VoIP and Number Portability:  Perceived  v. Real Problems Tom Kershaw Vice President, VoIP VeriSign
Agenda <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit Switched Number Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing and Portabili...
Portability and the PSTN <ul><li>Portability is based on regulatory mandate – Communications Act of 1996 </li></ul><ul><li...
Portability and the Internet <ul><li>Internet addressing introduces clear separation between Name Space and “Address” </li...
Portability and the Internet <ul><li>Namespace on the Internet maps to a network address ie  [email_address]  to 111.11.11...
Portability and ENUM Service Application DNS +1 703-948-3345 5.4.3.3.8.4.9.3.0.7.1.e164.arpa To port this number, I can ma...
The Fork in the Road PSTN VoIP Path 1: Adapt current PSTN system to IP Path 2: Create an Entire New System Optimized for IP
The Fork in the Road PSTN VoIP H.323 SIP <ul><li>Quickest path to market </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Disruptive </li></ul><ul><l...
Portability Scenarios for VoIP
Scenarios for Number Portability <ul><li>1) PSTN to PSTN (we have this sorted out) </li></ul><ul><li>2) PSTN to IP </li></...
Exec Summary (the Punch Line) <ul><li>Currently, the biggest issue for VoIP Portability is introducing geographic portabil...
Key Points <ul><li>Current industry discussions on “Implementing Portability for VoIP” have nothing to do with VoIP </li><...
Geography and VoIP <ul><li>VoIP separates the access network from the address </li></ul><ul><li>Access network can physica...
My “Address” in VoIP Home (VA) Cable modem My Phone Numbers: 703-576-3287  650-834-8986 248-232-9534  214-989-4587 Friend ...
The Geographic Portability Problem 1) Subscriber living in Washington DC (202-222-1234) ports her number to IPCarrier; als...
Portability and VoIP to VoIP <ul><li>When there are 10 million VoIP lines in North America, ¼% (.0025) of calls will be Vo...
Simple Peering Architecture PSTN Media Gateway Call Agent Directory SIP/ENUM Service Broker Inter-Carrier Settlement (??) ...
An IP-to-IP Addressing Flow SIP Redirect Engine ENUM/DNS Interface to CCE External Callouts (SIP or ENUM) Number Analysis ...
Addressing in VoIP: The Internet Way Tier 1 ENUM Or Private Peering Location Server/Registrar Tier 2 ENUM Call Control Cal...
Porting in an ENUM Environment ENUM DNS Portability Request [email_address] ; [email_address] RRP | EPP Domain changed; Nu...
Extending the Model: Whois for VoIP (IRIS) DNS Location Server/Registrar Tier 2 ENUM Call Control Call Control Call Contro...
Models for MMS <ul><li>Mobile operators have a different problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Since endpoints do not have IP address...
Conclusions <ul><li>Biggest portability issue for VoIP carriers is geographic portability </li></ul><ul><li>This will beco...
Thank You! [email_address] 703-948-4509
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Apr05 VeriSign VoIP Portability Presentation

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  • A mechanism to map … DNS based technology standard that has been approved by a working group of the IETF Translates Telephone Number to Multiple Service Addresses Uses the E.164 telephone number format to create a domain name Service Addresses (Email address, cell phone number, etc.) are stored in NAPTR records
  • Apr05 VeriSign VoIP Portability Presentation

    1. 1. VoIP and Number Portability: Perceived v. Real Problems Tom Kershaw Vice President, VoIP VeriSign
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit Switched Number Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing and Portability on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing and Portability for Wireless Data </li></ul><ul><li>A Parallel: H.323 and SIP </li></ul><ul><li>Key Portability Issues Today </li></ul><ul><li>Portability Architectures for VoIP </li></ul><ul><li>Portability Architectures for MMS </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations, Bold Statements, Misc. Controversy </li></ul>
    3. 3. Portability and the PSTN <ul><li>Portability is based on regulatory mandate – Communications Act of 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Approach is based on “PSTN” concepts such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Rate centers </li></ul><ul><li>LATAs </li></ul><ul><li>Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the LRN </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile has followed this model in portability and roaming, which uses TLDNs in much the same way as LRNs </li></ul><ul><li>LRNs do little more than tell the network what trunk group to use to get to the subscriber </li></ul><ul><li>What if you don’t have trunk groups, rate centers and geography? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Portability and the Internet <ul><li>Internet addressing introduces clear separation between Name Space and “Address” </li></ul><ul><li>Users are identified by URLs and Domain Names </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the DNS constellations that provides root addressing for the Internet: </li></ul><ul><li>Tree-based </li></ul><ul><li>Highly resilient </li></ul><ul><li>Segmented Address Structures: </li></ul>tomkershaw verisign com @ . Address space controlled and administered by the name owner – you can have any unique address within this domain Address space administered by Registrars; any unique address can be registered within each TLD Administered by the industry/go-vernment
