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  • 1. Albert Garcia, [email_address] David Mindel, [email_address] November 20, 2002 NJEDge.Net QoS Update
  • 2. Agenda
    • Purpose and Goal
    • Quality of Service Overview
    • Cisco QoS Router Configuration
    • Reference Material
  • 3. Shouldn’t you have some kind of equipment or something? Purpose: Understand WAN QoS issues and tools Goal: Best Practices for NJ Edge to implement WAN QoS It’s the Quality of the Service, our methods are not always apparent. Q o S
  • 4. Video Conferencing Traffic Packet Size Breakdown (CIF) 65–128 Bytes 1% 129–256 Bytes 34% 513–1024 Bytes 20% 1025–1500 Bytes 37% 257-512 Bytes 8%
  • 5. NJEDge Recommended Basic Connectivity Firewall H.323 Gatekeeper Proxy QoS & Multicast-capable Switched LAN Infrastructure Customer Edge Device (CE) NJEdge Net
    • Separate Cisco IOS H.323 Gatekeeper positioned behind Firewall
    • Isolates functionality of Internet Router
    • Interop with Scheduling Packages
    • Provides Call Admission Control by zone, supports multiple zones
    • Provides trust, control, and ease of QoS marking
    H.323 H.323 H.323
  • 6. Video Endpoints and Quality (Why QoS)
    • Latency (one-way delay)
      • May impact audio or video fidelity (seen as lost packets)
      • Higher latency - more likely both parties will speak at same time
    • Jitter (variation in delay)
      • Endpoints resilient to some jitter (de-jitter buffer)
      • Depends on endpoints, testing is best
    • Drops (lost or greatly delayed packets)
      • 1-3% loss may be acceptable over minutes - but when drops occur – typically all packets over seconds
  • 7. QoS Primer: What
    • Admission Control: Allowing sessions based on the capabilities of the network, and disallowing sessions which would bring the traffic total beyond that point
    • Classification: Marking, trusting, or accepting traffic with a specific priority denoting a requirement for special service from the network
    • Scheduling: Assigning traffic to one of multiple queues (based on classification) and delivering preferential treatment to each queue as needed
    • Provisioning: Accurately calculating the required bandwidth for all applications plus element overhead
  • 8. QoS Primer: How
    • Admission Control: Gatekeepers (Zone bandwidth) and Scheduling packages
    • Classification: Using 802.1P CoS, IP ToS byte, and other IP fields to assign traffic to classes via CBWFQ
    • Scheduling: CBWFQ and LLQ, WRED, traffic shaping, LFI
    • Provisioning: Assignment of bandwidth to traffic classes, calculating needed bandwidth
  • 9. QoS Is Needed to Minimize Packet Loss, Delay and Delay Variation WAN Where QoS Is Needed Central Campus Remote Branch QoS—Branch QoS—Campus Access QoS—Campus Dist. QoS—WAN Speed and Duplex Settings Classification/trust on IP Phone , Video Endpoint, Content service and Citrix Server Multiple Queues on IP Phone and Access Ports Low-latency Queuing Data Traffic Queue Provisioning Link Fragmentation and Interleave Traffic Shaping Admission Control Layer 3 Policing for Content Distribution Multiple Queues on All Ports; Priority Queuing for VoIP WRED Within Data Queues for Congestion Management Speed and Duplex Settings Classification/trust on IP Phone , Video Endpoint, Content service and Citrix traffic Multiple Queues on IP Phone and Access Ports
  • 10.
