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  • WiMax (Wireless International Microwave Access Standard)
  • What wireless technologies and vendors will become dominant in the next five years? Key findings of Gartner’s latest Wireless Networking Hype Cycle: Next generation wireless : This network capability is now well understood with launches in North America encompassing full population coverage in 2.5 G GPRS/GSM and 3G cdma2000 1xrtt by year-end 2003. Pricing, device availability and applications remain in flux, keeping these services in the trough of disillusionment. Wireless LANs : These are clearly in the mainstream in vertical uses and moving fast for horizontal adoption in both the enterprise and public hotspot space based due to product maturity, lower prices and faster speeds. Bluetooth: This personal area network solution as a cable replacement technology between devices is moving up the slope, but as an ad hoc networking technology is just over the peak, as issues like bandwidth, interoperability and security are still not fully worked out. Messaging : SMS will move fully into the mainstream this year due to availability on a mass number of phones, carrier interoperability and low cost. The popularity of messaging will extend into the residential and enterprise mobile space. Multimedia Messaging Service(MMS) is at the peak now, and will be more mainstream in 2004.

AIT Sensor Nets Seminar AIT Sensor Nets Seminar Presentation Transcript

  • "Emerging Disruptive Technologies to 3G" Gregory S. Yovanof, Ph.D. “Broadband Wireless & Sensors Networks” Athens Information Technology e-mail: [email_address] , Tel: +30 210 668-2772 ASTEL Conference 2006: " Technology Convergence & Innovations " 19 -20 April 2006, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia
  • Agenda
    • Key trends in the Converged Telecom Industry
      • The rise of Broadband Mobile
      • Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC )
    • Redefining the Wireless Metro-Area Network
      • Broadband Cellular: The 3G & the Road Ahead
      • WiMAX: What is the Opportunity?
    • Emerging Disruptive Innovations
      • Metro-scale WiFi
      • Mesh Networks (WiMAX, WiFi), Cellular/WLAN integration
      • Voice over IP over WiFi
    • Summary - Conclusions
  • Key Trends in Telecom
    • ICT Industry Convergence between computing, communications & content
      • The major drivers for which are the: “Digital economy” and the “Knowledge society”
        • Examples: The Internet, Voice over IP (VoIP), IP Telephony
    • Convergence of the Infrastructure & the CPE
      • PSTN & Mobile Telephony - Growth in mobile penetration
      • PCs no longer the only broadband drivers since new handset devices make a splash
    • Convergence in Enterprise Communications
      • Integrated Enterprise Communications Infrastructure
        • Converged mobile mail and enterprise data services
        • Mobile enterprises have competitive and productivity advantages
  • Key Challenges
    • Broadband Wireless is the Future!
    • Broadband and Mobility together is a huge challenge!
    • The goal - Fixed Mobile Convergence ( FMC ) (a.k.a death of Fixed)
  • Fixed Mobile Convergence FMC
    • Fixed/Mobile Convergence ( FMC ) is among the latest and most widely used buzzwords in the wireless and wireline industries
      • Grounded in IP convergence
    • It can be viewed as:
      • “… An end-to-end service environment where enterprise and personal solutions - voice, video, data and rich media - are managed and delivered on a secure IP based infrastructure, comprising the integration of devices, networks, applications and operations support.”
  • How to get there - Elements of FMC
    • Applications/Capabilities
    • Data, voice, video, multimedia
    • One contact list, calendar and voice mail
    • Single sign-on, multiple devices and applications
    • Centralized presence status (online, busy, offline) for all applications and devices
    Mobile phone# Identity Convergence Email IM SMS/MMS Fixed phone# User ID# In-Call Seamless Wireline Cellular WLAN - WiFi WMAN - WiMAX Handoff Network Convergence Device Convergence
  • FMC Driver: Integrated Enterprise Communications Infrastructure Wireless & Mobility Key Enablers for the Real-time Enterprise Web Content Communications Data Enterprise Data Directory Data Application Data Any Data (to which the user is entitled) Over Any Radio Network PANs, LANs, CANs, MANs, WANs GSM, CDMA, TDMA, PCS, GPRS, PDC, WLAN, 3G UWB etc…... To Any Device
  • Connectivity Everywhere, Much Of It Through Wireless Personal-area networks Satellite networks, GPS WANs Metro broadband networks Home networks Cable replacement, room networks Sensor networks P2P networks Campus networks
  • The Future of Wireless - Drivers of Growth
    • Increased demand for more bandwidth (at the office and home )
    • Broadband Wireless Internet Access
    • Increasing need for user mobility
    • Seamless Connectivity for All, to Anything, from Anywhere at Anytime
  • NGN Architecture: Moving Towards An All-IP Infrastructure Multiparty multimedia communications For mobile nodes and networks (PAN, LAN) With secure seamless mobility Between access systems of same and different kinds Within and between administrative domains Across personal, home, car and enterprise spaces IPv6-based Networking Source: WWRF, Book-of-Vision v1.1 IP Core Enhanced Applications Integrated Networking Support Integrated Radio Resource/Spectrum Management DAB DVB WLAN 3G/2G Other Access Nets 4G Administrative Domain Internet IPv4 IPv6 Administrative Domain 2
  • An Overview of the Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Market
  • Wireless Market -The Big Picture WWAN WMAN WLAN WPAN 3G WCDMA EDGE GPRS CDMA2000 1xeV-DO HSDPA WiMAX 802.16 Hot zone Wi-Fi 802.11 Hot Spot UWB and Bluetooth Sensor RFID TAGs 802.15.4 Zigbee * * Wireless Technologies Will Co-Exist The Result: Optimal connectivity Sensing NFC Smart Spaces Cable-Replacement Data Sync Consumer El. Data, Voice Wireless Internet Infostations Last-Mile Access Backhaul BB Multimedia Voice, Data Messaging Rich Media
  • BWA Technologies Bandwidth vs Mobility stationary nomadic mobile portable/ walking mobile driving, … GSM GPRS EDGE DECT CDMA EV-DO EV-DV UMTS HSDPA IEEE 802.16e IEEE 802.16a,d WLAN (IEEE 802.11x) FlashOFDM (802.20) Systems beyond 3G >2010 data-rate 10 Mb/s 1 100 0.1 10 3 10 4 degree of mobility Ethernet (Cu) Ethernet (Fiber) ... ... 2005 2010 MNO FNO
  • Convergence Trends in the Market Positioning of Wireless Technologies Range HANDSET CONSUMER Peak Data Rate Closer Farther Slower Faster UWB Home RF Wireless Data Applications Sources: WRH + Co, SPS Wireless Video Applications IrDA 802.11g 802.11b 802.11a 2.5G/3G INDUSTRIAL ZigBee Bluetooth WiMAX Wireless VoIP Applications 802.22
  • Cellular Mobile Market - 3G is here!
  • Mobile Network Evolution Broadband Mobile Communication Enhanced Multimedia Services with full roaming through different networks Wideband Air I / F Bandwidth on Demand Seamless Services FDD/TDD WLAN/Broadcast ATM/IP based networks GSM Ph 2+ IN HSCSD GPRS Camel Voice Data GSM Ph 2 Micro BTS Dual Band Half Rate 3G Beyond Mass Market GSM basic services/ network optimisation New Business Opportunities Enhanced Services GSM GSM 2+ and Intelligent Networks (IN) Multimedia Mobile Communication 3. Generation Introduction 4. Generation Future Wireless Coverage/ Capacity All IP-networks Interworking of Access systems Service demands from 100 Mb/s (high mobility) up to 1 Gb/s (low mobility) Peer to Peer Network Computing . 3G is here!!!
  • 3G Evolution Source: NOKIA
  • 3G Evolution towards 4G ? MBWA (Wide Area) UMTS (Dense) HSDPA/ HSUPA 4G OFDM* MIMO 2Mb/s 70 Mb/s 15+ Mb/s 14.4 Mb/s WiFi (Local Area) 50 - 100 Mb/s? UMTS (Wide Area) 2003 2004 2006 2008 384 kb/s 3G 3G + MBWA 4G * OFDM : Orthogonal FDM 11 - 54 Mb/s Theoretical max data rates depend on radio conditions &/or system options e.g. bandwidth. Time scales are approximate/illustrative. The terms 3G+, Evolved 3G, Super 3G, Beyond 3G, 4G etc are not officially defined. WiMax ?
