Telecommunications and Technology Primer

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Telecommunications and Technology Primer

  1. 1. 2-1-1 Training: Telecommunications and Technology Marianne Galleon INFO LINE of Los Angeles July 30, 2004
  2. 2. Goals : <ul><li>Understand how 2-1-1 system design affects telecommunications and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about telecom and technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting the 2-1-1 call to the Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling 2-1-1 calls once at the Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing technology options within the Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to plan for the unexpected </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introductions <ul><li>Name, location, and role or position </li></ul><ul><li>Status of 2-1-1 in your community </li></ul><ul><li>Telecom-Technology Continuum </li></ul><ul><li>Newby Dangerous Smarty </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations: One thing you’d like to learn? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Service Models Centralized Administration with Single Call Center Centralized Administration with Multiple Centers Decentralized Administration with Multiple Centers <ul><li>Service Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Database </li></ul><ul><li>24-hour Access </li></ul>
  5. 5. Model Considerations <ul><li>Short-term and long-term costs </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Billings </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability for emerging technologies and future opportunities </li></ul>
  6. 6. Philosophical Issues <ul><li>Old numbers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Live answer” </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymity vs. Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Target populations </li></ul><ul><li>Data sharing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Alphabet Soup <ul><li>POTS </li></ul><ul><li>ILEC </li></ul><ul><li>CLEC </li></ul><ul><li>ACD </li></ul><ul><li>PUC </li></ul><ul><li>PBX </li></ul><ul><li>8YY </li></ul><ul><li>AIN </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP </li></ul><ul><li>IVR </li></ul><ul><li>Plain old telephone service </li></ul><ul><li>Incumbent local exchange carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive local exchange carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic call distributor </li></ul><ul><li>Public utility commission </li></ul><ul><li>Private branch exchange </li></ul><ul><li>800-number </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced intelligence networking </li></ul><ul><li>Voice over Internet Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Voice Response </li></ul>
  8. 8. Central Office Translation 2-1-1 Caller (over local) 2-1-1 Caller (over 8YY) Switch * Switch * Translation 2-1-1 = local # Translation 2-1-1 = 8YY # PBX Host Central Office 2-1-1 Center
  9. 9. Types of Translation <ul><li>Switch-based </li></ul><ul><li>“ hard-wired” at a switch, often for multiple exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Less complex </li></ul><ul><li>Little ongoing maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>History of service (911 and other N11s) </li></ul><ul><li>AIN Service </li></ul><ul><li>Through network based on “if, then” statements </li></ul><ul><li>NPA-NXX specific </li></ul><ul><li>Requires table maintenance with new numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes more costly </li></ul><ul><li>Not always available </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who to Contact <ul><li>ILECs </li></ul><ul><li>CLECs </li></ul><ul><li>Payphone industry </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless/Cellular </li></ul><ul><li>PBX and other phone system administrators </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP companies </li></ul><ul><li>Cable companies </li></ul>
  11. 11. Phantom Calls <ul><li>A phantom is a call that arrives at the Center but has no “real person” making the call. </li></ul><ul><li>Switching equipment misinterprets “2-1-1 pulses” </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced as rings only, “clicks,” silent call, busy signal, static </li></ul>
  12. 12. Phantom Effects <ul><li>Staff burnout </li></ul><ul><li>ACD and line overload </li></ul><ul><li>“Solutions” to manage phantoms create other issues, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IVR or auto attendant may eliminate calls from rotary phones or TTY’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require more sophisticated ACD, additional lines, ports, telephones, longer hold times, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Phantom Calls Stats
  14. 14. Routing Issues <ul><li>Digits in 7- digit number misrouted (i.e. 626-35 2 - 11 XX, or 909-376- 211 X), allowing the 2-1-1 Center to hear the one or both parties on the intended call . </li></ul><ul><li>8YY routes based on “charge number” in place of the ANI of the originating caller. </li></ul><ul><li>Calls automatically ringing to individual's homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Calls automatically ring into 2-1-1 Center when the residential customer picks up the phone. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Looping&quot; pattern (e.g., a fax line on repeat dialing) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Payphone Issues <ul><li>“Dumb” or “smart” pay telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Service or refund number requests </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates about locations and accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier charges and reputation of 8YY carrier </li></ul>
  16. 16. CPUC on Payphone Issue <ul><li>Quotes taken directly from CPUC ruling: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Consistent with FCC rules and the public interest, payphone operators in those territories receiving 2-1-1 service must discontinue any incompatible use of 2-1-1 dialing and must route calls to I&R providers. </li></ul><ul><li>We urge all payphone operators to recognize that 211 calls are, in many cases, an alternative to 911 calls, and we urge them to refrain from charging callers dialing 211. ‘ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The decision permits I&R providers to secure 2-1-1 call origination service from incumbent carriers using the architecture of their choice. I&R providers, on the other hand, must secure an 8YY number and 800 service for call routing by payphone operators or competitive local exchange carriers who prefer to use this network architecture to provide 2-1-1 call origination services. ‘ </li></ul>