    • Distribution/Core
      • 4000/SUPIII—1P3Q2T
      • 6500—2Q2T TX (10/100 classic)
      • 1Q4T RX (10/100 classic)
      • 1P2Q2T TX (gig classic)
      • 1P1Q4T RX (gig classic)
      • 1P3Q1T TX (10/100 fabric)
      • 1P1Q RX (10/100 fabric)
      • 1P2Q1T TX (gig fabric)
      • 1P1Q8T RX (gig fabric)
    Campus QoS
    • Access
      • 2900/3500— 2Q1T
      • 2950 4Q (Priority Schedule or WRR)
      • 3550—1P3Q2T or 4Q2T
      • 4000/SUPII— 2Q1T
      • 4000/SUPIII—1P3Q2T (priority config)
      • 6500—2Q2T TX (10/100 classic)
      • 1Q4T RX (10/100 classic)
      • 1P2Q2T TX (gig classic)
      • 1P1Q4T RX (gig classic)
    Queuing/Scheduling Capabilities Depend on Hardware: Catalyst Switches which Support Multiple Queues
  • 11. Admission Control NJEdge Net IP/VPN 1.5mbps 10mbps gatekeeper zone local main main.school.org 10.236.1.5 zone local A A.school.org zone local B B.school.org zone remote NJEportal NJEportal.verizon.com <GK IP@> 1719 no zone main default enable zone subnet main 10.1.0.0/16 enable no zone A default enable zone subnet A 10.2.0.0/16 enable no zone B default enable zone subnet B 10.3.0.0/16 enable zone prefix NJEportal 0* zone prefix A 0011609555* zone prefix B 0011609444* zone prefix main 0011609333* lrq forward-queries bandwidth interzone default 1536 (allows up to 768k call bwidth) bandwidth session default 768 (allows max single call b/w of 384k) bandwidth remote 7680 (allows up to ~5mbps out to NJE) no shutdown (10 384k calls from this member) endpoint ttl 60 Remote A 10.2.0.0/16 Remote B 10.3.0.0/16 Main 10.1.0.0/16 GK http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/788/voip/add_control_gk.pdf H.323 H.323 H.323
  • 12. Classification: IP Precedence least significant bit ToS byte 7 5 6 4 3 2 1 0 ! class-map match-all real-time video match ip precedence 4 class-map match-any priority-data match ip precedence 2 match ip precedence 6 class-map match-all voice match ip precedence 5 ! IP Precedence Priority DSCP
    • 4 Classes Provided By NJ Edge
      • 0 = best effort, 2 = priority data, 4 = real-time video, 5 = real-time voice
    • Assume that voice/video call-setup will be in real-time video class
      • Video endpoints may need to be configured, may use precedence 3 for signaling
      • Or re-mark signaling packets to precedence 4 before transmission to IP VPN
    • If devices not trusted, can set precedence by VLAN#, IP address or port range
      • Can be done at LAN switch , which also sets 802.1P CoS
      • Can be done by WAN router based on IP addresses, TCP/UDP Port #s,
    • IOS marks IP routing protocol hellos and advertisements as precedence 6
      • May need to map BGP to an existing class and remark if issues under load
      • Or leave as best effort classification, but guarantee b/w out from edge
  • 13. Classification NJEdge Net IP/VPN 1.5mbps 10mbps proxy h323 ! interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1.5 255.255.255.255 h323 interface h323 qos ip-precedence 4 h323 h323-id InstitutionA-3725-Proxy h323 gatekeeper ipaddr 10.1.1.5 h323 t120 bypass Remote A 10.2.0.0/16 Remote B 10.3.0.0/16 Main 10.1.0.0/16 GK/Proxy To IP VPN - For video, look for all traffic from Proxy ! class-map match-any video-nje match access-group name theproxy ! ! ip access-list extended theproxy permit ip host 10.1.1.5 any ! GK/Proxy WAN Router H.323 H.323 H.323
  • 14. Classification NJEdge Net IP/VPN 1.5mbps 10mbps Remote A 10.2.0.0/16 Remote B 10.3.0.0/16 Main 10.1.0.0/16 GK
    • If no Proxy, and for intra-institution WAN links…
    • - Look for RTP traffic and H.323 setup
    • For video to/from IP/VPN
    • With firewall, must open up 16000 ports
      • With Proxy, just allow in/out from Proxy
      • for these ports
    ! class-map match-any video match access-group name videolist match ip rtp 16384 16383 ! ip access-list extended videolist permit tcp any any range 1720 1731 permit tcp any range 1720 1731 any ! WAN Router Or can classify by IP address, VLAN, CoS value, etc. Many options H.323 H.323 H.323
  • 15. Layer 3 to Layer 2 Classification Mapping to the Campus Requires the mod-cli Commands Available in IOS 12.1(5)T* Bandwidth statements not needed due to LAN speeds class-map L3-L2-Voice match ip precedence 5 class-map L3-L2-Video-Conf match ip precedence 4 class-map L3-L2-Priority-Data match ip precedence 2 ! policy-map output-L3-to-L2 class L3-to-L2-Voice set cos 5 class L3-to-L2-Video-Conf set cos 4 class L3-to-L2-Priority-Data set cos 2 ! interface FastEthernet1/0.170 encapsulation dot1Q 170 ip address 10.1.1.5 255.255.255.0 policy output output-L3-to-L2 IP/VPN or WAN
  • 16. Scheduling: Low Latency Queuing, CBWFQ CBWFQ Layer 3 Queuing Subsystem Layer 2 Queuing Subsystem Fragment Interleave WFQ FIFO queue (small is good) Low Latency Queuing Packets Out Packets In Police PQ Voice PQ Default High Data TX Ring
    • Can have one Priority Queue (always serviced first)
    • Signaling and routing protocols require guaranteed service
      • May need to piggyback on another class, provision sufficient bandwidth
    • Fragment (LFI) NOT recommended if voice & video in different classes
    • LFI NOT recommended for WAN speeds above 768kbps
