Converged mobile mail and enterprise data services
Mobile enterprises have competitive and productivity advantages
Broadband Wireless is the Future!
Broadband and Mobility together is a huge challenge!
The goal - Fixed Mobile Convergence ( FMC ) (a.k.a death of Fixed)
Fixed Mobile Convergence FMC
Fixed/Mobile Convergence ( FMC ) is among the latest and most widely used buzzwords in the wireless and wireline industries
Grounded in IP convergence
It can be viewed as:
“… An end-to-end service environment where enterprise and personal solutions - voice, video, data and rich media - are managed and delivered on a secure IP based infrastructure, comprising the integration of devices, networks, applications and operations support.”
How to get there - Elements of FMC
Data, voice, video, multimedia
One contact list, calendar and voice mail
Single sign-on, multiple devices and applications
Centralized presence status (online, busy, offline) for all applications and devices
Mobile phone# Identity Convergence Email IM SMS/MMS Fixed phone# User ID# In-Call Seamless Wireline Cellular WLAN - WiFi WMAN - WiMAX Handoff Network Convergence Device Convergence
FMC Driver: Integrated Enterprise Communications Infrastructure Wireless & Mobility Key Enablers for the Real-time Enterprise Web Content Communications Data Enterprise Data Directory Data Application Data Any Data (to which the user is entitled) Over Any Radio Network PANs, LANs, CANs, MANs, WANs GSM, CDMA, TDMA, PCS, GPRS, PDC, WLAN, 3G UWB etc…... To Any Device
Connectivity Everywhere, Much Of It Through Wireless Personal-area networks Satellite networks, GPS WANs Metro broadband networks Home networks Cable replacement, room networks Sensor networks P2P networks Campus networks
The Future of Wireless - Drivers of Growth
Increased demand for more bandwidth (at the office and home )
Broadband Wireless Internet Access
Increasing need for user mobility
Seamless Connectivity for All, to Anything, from Anywhere at Anytime
NGN Architecture: Moving Towards An All-IP Infrastructure Multiparty multimedia communications For mobile nodes and networks (PAN, LAN) With secure seamless mobility Between access systems of same and different kinds Within and between administrative domains Across personal, home, car and enterprise spaces IPv6-based Networking Source: WWRF, Book-of-Vision v1.1 IP Core Enhanced Applications Integrated Networking Support Integrated Radio Resource/Spectrum Management DAB DVB WLAN 3G/2G Other Access Nets 4G Administrative Domain Internet IPv4 IPv6 Administrative Domain 2
An Overview of the Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Market
Wireless Market -The Big Picture WWAN WMAN WLAN WPAN 3G WCDMA EDGE GPRS CDMA2000 1xeV-DO HSDPA WiMAX 802.16 Hot zone Wi-Fi 802.11 Hot Spot UWB and Bluetooth Sensor RFID TAGs 802.15.4 Zigbee * * Wireless Technologies Will Co-Exist The Result: Optimal connectivity Sensing NFC Smart Spaces Cable-Replacement Data Sync Consumer El. Data, Voice Wireless Internet Infostations Last-Mile Access Backhaul BB Multimedia Voice, Data Messaging Rich Media
Convergence Trends in the Market Positioning of Wireless Technologies Range HANDSET CONSUMER Peak Data Rate Closer Farther Slower Faster UWB Home RF Wireless Data Applications Sources: WRH + Co, SPS Wireless Video Applications IrDA 802.11g 802.11b 802.11a 2.5G/3G INDUSTRIAL ZigBee Bluetooth WiMAX Wireless VoIP Applications 802.22
Cellular Mobile Market - 3G is here!