  • WiMAX
    • WiMAX - W orldwide I nteroperability for M icrowave A ccess
      • WiMAX is an interoperability specification for 802.16-2004 – fixed point-to-multipoint (P2M or P-to-MP) WMAN technology
      • Mobility extensions defined in 802.16e-2005
        • Today’s WiMAX products are for FWA applications only!!!
    • WiMAX is based on a subset of IEEE 802.16-2004 (formerly 802.16a Rev d)
      • Technology: 256 QAM/OFDM
      • 2.5 and 3.5 GHz. licensed bands; 5 GHz. Unlicensed
      • Goals are $250 "set top" box; $100 PC Card (FWA)
      • To 70 Mbps and 50-60 miles (difficult to achieve)
        • More likely: xDSL/T1 speeds over a few kilometers
        • 40+ Mbps possible in some fixed applications
    • Big investment in VLSI by Intel and others
  • Service provider Support for WiMAX is Growing
  • What WiMAX can do for you
  • What is WiMAX bringing?
    • Improved business case for broadband wireless access
      • Standards based interoperability for lower equipment costs
      • Reduced investment risk for operators
    • Complements LAN & WAN wireless solutions
      • Can backhaul other technologies (e.g. Wi-Fi hotspots)
      • Can add broadband data capacity to mobile networks
    • Range of deployment scenarios
      • Rural, suburban, urban
      • Enterprise, small business, residential
  • WiMAX Uses
  • The WiMAX rollout driven by an industry consortium led by Intel ’ 05 ’ 06 Infrastructure / Outdoor CPE Deployments ’ 08 Handset Integration ’ 07 Indoor CPE Deployments Notebook Integration WiMAX PC Card & Integrated Centrino solutions Intel Integrated WiMAX solutions for the handset
      • Intel WiMAX
      • 802.16-2004 Silicon
  • The WiMAX rollout driven by an industry consortium led by Intel
    • Data Rate
      • Fixed WiMAX
      • IEEE 802.16d
      • 2005
      • Mobile WiMAX
      • IEEE 802.16e
      • 2007?
    SOC Available Standard Maturing
      • Portable WiMAX
      • Nomadic WiMAX
      • IEEE 802.16d/e
      • 2006?
    Standard Maturing
  • Road Toward Broadband Mobility T I M E Satellite Network Telephone Network Internet IP Based Access Network W i - F i B a s e S t a t i o n 802.16-2004 Backhaul Pedestrian Speeds, 11Mbps, Lightweight, Limited Coverage 8 0 2 . 1 6-2004 B a s e S t a t i o n 802.16-2004 Backhaul Vehicular Speeds, 20 Mbps, Power Source, Heavy, Limited Coverage, Specialized Applications 8 0 2 . 1 6 d / e B a s e S t a t i o n 802.16-2004 Backhaul Vehicular Speeds, 20 Mbps, Lightweight, Full Coverage
  • WiMAX Status
    • “ Pre-certification” products still shipping
      • Based on earlier 802.16a standard
      • Expensive base stations and CPE – enterprise focus
    • First certified products appeared in 2005
      • Based on 802.16-2004
      • Licensed 2.5 GHz (U.S.) and 3.5 GHz (ROW)
      • License-free 5.8 GHz
      • “ Plugfest” interoperability testing started 2004
      • Formal certification testing ~1H05
    • “ Mobile WiMAX” expected late 2006
      • CPE bundled in laptops by 2007
  • WBA technologies work together to complement other’s strengths
    • Wi-Fi
    • 802.11b/g/a, typically confined within office buildings, restaurants, stores, homes, etc. - Data services
    • WiMAX
    • WMANs, cover a much greater distance than WLANs, connecting buildings to one another over a broad area (1-3 miles) - Multimedia service
    • WiFi-Mesh
    • 802.11mesh architecture, in which the access points seek out and link themselves to other access points to build the mesh, can scale out to 30 Square miles.