    • TX ring adjustment may be needed
    • Best to not guarantee > 75% of sustained bandwidth (scr)
    VideoCon
  • 17. TX-Ring Sizing
    • TX-Ring is an un-prioritized FIFO buffer which holds packets just before media transmission
    • Used to make sure enough packets are queued in order to maximize available BW
    • serialization delay really equals:
      • Serialization delay * number of packets in the TX-Ring buffer
    Misc. VoIP QoS Tools Default TX-Ring Buffer Sizing (Packets) 2 8192—Must Be Changed For Low Speed Vcs 64 (Per Main T1 Interface ) PPP 6 MLPPP ATM Frame-Relay Media Recommended TX- Ring Buffer Sizing (Packets) 3 5-7 8-10 Try default 512kbps 3 768 kbps 1536 kbps 2048 kbps > 2048kbps Link Speed /CIR/SCR
  • 18. Scheduling NJEdge Net IP/VPN 1.5mbps 10mbps Remote A 10.2.0.0/16 Remote B 10.3.0.0/16 Main 10.1.0.0/16 GK
    • Use the traffic classes to create QoS Policies
    • - Can have a different policy for different interfaces
    • A policy defines one or more classes (queues)
    • Each queue gets appropriate guaranteed b/w
    • Each queue may mark IP precedence (QoS)
    • or 802.1P CoS (depending on direction)
    • Set bandwidth and shaping for the ATM PVC
    • Apply QoS policy to each appropriate interface
    • High priority Data traffic will be policed by IP VPN
    • Best Effort traffic may be delayed,
    • but is not Policed by IP VPN
    • Voice & priority data classes not prioritized today
      • Treated as best effort, will be prioritized in future
    H.323 H.323 H.323
  • 19. Classify/Schedule/Provision: To NJ Edge IP VPN ! class-map match-any video-nje match access-group name theproxy ! Class-map match-any priority-data match access-group name hidata match protocol BGP ! ip access-list extended theproxy permit ip host 10.1.1.5 any Ip access-list extended hidata permit <rules for important data apps> ! Policy-map out-to-nje class video-nje bandwidth percent 50 set ip precedence 4 class priority-data bandwidth percent 20 set ip precedence 2 ! Interface a0/0.50 description out to remote A ip address 14?.15?.?.? 255.255.?.? pvc 0/50 vbr-rt 1536 1536 100 service-policy out out-to-nje Define queues, bandwidth, and Set precedence Define shaping and QoS under PVC Define classes, interesting traffic via access-lists
  • 20. Classify/Schedule/Provision: Intra-Institution Remotes ! class-map match-any video match access-group name videolist match ip rtp 16384 16383 Class-map match-any priority-data match access-group name hidata ! ip access-list extended videolist permit tcp any any range 1720 1731 permit tcp any range 1720 1731 any Ip access-list extended hidata permit <rules for important data apps> ! Policy-map out-to-remotes class video bandwidth percent 50 set ip precedence 4 class priority-data bandwidth percent 20 set ip precedence 2 ! Interface a0/0.50 description out to remote A ip address 14?.15?.?.? 255.255.?.? pvc 0/50 vbr-rt 1536 1536 100 service-policy out out-to-remotes Define queues, bandwidth, and Set precedence Define shaping and QoS under PVC Define classes, interesting traffic via access-lists, no proxy between local zones
  • 21. How To Check if QoS is Functioning dmindel-837#sh policy interface a0.35 ATM0.35: VC 0/35 - Service-policy output: VoIP_IPSec Class-map: voice (match-all) 23393 packets, 3462164 bytes 30 second offered rate 57000 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: ip precedence 5 Queueing Strict Priority Output Queue: Conversation 40 Bandwidth 64 (kbps) Burst 1600 (Bytes) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 4771/706108 (total drops/bytes drops) 0/0 Class-map: call-setup (match-all) 482 packets, 66768 bytes 30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: ip precedence 3 Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 41 Bandwidth 5 (%) Bandwidth 8 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 10/1368 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 Class-map: class-default (match-any) 10945 packets, 2759118 bytes 30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: any Queueing Flow Based Fair Queueing Maximum Number of Hashed Queues 32 (total queued/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 exponential weight: 9
  • 22. How To Check if QoS is Functioning End of show policy interface a0.35: (Different time period) class Transmitted Random drop Tail drop Minimum Maximum Mark pkts/bytes pkts/bytes pkts/bytes thresh thresh prob 0 94831/8944845 2923/754828 0/0 20 40 1/10 1 0/0 0/0 0/0 22 40 1/10 2 0/0 0/0 0/0 24 40 1/10 3 0/0 0/0 0/0 26 40 1/10 4 0/0 0/0 0/0 28 40 1/10 5 0/0 0/0 0/0 30 40 1/10 6 0/0 0/0 0/0 32 40 1/10 7 0/0 0/0 0/0 34 40 1/10 rsvp 0/0 0/0 0/0 36 40 1/10 Queueing only occurs during congestion However the counters will still increase Show Queueing and show queue Provide a summary of counters and flows dmindel-837>show queue atm 0 vc 0/35 Interface ATM0 VC 0/35 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/512/64/2923 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/4/32 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 1/1 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 48 kilobits/sec Show ip statistics: Fast switching is good!