    5. 5. Portability and the Internet <ul><li>Namespace on the Internet maps to a network address ie [email_address] to 111.11.11.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Names are segmented: </li></ul><ul><li>If I want to change my name – [email_address] , I have three choices: </li></ul><ul><li>Change the TLD ie [email_address] , assuming it is available </li></ul><ul><li>Change the domain to a new owner/name ie [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>I can “port” my namespace into a new domain, assuming it’s available in that domain, but “tomkershaw” is not globally unique. </li></ul><ul><li>Address space is assumed to be infinite. </li></ul><ul><li>Names are fully geographic, Addresses Change Dynamically </li></ul>[email_address]
    6. 6. Portability and ENUM Service Application DNS +1 703-948-3345 5.4.3.3.8.4.9.3.0.7.1.e164.arpa To port this number, I can map the LRN to a SIP URI/:mailto:, or….. Set of NAPTR RRs Change the domain space in the routing record….. ENUM uses DNS to resolve internet namespaces for VoIP page:18005551234 Pager http://insite.VeriSign.com HTTP tel:+17039483345 TEL smtp:tkershaw@VeriSign.com SMTP sip:tkershaw@VeriSign.com SIP Service Address Protocol 1 3 2
    7. 7. The Fork in the Road PSTN VoIP Path 1: Adapt current PSTN system to IP Path 2: Create an Entire New System Optimized for IP
    8. 8. The Fork in the Road PSTN VoIP H.323 SIP <ul><li>Quickest path to market </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Phased Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to Integrate with IP </li></ul><ul><li>“ Voice is special….” </li></ul><ul><li>Slower to market </li></ul><ul><li>Built to last – not a corner cutter </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks features of original for some time </li></ul><ul><li>Wins in the End </li></ul>
    9. 9. Portability Scenarios for VoIP
    10. 10. Scenarios for Number Portability <ul><li>1) PSTN to PSTN (we have this sorted out) </li></ul><ul><li>2) PSTN to IP </li></ul><ul><li>3) IP to PSTN </li></ul><ul><li>4) IP to IP </li></ul><ul><li>5) MMS to MMS (MMSC to Handset) </li></ul>Bold Statement #1: Scenario 2 is the most important issue for VoIP operators today Bold Statement #2: Scenario #5 is the most important issue for mobile operators today Don’t Mix the Two Up
    11. 11. Exec Summary (the Punch Line) <ul><li>Currently, the biggest issue for VoIP Portability is introducing geographic portability </li></ul><ul><li>All other issues are minor in comparison </li></ul><ul><li>This must be addressed by the industry for VoIP to take off </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of geographic portability seriously hampers voip and also means most voip operators will not support portability at all </li></ul><ul><li>Until this is solved, other discussions are moot </li></ul><ul><li>The NPAC should be used for calls to or from the PSTN </li></ul><ul><li>IP addressing mechanisms such as ENUM and private trees should be used for IP to IP </li></ul><ul><li>I and P are the two most important letters in VoIP </li></ul><ul><li>Number portability should be implemented as a change to a resource record in ENUM/Location Server </li></ul>
    12. 12. Key Points <ul><li>Current industry discussions on “Implementing Portability for VoIP” have nothing to do with VoIP </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP operators did not ask for this </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP operators don’t benefit </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP operators need geographic portability, not URIs in the NPAC </li></ul><ul><li>The Real driver for these initiatives is MMS </li></ul><ul><li>When an MMS is received by an originating MMSC, it needs to find the terminating MMSC </li></ul><ul><li>In non-ported case, number is mapped to a carrier (easy) </li></ul><ul><li>In ported case, the LRN needs to map to a mailto: address </li></ul><ul><li>This is a very REAL problem that needs to be solved </li></ul>
    13. 13. Geography and VoIP <ul><li>VoIP separates the access network from the address </li></ul><ul><li>Access network can physically be anywhere; if you are on the network you are addressable </li></ul><ul><li>Similar structure to mobile – needs to have similar functionality </li></ul><ul><li>With recent FCC rulings, structure of telephone addressing will change </li></ul><ul><li>Rate Centers, City Codes, and NPAs will cease to be relevant </li></ul><ul><li>City Codes already losing relevance </li></ul><ul><li>DIDs will be available on demand, from anywhere, to anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for anarchy…… </li></ul><ul><li>…..but that’s how the Internet works </li></ul>
    14. 14. My “Address” in VoIP Home (VA) Cable modem My Phone Numbers: 703-576-3287 650-834-8986 248-232-9534 214-989-4587 Friend (Dallas) Office (Mt. View) Family (Detroit) Local (VA) My Service Provider (Hawaii) IP Network My URIs tom@verisign.com [email_address] [email_address]