Mobile Network Evolution Broadband Mobile Communication Enhanced Multimedia Services with full roaming through different networks Wideband Air I / F Bandwidth on Demand Seamless Services FDD/TDD WLAN/Broadcast ATM/IP based networks GSM Ph 2+ IN HSCSD GPRS Camel Voice Data GSM Ph 2 Micro BTS Dual Band Half Rate 3G Beyond Mass Market GSM basic services/ network optimisation New Business Opportunities Enhanced Services GSM GSM 2+ and Intelligent Networks (IN) Multimedia Mobile Communication 3. Generation Introduction 4. Generation Future Wireless Coverage/ Capacity All IP-networks Interworking of Access systems Service demands from 100 Mb/s (high mobility) up to 1 Gb/s (low mobility) Peer to Peer Network Computing . 3G is here!!!
3G Evolution Source: NOKIA
3G Evolution towards 4G ? MBWA (Wide Area) UMTS (Dense) HSDPA/ HSUPA 4G OFDM* MIMO 2Mb/s 70 Mb/s 15+ Mb/s 14.4 Mb/s WiFi (Local Area) 50 - 100 Mb/s? UMTS (Wide Area) 2003 2004 2006 2008 384 kb/s 3G 3G + MBWA 4G * OFDM : Orthogonal FDM 11 - 54 Mb/s Theoretical max data rates depend on radio conditions &/or system options e.g. bandwidth. Time scales are approximate/illustrative. The terms 3G+, Evolved 3G, Super 3G, Beyond 3G, 4G etc are not officially defined. WiMax ?
WiMAX - W orldwide I nteroperability for M icrowave A ccess
WiMAX is an interoperability specification for 802.16-2004 – fixed point-to-multipoint (P2M or P-to-MP) WMAN technology
Mobility extensions defined in 802.16e-2005
Today’s WiMAX products are for FWA applications only!!!
WiMAX is based on a subset of IEEE 802.16-2004 (formerly 802.16a Rev d)
Technology: 256 QAM/OFDM
2.5 and 3.5 GHz. licensed bands; 5 GHz. Unlicensed
Goals are $250 "set top" box; $100 PC Card (FWA)
To 70 Mbps and 50-60 miles (difficult to achieve)
More likely: xDSL/T1 speeds over a few kilometers
40+ Mbps possible in some fixed applications
Big investment in VLSI by Intel and others
Service provider Support for WiMAX is Growing
What WiMAX can do for you
What is WiMAX bringing?
Improved business case for broadband wireless access
Standards based interoperability for lower equipment costs
Reduced investment risk for operators
Complements LAN & WAN wireless solutions
Can backhaul other technologies (e.g. Wi-Fi hotspots)
Can add broadband data capacity to mobile networks
Range of deployment scenarios
Rural, suburban, urban
Enterprise, small business, residential
The WiMAX rollout driven by an industry consortium led by Intel ’ 05 ’ 06 Infrastructure / Outdoor CPE Deployments ’ 08 Handset Integration ’ 07 Indoor CPE Deployments Notebook Integration WiMAX PC Card & Integrated Centrino solutions Intel Integrated WiMAX solutions for the handset
The WiMAX rollout driven by an industry consortium led by Intel
SOC Available Standard Maturing
Road Toward Broadband Mobility T I M E Satellite Network Telephone Network Internet IP Based Access Network W i - F i B a s e S t a t i o n 802.16-2004 Backhaul Pedestrian Speeds, 11Mbps, Lightweight, Limited Coverage 8 0 2 . 1 6-2004 B a s e S t a t i o n 802.16-2004 Backhaul Vehicular Speeds, 20 Mbps, Power Source, Heavy, Limited Coverage, Specialized Applications 8 0 2 . 1 6 d / e B a s e S t a t i o n 802.16-2004 Backhaul Vehicular Speeds, 20 Mbps, Lightweight, Full Coverage
“ Pre-certification” products still shipping
Based on earlier 802.16a standard
Expensive base stations and CPE – enterprise focus
First certified products appeared in 2005
Based on 802.16-2004
Licensed 2.5 GHz (U.S.) and 3.5 GHz (ROW)
License-free 5.8 GHz
“ Plugfest” interoperability testing started 2004
Formal certification testing ~1H05
“ Mobile WiMAX” expected late 2006
CPE bundled in laptops by 2007
WBA technologies work together to complement other’s strengths
802.11b/g/a, typically confined within office buildings, restaurants, stores, homes, etc. - Data services
WMANs, cover a much greater distance than WLANs, connecting buildings to one another over a broad area (1-3 miles) - Multimedia service
802.11mesh architecture, in which the access points seek out and link themselves to other access points to build the mesh, can scale out to 30 Square miles.