  • 23. BGP Routing Protocol and QoS Site A Site B Service Provider Routers
    • If there are no issues with BGP, then nothing needs to be done, if there are...
    • IOS maintains Internal Packet Priority Tag, PAK_PRIORITY, within a router
      • Packets with PAK_PRIORITY set have priority for transmission
    • EIGRP & OSPF hello packets are PAK_PRIORITY_HIGH
    • BGP hello packets are marked IP precedence 6, but NOT PAK HIGH…
    • May require scheduling (include BGP in a class w/guaranteed service)
      • unless this is policed, then set up a separate class with precedence 0
    • http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/105/rtgupdates.html
    BGP Hello Video Video
  • 24. Bandwidth Provisioning
    • Don’t guarantee > 75% of sustained cell rate (SCR) to video/voice/hi-data classes
    • The overhead varies by endpoint and compression
    • www.njedge.net/documents/cost/bandwidth-planning.html
  • 25. Bandwidth Provisioning ATM T1 Example ! class-map match-all video–and-call-setup match ip precedence 4 class-map match-any priority-data match ip precedence 2 class-map match-all voice match ip precedence 5 Class-map match-all bgprouting match protocol bgp ! Video Target 50% of Link Reasonable Number of Calls. Requires Testing to Confirm Traffic Categories Video 32% VoIP 11% All Other Data 37% Mission Critical 20% IP Precedence 2 & 5 may be policed above contracted amount when those Classes are supported in the future BGP Routing 5%
  • 26. Branch Router Policy-Map ATM T1 1536kbps SCR Example Underlying ATM PVC at 1536kbps ! policy-map video-nje class voice priority 168 class video-and-call-setup bandwidth 496 class priority-data bandwidth 328 Class bgprouting bandwidth 72 class class-default fair-queue random-detect ! Video 32% Class– Default 32% VoIP 11% Mission Critical 20% BGP 5% Example supports one 386kbps video call ATM Traffic Shape to Sustained Cell Rate Default Max-Reserved Bandwidth 75% Class– Default 25%
  • 27. # of H.323 Video Calls by Line Rate   Line Rate Kbps Max Number of 384k/ 768k Calls Max Calls as a % of Line rate Kbps For Video Signaling 5% in Kbps built into video Mission Critical 20% in kbps Max-Reserved-Bandwidth For NJE document recommended provisioning at 30% overhead 1536 1/ 0 33% 500 N/a 307 1152 2048 2/ 1 50% 1000 N/a 410 1536 4096 4/ 2 50% 2000 N/a 820 3072 8192 8/ 4 50% 4000 N/a 1640 6144 10240 10/ 5 50% 5000 N/a 2048 7680 15360 15/ 7 50/ 45 % 7500 N/a 3072 11520 20480 20/ 10 50% 10000 N/a 4096 15360
  • 28. Internetwork Performance Monitor (IPM) IPM measures network latency, jitter, availability, packet loss, and errors
  • 29. Summary
    • High Quality Video requires QoS
      • Tested best practices can provide today
      • Requires coordination
        • Between LAN & NJ Edge IP VPN
    • QoS Reference Documents:
    • www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fqos_c/fqcprt2/qcfwfq.htm#xtocid9
    • www.cisco.com/warp/public/105/video-qos.html
    • www.cisco.com/warp/enterprise/771/srnd/qos_srnd.pdf
  • 30. © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.