  17. 17. CPUC Payphone Timelines <ul><li>Quotes taken directly from CPUC ruling: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Furthermore, we will set a deadline for each payphone provider to discontinue nonconforming uses of the 2-1-1 number from payphones in those affected geographic areas when 2-1-1 service will be offered.’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Deadline Event 1 plus 120 days: Payphone Telephones initiate process to relinquish use of 2-1-1 service for access to refund and repair service.’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Absent the implementation of 2-1-1 calling in a specific area, it is not necessary to require payphone providers to discontinue use of this number.’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The providers of payphone services in an area in which 2-1-1 service will be offered shall end all non-conforming uses of 2-1-1 service within six months of their filing. Payphone service providers may route and bill the 2-1-1 calls as 8YY calls using the number secured by the I&R provider.’ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Wireless Issues <ul><li>No FCC Mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Many contracts require Statewide 8YY </li></ul><ul><li>Caller pays for minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Public education requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Switch based vs. Tower routing </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing state Borders </li></ul><ul><li>Number Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic or phone number based </li></ul>
  19. 19. Switched Cellular <ul><li>Cell phone companies have one or more ‘switches’ in a state. These switches cover a large geographic area where the cell towers in that area are hard wired to a switch. The switch re-routes the calls to long distance locations, local calling area or to other cell locations. </li></ul><ul><li>If 2-1-1 is decentralized, not statewide, the geographic area covered by the switch is most likely different than the geographic area served by the call center. The calls coming to the 2-1-1 center may be from other areas that another 2-1-1 covers. Usually, switches stay within state boundaries, but this is problematic in boarder areas. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Wireless Switched Service 2-1-1 call to cell phone Company ‘A’ Cell tower for Company ‘A’ is pre-programmed to send all calls to cell company ‘A’ switch Cell Company ‘A’ Switch that services all of its towers in a geographic region in 15 counties. Switch programs all calls to 2-1-1 to go to 2-1-1 center. The switch will send all calls from all towers. 2-1-1 center will have to pay for programming the switch to send all 2-1-1 calls. Telephone land lines: Switch sends the call to either a seven digit number or a 10 digit number where they do not pay the toll 2-1-1 Center receives call from company ‘A’ switch with-in geographic area.
  21. 21. Tower or Digital Cellular <ul><li>Cell phone companies are willing to program each tower in a designated geographic area to ‘point to’ a seven digit local number or an 8YY number. For 2-1-1 centers that are not statewide, this is a different solution. However, it is very costly. There are many cell towers in communities, and each cell phone company would have to program their own towers. With a medium greater metropolitan area with four cell companies, there could be 100 towers with 4 cellular companies @ $180 (costs range from $50 - $180 per tower) or approximately $72,000. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Wireless Tower Service Tower 2 Company A 2-1-1 Call Center B Tower 1 Company A Tower 3 Company A Tower 4 Company A Tower 1 and tower 2 are programmed to send all 2-1-1 calls to 2-1-1 Center ‘A’ Tower 3 and tower 4 are programmed to send all 2-1-1 calls to 2-1-1 Center ‘B’ 2-1-1 Call Center A
  23. 23. CPUC on Wireless <ul><li>Quotes taken from CPUC Ruling: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Unlike the payphone situation, there is no FCC mandate for eliminating this use of 2-1-1 by wireless carriers at this time, and the Scoping Memo limited the scope of this proceeding to wireline carriers.’ </li></ul><ul><li>The Workshop Report recommends that the Commission “proceed toward implementation of 2‑1-1 by wireline carriers for I&R purposes, to conform with the federal mandate that 2-1-1 is reserved for I&R service provision.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other uses of 2-1-1 <ul><li>Payphone refunds or service </li></ul><ul><li>Airport courtesy phones </li></ul><ul><li>Internal 3-digit extensions in businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Service technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Cell customers checking number of minutes left on pre-paid plans </li></ul><ul><li>Other commercial uses? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Call Center Technology <ul><li>Assessment of current and future utilization and capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines (voice, fax, TTY, data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones, headsets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers, server, network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I&R software, TTY software, voice mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACD and IVR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting Capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. System Building <ul><li>Service delivery options (sharing client data and resource data) </li></ul><ul><li>24/7 service and economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>“ Specialists” </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster response </li></ul>
  27. 27. Useful Websites <ul><li>www . 211.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.cpuc.ca.gov </li></ul><ul><li>www.nanpa.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.fcc.gov </li></ul><ul><li>www.telcodata.us </li></ul><ul><li>tsp.ncs.gov </li></ul><ul><li>www.utexas.edu/research/tipi/reports_f.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.capayphoneassn.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.dgs.ca.gov/default.htm </li></ul>
  28. 28. Questions? <ul><li>Marianne Galleon </li></ul><ul><li>2-1-1 Technical Director </li></ul><ul><li>INFO LINE of Los Angeles </li></ul><ul><li>E-Mail: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Voice: (626) 350-2842 ext 2122 </li></ul>

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