Carriers are required to have the capability to identify the latitude and longitude of the mobile units making 911 calls - For network-based solutions: 100 meters for 67% of calls, and 300 meters for 95% of calls; For handset-based solutions: 50 meters for 67% of calls, and 150 meters for 95% of calls
Communications Asssistance for Law Enforcement Act, Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279 (1994) (codified as amended in sections of 18 U.S.C. and 47 U.S.C.)
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, Report and Order, CC Docket No. 97-213, released March 15, 1999 (“First Report and Order”)
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, Report and Order, CC Docket No. 97-213, released August 31, 1999 (“Second Report and Order”)
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, Report and Order, CC Docket No. 97-213, released August 31, 1999 (“Third Report and Order”)
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act and Broadband Access and Services, ET Doc. 04-295, 19 FCC Rcd 15676 (Aug. 9, 2004) (“CALEA and Broadband Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Declaratory Ruling”)
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act and Broadband Access and Services, ET Doc. 04-295, released September 23, 2005 (“CALEA and Broadband First Report and Order”)
FCC regulations: 47 C.F.R (Subpart U) § 64.100 et seq.
J-STD 025B (TIA/ANSI)
Location Based Commercial Services
Prevent erroneous AP setup
Loss of spectrum in Canada, possibly France
802.1AB-Rev Proposal for Device Specific Location Delivery over Wireless LANs Manfred Arndt - firstname.lastname@example.org
Determination - process used to calculate or measure the physical location. For wireless, this involves measurement methods (signal strength triangulation, time of arrival, etc)
Acquisition - protocol mechanism used to deliver location info to clients
Conveyance - protocol mechanism use by clients to deliver location to routing elements and Public Service Access Point (PSAP). This will be PIDF-LO 2 elements in the SIP header as defined by IETF Geopriv WG
1. NENA VoIP Location Working Group: Background - Location Requirements 2. Presence Information Data Format (PIDF) for Location Objects (LO)
Let access network interact with drivers and physical layer to determine enhanced location accuracy
Softphone application are user space programs that do not need to be involved with location determination and must not require driver specific knowledge for every access technology on a given device (e.g. GPRS, 802.11, 802.16, etc.)
Use simple low level frames to exchange signal level, channel, etc.
Multiple mechanisms are required, to support clients without 11v capabilities, proprietary vendor specific solutions, etc.
Must keep unnecessary complexity out of driver, since this exposes too many security and buffer-over run vulnerabilities
Can be seen by any non-associated STAs, security risk?
For general location distribution, privacy is required
For Emergency Services location distribution, no privacy may be acceptable
Broadcast has to be scheduled very infrequently
No way of knowing which clients are using location or not
Adds load to the infrastructure to provide location when unclear who and what is using it
Wastes Over-The-Air bandwidth
Broadcast relates to AP position not STAs
TGv Meets Requirements 1 : ANSI/TIA-1057 LLDP-MED Provides broadcast Provides Secure, Timely, Scalable, Specific Location Distribution None Provides control and high accuracy Location Determination None Provides per STA capability advertisement Capability Advertisement LLDP-MED 1 TGv Requirement
Assists STA with information stored in the 802.11 access network
Example: enhances scan for multi-SSID use, so that a secondary SSID can be used for emergency services
Operational details (in brief)
Query size limits: administrators can configure response limit size
Emergency Services native query: type of authentication
Emergency Services Use Case #1: Dedicated SSID
Uses “emergency services only” (ESO) bit to signal that the SSID can support emergency services without any 802.11-level security
Network must enforce appropriate security (out of scope for 802.11)
Network is “locked down” to emergency calls only
e.g. dedicated VLAN, IP firewall
AP (11u-capable) STA (11u-capable) Beacon (w/ESO bit) Association Request Association Response Initiate higher-layer call (e.g. SIP) GAS Native Query (SSID list + ES info) GAS Native Query Response Restricted Network e.g. dedicated VLAN, IP filtering, etc. Note: SSID list is optional; used in multi-SSID deployments ADDTS Request (w/Expedited BW Req.) ADDTS Response
Emergency Services Use Case #2: Public Credentials
ESO calls have no cryptographic protection (tampering, injection, forgery)
To provide cryptography, 802.11i security must be used
Pre-shared key for all emergency networks is not feasible
802.11u provides a way for a network to set up an “emergency public credential” to use EAP methods
EAP method needs clarification
AP (11u-capable) STA (11u-capable) Association Request Association Response Initiate higher-layer call (e.g. SIP) GAS Native Query (emergency public credentials) GAS Native Query Response (credentials) EAPOL/EAP-Identity-Response (credentials) EAPOL/EAP-Identity-Request EAP method authentication 4-Way Handshake ADDTS Request (w/Expedited BW Request) ADDTS Response
“ E911 Authority" means a municipality or other State or Local government unit, or an authorized agent of one or more municipalities or other State or Local government units to whom authority has been lawfully as the administrative entity to manage a public emergency telephone system for emergency police, fire, and emergency medical services through the use of one telephone number, 911.
A policy is a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve rationale outcome(s). The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Examples of policies include presidential executive orders , corporate privacy policies , or even Wikipedia's policies .
Policy may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals.