not exist
      • Cost effective delivery solution
      • Does not preclude use of dedicated facilities, but avoids reliance upon them
    • The carrier may either provide the intercepted data to law enforcement in near real-time or in a file structure format
      • Near real-time access: Carrier must allow law enforcement to co-locate equipment which stores intercepted data and provide a static IP for law enforcement remote access via VPN
      • File structure access: carrier provides “buffering” function and provides law enforcement with remote access via a secure connection (e.g., VPN)
  • Responsibilities for Data Interception
    • The carrier assisting LEA will be responsible for:
      • Isolating the target’s complete raw packet communication stream
      • Providing communication identifying information about the target for the session
      • Delivering communication to law enforcement
        • Near real-time access: Carrier must allow law enforcement to co-locate equipment which stores intercepted data and provide a static IP for law enforcement remote access via VPN
        • File structure access: carrier provides “buffering” function and provides law enforcement with remote access via a secure connection (e.g., VPN)
      • Assuring the communications are delivered reliably, securely, and transparently to law enforcement
    • The LEA is responsible for:
      • Procuring secure connectivity to carrier (VPN Internet connectivity or dedicated facilities)
      • Co-locating equipment, if necessary
      • Receiving delivered raw packet stream from buffering function
      • Reassembling the target’s raw packet stream into the individual applications (e.g., e-mail, chat, web browsing, FTP)
  • Responsibilities for Data Interception (Cont’d) Access Provider Network Intercept Buffering Server (IBS) (Carrier Operated) Subject CPE LE Domain VPN tunnel LE Delivery Interfaces Internet Intercept Presentation Packet Reformation Service ID Service Assembly E-Mail Chat Web FTP
  • Summary
    • Standards are a vital component of for the implementation of Industry’s CALEA obligations
      • Industry has published six specifications which address VoIP and Broadband Data Access for various technologies
      • Five more specifications are under development
      • Satellite communication providers do not have a “Safe Harbor” specification for VoIP and broadband services offered over their technology
    • Capabilities requested by Law Enforcement have been collected from significant stakeholders and includes an operational perspective
      • Federal
      • State
      • Local
  • QUESTIONS Maura Quinn Unit Chief CALEA Implementation Unit [email_address] 703-632-6897