WWANs: the broadest range wireless networks (1-5 miles) with full mobility. Most widely deployed today in the cellular voice infrastructure but also can transmit data. Includes 1xEVDO, UMTS-HSDPA.
WiMAX in Mobile PCs: Closing the Value Gap TCO Cellular Data The Vision enable cost effective Broadband Anywhere Anywhere Home & Work Coverage Places I can connect Places I’m at [ ] 3G 2.5G Private WLAN Public WLAN Work Home Hotspots Hotzones WiMAX 802.16e Licensed Unlicensed Metro
WiMAX can close the gap:
Support for Unlicensed bands
Spotty WLAN coverage Optimizing on the pause BB usage WiMAX can bring “Almost Anywhere data connectivity” with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees!!! TCO: Total Cost of Ownership
Simple, cheap, more convenient to use
Fast technological progress
Target lower performance markets
Commercialized in emerging market
Subsequently become performance competitive against established products
Successful, well-run, well established companies lose markets, when they fail to differentiate between sustaining & disruptive technologies
* Clayton M. Christensen, “The Innovator’s Dilemma,” 1997 time performance market (UMTS?) rupture (P-WLAN?) New replaces old technology Old Technology Market Market for new technology disruptive
Disruptive Technologies Targeting the Cellular Market
Hotspots & Metro-scale WiFi
Hot-Zones (WiMAX & WiFi, 3G, …)
Voice over IP over WiFi - VoWiFi
Broadband Wireless IP Telephony
The idea – use Wi-Fi meshes to rapidly deploy outdoor services over a large geographic area
Origins: Metricom’s Ricochet (mid-1990s)
Economics now allow for residential services in suburbia
But most emphasis remains on high-density areas and government services
Metro-scale WiFi - The Technology
High-volume, low cost, low margin
Based on off-the-shelf consumer Wi-Fi adapters
Not “carrier class” service
Disruptive to MNOs/MVNOs?
City-wide “Hot Zones”
Already deployed in some smaller cities (mainly, in the US)
Big cities preparing to deploy soon
Public safety a major driver, “digital divide” another
Near-term threat and opportunity for MNOs/MVNOs
Public Wi-Fi Access HotZones Park Library Coffee Shop Local WISP
Deploy multiple HotSpots on the same mesh network to create a unified HotZone
Source : Ike Nassi, Firetide, Inc.
WiFi Hotspots - A Major Growth Area
Leading providers, T-Mobile, Boingo, Wayport Access, Megabeam (UK)
Service by subscription or open (e.g., hereUare)
Important partnerships developing
T-Mobile / Starbucks (subscription)
Cometa / McDonalds (open)
Megabeam / Holiday Inn (open)
Valid 3G alternative for portable services
Ubiquity of 802.11 interface - being built into new laptops
Unbeatably low equipment costs
Low capitalization, no incremental spectrum
12,647 Wi-Fi access points in New York City, Summer 2002
Global Public WLAN Growth Source: Instat/MDR 5/02 U.S. Public WLAN Users (M) Global Hot Spot Locations Source: Yankee Group 11/02 Users Locations 30k 5.6M Public WLAN Service Revenue Growth (USA) No. of Hotspots in EU 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 10,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 50,000 2,000 42,000 Source: Yankee Group 11/02 1985 UK 87 Sweden 117 Norway 72 Ireland 5618 Germany 827 France 10 Finland 571 Denmark
Unlicensed Mesh Networking
Leveraging the unlicensed bands of 802.11, mesh technology can deliver high bandwidth at an order of magnitude lower cost than existing cellular technologies.
Mesh architecture permits the extension of wireless coverage to areas that do not have cabling infrastructure.
In these situations, mesh access points integrate with existing WLAN access points to extend Wi-Fi coverage to areas not readily accessible by cables.
The IEEE 802.11s Working Group has formed a study group to explore establishing an industry-recognized standard for wireless mesh networking.
Self-Organizing Neighborhood Wireless Mesh Networks ( Source : Microsoft Research )
Metro-scale Wi-Fi Deployments
San Mateo, California deployed 3 mile Wi-Fi hot-zone for police officers
No interference issues reported after one year of use
Meets California Law Enforcement Telecommunications ( CLETS ) standards for security and reliability
Athens, GA (Home to University of Georgia) deployed a downtown network earlier this year
Public partnership between city-county government and Government Agencies
Published “Wi-Fi Clouds and Zones: A Survey of Municipal Wireless Initiatives” report available at www.muniwireless.com
Source: Lt. Wayne Hoss, SMPD
City-Wide Wi-Fi in Chaska, MN
City operated, 16 square mile coverage area
Public safety, low-cost residential broadband service
7500 homes passed, 1100 pre-registered
200 cells, <$500,000 CapEx
Broadband Wireless Access The Case of 3G-WLAN Coupling
Public-WLAN & 3G Integration
P-WLAN is becoming a mobile business complementing 2G, 3G services
Combined WLAN/GPRS terminals are available (e.g., Nokia D211)
Global Roaming is of paramount importance to the success of the service
Other key features:
Mobile-IP, Voice over IP
Wireless ISP Global Roaming
Seamless Interworking (3GPP working group, I-WLAN) Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA)
WLAN - 3G Cellular Integration using Mobile-IP
UMA (Unlicensed Mobile Access)
Provides Access to GSM/GPRS services over alternative (potentially any) access methods – current focus on WLAN – targeted for Release 7.
Concept has the potential to be extended to 3G
Provides tight coupling and re-use of GSM/GPRS core network.
Differs from existing 3GPP WLAN integration (I-WLAN) effort as it mainly benefits CS services (Voice, SMS).
UMA primarily suited for extending CS into unlicensed spectrum
I-WLAN primarily suited for extending ‘broadband’ packet services into unlicensed spectrum
Emerging Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN)
Meshes are the most important architectural innovation in wireless networks today
Reduced requirement for backhaul
But more backhaul is always desirable
Reduced installation expense
Cover even an entire city in minimal time
Simple incremental growth – more nodes, more radios per node
Wireless Last/First Mile Companies SkyPilot, Flarion, Motorola (Canopy) Invisible Networks, RoamAD, Vivato, Arraycomm, Malibu Networks, BeamReach Networks, NextNet Wireless, Navini Networks, etc. Meshnetworks Inc.,Radiant Networks, Invisible Networks, FHP, Green Packet Inc., LocustWorld, etc. Infrastructure Based Infrastructure-less
Architecture affects design decisions on
Capacity management, fairness, addressing & routing, mobility management, energy management, service levels, integration with the Internet, etc .
Interworking: WiMAX, WiFi, 3G
Roaming between Cellular and Wide-area Wireless IP networks
Mobile IGNITE cross-industry initiative
including Cisco, IBM, and Verisign
Pilot trials SIP-based VoIP and initially using HP IPAQ handsets (CDMA versions introduced late 2005)
Intel is supporting a different approach: the International Roaming Access Protocol ( IRAP ). It aims to enable seamless connectivity across different types of wireless and wired networks.