    • 3G
    • WWANs: the broadest range wireless networks (1-5 miles) with full mobility. Most widely deployed today in the cellular voice infrastructure but also can transmit data. Includes 1xEVDO, UMTS-HSDPA.
    Wi-Fi WiMAX 3G EVDO Campus Unbounded Local (room, building, neighborhood) MODE Stationary Total Mobility Source : Intel, Fixed Wireless (~ 150 mph) WiFI - Mesh
  • WiMAX in Mobile PCs: Closing the Value Gap TCO Cellular Data The Vision enable cost effective Broadband Anywhere Anywhere Home & Work Coverage Places I can connect Places I’m at [ ] 3G 2.5G Private WLAN Public WLAN Work Home Hotspots Hotzones WiMAX 802.16e Licensed Unlicensed Metro
    • WiMAX can close the gap:
    • Open standards
    • Support for Unlicensed bands
    • Data centric
    Spotty WLAN coverage Optimizing on the pause BB usage WiMAX can bring “Almost Anywhere data connectivity” with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees!!! TCO: Total Cost of Ownership
  • Disruptive Technology
    • Disruptive Technologies*
      • Simple, cheap, more convenient to use
      • Fast technological progress
      • Target lower performance markets
      • Commercialized in emerging market
      • Subsequently become performance competitive against established products
    • Successful, well-run, well established companies lose markets, when they fail to differentiate between sustaining & disruptive technologies
    * Clayton M. Christensen, “The Innovator’s Dilemma,” 1997 time performance market (UMTS?) rupture (P-WLAN?) New replaces old technology Old Technology Market Market for new technology disruptive
  • The Wireless Hype Cycle As of Q3 2003 Copyright © 2003 Trough of Disillusionment Slope of Enlightenment Plateau of Productivity Maturity Peak of Inflated Expectations Wireless Web ( Portals/ASP’s) 802.11b Enhanced/Web Phones P2P Bluetooth Visibility Wireless Voice X Key: Will reach the “plateau” in: Less than two years Two to five years Five to 10 years X Mobile Location Services Wireless Streaming Video Wireless Application Gateways 2G Network Capability 3G Network Capability Mobile Java/J2ME Mobile Financial Services GPRS WiFi Hotspots VoIP 1xRTT/ CDMA2000 1X WAP 802.11a Personal Domain X 4G X IPv6 X Multi Channel App Gateways E911 BREW X UWB X MMS Adhoc Networking X Wireless E-mail SMS X SW Defined Radio Wireless PDA /Smart phones Bluetooth Networking Technology Trigger Mesh Networks
  • Disruptive Technologies Targeting the Cellular Market
    • Public-WLANs
      • Hotspots & Metro-scale WiFi
    • Mesh Networks
      • Hot-Zones (WiMAX & WiFi, 3G, …)
    • Voice over IP over WiFi - VoWiFi
      • Broadband Wireless IP Telephony
  • Metro-scale WiFi
    • The idea – use Wi-Fi meshes to rapidly deploy outdoor services over a large geographic area
      • Origins: Metricom’s Ricochet (mid-1990s)
    • Economics now allow for residential services in suburbia
      • But most emphasis remains on high-density areas and government services
    • Metro-scale WiFi - The Technology
    • High-volume, low cost, low margin
    • Based on off-the-shelf consumer Wi-Fi adapters
    • Not “carrier class” service
    • Disruptive to MNOs/MVNOs?
    • City-wide “Hot Zones”
    • Already deployed in some smaller cities (mainly, in the US)
    • Big cities preparing to deploy soon
    • Public safety a major driver, “digital divide” another
    • Near-term threat and opportunity for MNOs/MVNOs
  • Public Wi-Fi Access HotZones Park Library Coffee Shop Local WISP
    • Deploy multiple HotSpots on the same mesh network to create a unified HotZone
    Source : Ike Nassi, Firetide, Inc.