    15. 15. The Geographic Portability Problem 1) Subscriber living in Washington DC (202-222-1234) ports her number to IPCarrier; also buys a second line with phone number 415 because her son has moved to San Francisco 2) Calls from PSTN to 202-222-1234 are “local” under tarifing rules 3) Subscriber moves across the river to Virginia; changes DSL provider but keeps VoIP provider and same phone numbers 4) Subscriber is offered better deal by a mobile operator that combines fixed and mobile into one package 5) Subscriber: Can’t port original number to new operator unless it has IMTs in the same rate center as 202-222-xxxx Can only port 408 number to a new carrier she does not even know
    16. 16. Portability and VoIP to VoIP <ul><li>When there are 10 million VoIP lines in North America, ¼% (.0025) of calls will be VoIP to VoIP </li></ul><ul><li>One of the big concerns of VoIP operators is reducing network round trips </li></ul><ul><li>Most peering architectures will map a phone number to: </li></ul><ul><li>A URI </li></ul><ul><li>An IP Address (typically of a proxy or border element) </li></ul><ul><li>The IP query will take place before a call is sent to the PSTN </li></ul><ul><li>The IP query may call out to an LNP resource </li></ul><ul><li>or the owner of the number will be up-to-date without querying the NPAC data </li></ul><ul><li>If a number is VoIP to VoIP, why call out to two databases when you can do portability and addressing in one? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Simple Peering Architecture PSTN Media Gateway Call Agent Directory SIP/ENUM Service Broker Inter-Carrier Settlement (??) Subscriber Portal ASP Domain Applications/Services Operator A Call Agent CMTS Call Agent DSLAM Enterprise B IP Core Border Element Border Element
    18. 18. An IP-to-IP Addressing Flow SIP Redirect Engine ENUM/DNS Interface to CCE External Callouts (SIP or ENUM) Number Analysis and Normalization (e.164 or URL) TN Discovery TN Exists? Yes= BE RouteList External Callout Engine *LNP *CNAM *Carrier Select (ENUM or SIP) Route Engine TN To BE Route List Proportional Route Splay Route ToD/DoW Engine Class 4 Route Default (Trunk Group, PSTN Ctvty) Route Propagation: TGREP/TRIP/Manual Provisioning Port the number here Or call out to an external directory
    19. 19. Addressing in VoIP: The Internet Way Tier 1 ENUM Or Private Peering Location Server/Registrar Tier 2 ENUM Call Control Call Control Call Control Call Control <ul><ul><li>IN NAPTR 10 10 &quot;u&quot; &quot;E2U+sip&quot; “!^.*$!sip:tkershaw@verisign.com!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ported to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN NAPTR 10 10 &quot;u&quot; “E2U+mailto&quot; “!^.*$!mailto:tkershaw@sprint.com </li></ul></ul>Misc. IP Network
    20. 20. Porting in an ENUM Environment ENUM DNS Portability Request [email_address] ; [email_address] RRP | EPP Domain changed; Number “ported” DNS/ENUM Resolver Interface In : 8.5.2.3.8.4.9.3.0.7.1.e164.arpa Out : NAPTR RRs ENUM is a standard translation mechanism defined by the IETF that uses DNS to convert an E.164 telephone number into a set of addresses. page:18009483258 Page http://www.VeriSign.com HTTP tel: +1 703 948 3258 TEL Smtp:tkershaw@VeriSign.com SMTP sip:tkershaw@VeriSign.com SIP Service Address (NAPTR RRs) Protocol fax: +1703 421 8233 Fax
    21. 21. Extending the Model: Whois for VoIP (IRIS) DNS Location Server/Registrar Tier 2 ENUM Call Control Call Control Call Control Call Control <ul><ul><li>IN NAPTR 10 10 &quot;u&quot; &quot;E2U+sip&quot; “!^.*$!sip:tkershaw@verisign.com!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN NAPTR 10 10 &quot;u&quot; “E2U+mailto&quot; “!^.*$!mailto:tkershaw@verisign.com </li></ul></ul>Device Resources WhoIs? Perimeter Security and Interop Resources Option 1 Option 2 Option 3
    22. 22. Models for MMS <ul><li>Mobile operators have a different problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Since endpoints do not have IP addresses, they will be ported with LRNs </li></ul><ul><li>When a discovery takes place, they want a mapping of the phone number or LRN to a mailto: address </li></ul><ul><li>Mailto address will correspond to an MMSC in the destination network </li></ul><ul><li>Using this method eliminates the overhead of using the SS7 network and makes delivery more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Requires an up-to-date mail to address database </li></ul><ul><li>This problem space is small (100 mobile operators x 3000 LRNs x 2 mailtos </li></ul><ul><li>Private no/low cost solutions already out there for this </li></ul>
    23. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>Biggest portability issue for VoIP carriers is geographic portability </li></ul><ul><li>This will become an increasingly focal issue </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP operators do not benefit from extending LNP infrastructure to URIs or IP addresses in the immediate term </li></ul><ul><li>Requiring a second dip to an external directory does not make sense – support E.164 portability directly on the IP network </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile operators do have a strong need for an LRN to mailto solution – and there are solutions out there </li></ul><ul><li>We must be very careful in our architectural decisions – the impacts are far reaching and in some cases we are solving problems before they manifest themselves </li></ul><ul><li>In VoIP, E.164 is a NameSpace, not an Address – need to treat it accordingly </li></ul>
    24. 24. Thank You! [email_address] 703-948-4509

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