IRAP is a nonproprietary solution and already has broad industry support and acceptance by major standards bodies such as the GSM Association, IEEE, and the Wi-Fi Alliance
The Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) protocol, developed by major carriers and manufacturers, will allow seamless hand off of voice and data communication from a cellular network to an access point - be that Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or some future protocol - and back - once the access point is out of range
Cost Performance Comparison
Challenges to WMN Deployment
Complex technology landscape , consisting of dozens of established and emerging infrastructure choices such as DSL, Cable, Fiber, Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Mesh, WiMAX and 3G
A great number of different business model characteristics and choices. Opposition from incumbent technology and telecommunications providers
Nonexistent, limited, or complex project funding mechanisms for public/private collaborative projects (state/local bonds, general funds, enterprise funds, reserve funds)
A complex legal and regulatory environment that either enables or restricts choices
Broadband Services: Voice over IP (VoIP) VoFi – Voice over IP over Wi-Fi
Broadband (IP) Telephony
Broadband telephony is speech/voice that is packaged and transmitted partly or entirely over IP-based networks
Broadband telephony is the sum of:
Voice Over IP
Related value-added services
IP-Telephony requires a broadband connection
IP Phone IP Phone Internet CPE Gateway Analog Phone POTS Analog Phone VoIP Gateway VoIP Gateway POTS Analog Phone PSTN Broadband Circuit Switched / TDM Circuit Switched / TDM Packet Switched Data Broadband Analog Phone PSTN POTS Types of VoIP Calls Phone to Phone IP to IP Includes PC-to-PC and Device-to-Device Phone to IP & IP to Phone Includes PC-to-Phone and Device-to-Phone
VoIP Changes Telecomm
VoIP changes everything !
The growing popularity of VoIP triggers the demand for IP based access and changes the landscape of telecomm
3G products are compatible with traditional circuit based PSTN and PSMN, while 4G may only need to support VoIP with gateway and gatekeeper separately purchased
VoFi – Everywhere, All the Time Voice over IP over WiFi: Becoming a reality in 2006 - Following more general Cellular and WiFi convergence trends
VoFi - Early Commercial Availability
There are operators already offering commercial VoWiFi services such as
Phone Systems in France
TeliPhone in North America,
NTT DoCoMo in Japan
Equipment Manufacturer Plans
Motorola has announced plans to integrate Skype software in WiFi and Cellular capable handsets
Skype Technologies and i-mate , a PDA manufacturer announced the first wireless mobile handsets preloaded with Skype software.
Other manufacturers including Nokia and Sony Ericsson have made announcements for dual capable mobile phones
Vonage offers WiFi enabled handsets for use with Linksys access point/routers installed in home
Mobile smartphone’s / PDA’s are making a slow progression towards dual capable mobile access for WiFi and cellular networks access.
General availability of multi-network enabled devices e.g. Bluetooth, WiFi, EDGE, + GPS etc. expected in 1Q07
Apple to launch iPhone
March 29, 2006 : Visiongain believes that the next product to be released by Apple is the much-rumored "iPhone". The Apple -branded mobile phone is likely to debut this spring with the launch of Helio - a US mobile virtual network operator (MVNO), formed by EarthLink and SK Telecom at an estimated cost of $440 million.
Intel’s Mobile VoIP Project
5,000-worker campus that encompasses Wi-Fi within the company and Wi-Fi/3G/WiMAX in the wide area.
"Open questions" regarding mobile VoIP include
QoS, roaming and security; and,
How do you secure something that crosses multiple networks?
Intel and ZTE have announced plans to jointly launch WiMAX service in China (1Q06)
Strategic Challenges to Mobile
The threat for mobile operators is that the cellular traffic generated indoors could be cannibalized by third parties' voice over WLAN applications.
A significant and growing percentage of cellular voice calls are generated in environments where there is or soon will be WiFi coverage.
This includes Metro, Local Area as well as the Enterprise Campus
VoWiFi is probably not going to reshape the mobile market in the short term, but it can pose great challenges to mobile market players in the future.
Mobile operators to limit the impact of WiFi phones by:
Controlling the specifications of their handsets so that their customers cannot bypass their network
Implementing their own WiFi/cellular solutions , and providing seamless mobility to their own customers.
This is also an opportunity for mobile operators to reduce network costs , as the use of the WiFi network to carry indoor voice traffic will reduce the load on the cellular infrastructure
Adopting voice tariff strategies that reduce customers' interest in adopting VoWiFi services from other providers.
In Summary - Disruptive Technologies Targeting the Cellular Market
Public-WLANs - Hotspots & Metro-scale WiFi
Features: 802.11a/b/g technology, 54 Mbps
Value Proposition: True Broadband access, nomadic services