  • WiFi Hotspots - A Major Growth Area
    • Leading providers, T-Mobile, Boingo, Wayport Access, Megabeam (UK)
      • Service by subscription or open (e.g., hereUare)
    • Important partnerships developing
      • T-Mobile / Starbucks (subscription)
      • Cometa / McDonalds (open)
      • Megabeam / Holiday Inn (open)
    • Valid 3G alternative for portable services
      • Ubiquity of 802.11 interface - being built into new laptops
      • Unbeatably low equipment costs
      • Low capitalization, no incremental spectrum
    12,647 Wi-Fi access points in New York City, Summer 2002
  • Global Public WLAN Growth Source: Instat/MDR 5/02 U.S. Public WLAN Users (M) Global Hot Spot Locations Source: Yankee Group 11/02 Users Locations 30k 5.6M Public WLAN Service Revenue Growth (USA) No. of Hotspots in EU 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 10,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 50,000 2,000 42,000 Source: Yankee Group 11/02 1985 UK 87 Sweden 117 Norway 72 Ireland 5618 Germany 827 France 10 Finland 571 Denmark
  • Unlicensed Mesh Networking
    • Leveraging the unlicensed bands of 802.11, mesh technology can deliver high bandwidth at an order of magnitude lower cost than existing cellular technologies.
    • Mesh architecture permits the extension of wireless coverage to areas that do not have cabling infrastructure.
    • In these situations, mesh access points integrate with existing WLAN access points to extend Wi-Fi coverage to areas not readily accessible by cables.
    • The IEEE 802.11s Working Group has formed a study group to explore establishing an industry-recognized standard for wireless mesh networking.
    Self-Organizing Neighborhood Wireless Mesh Networks ( Source : Microsoft Research )
  • Metro-scale Wi-Fi Deployments
    • San Mateo, California deployed 3 mile Wi-Fi hot-zone for police officers
    • No interference issues reported after one year of use
    • Meets California Law Enforcement Telecommunications ( CLETS ) standards for security and reliability
    • Athens, GA (Home to University of Georgia) deployed a downtown network earlier this year
    • Public partnership between city-county government and Government Agencies
    • Published “Wi-Fi Clouds and Zones: A Survey of Municipal Wireless Initiatives” report available at
    Source: Lt. Wayne Hoss, SMPD
  • City-Wide Wi-Fi in Chaska, MN
    • City operated, 16 square mile coverage area
    • Public safety, low-cost residential broadband service
    • 7500 homes passed, 1100 pre-registered
    • 200 cells, <$500,000 CapEx
  • Broadband Wireless Access The Case of 3G-WLAN Coupling
  • Public-WLAN & 3G Integration
    • P-WLAN is becoming a mobile business complementing 2G, 3G services
    • Combined WLAN/GPRS terminals are available (e.g., Nokia D211)
    • Global Roaming is of paramount importance to the success of the service
    • Other key features:
      • Mobile-IP, Voice over IP
      • Security
      • Wireless ISP Global Roaming
      • Seamless Interworking (3GPP working group, I-WLAN) Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA)
    WLAN - 3G Cellular Integration using Mobile-IP
  • UMA (Unlicensed Mobile Access)
    • Provides Access to GSM/GPRS services over alternative (potentially any) access methods – current focus on WLAN – targeted for Release 7.
      • Concept has the potential to be extended to 3G
    • Provides tight coupling and re-use of GSM/GPRS core network.
    • Differs from existing 3GPP WLAN integration (I-WLAN) effort as it mainly benefits CS services (Voice, SMS).
      • UMA primarily suited for extending CS into unlicensed spectrum
      • I-WLAN primarily suited for extending ‘broadband’ packet services into unlicensed spectrum
  • Emerging Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN)
    • Meshes are the most important architectural innovation in wireless networks today
      • Reduced requirement for backhaul
        • But more backhaul is always desirable
      • Reduced installation expense
        • Cover even an entire city in minimal time
      • Simple incremental growth – more nodes, more radios per node
  • Wireless Last/First Mile Companies SkyPilot, Flarion, Motorola (Canopy) Invisible Networks, RoamAD, Vivato, Arraycomm, Malibu Networks, BeamReach Networks, NextNet Wireless, Navini Networks, etc. Meshnetworks Inc.,Radiant Networks, Invisible Networks, FHP, Green Packet Inc., LocustWorld, etc. Infrastructure Based Infrastructure-less
    • Architecture affects design decisions on
      • Capacity management, fairness, addressing & routing, mobility management, energy management, service levels, integration with the Internet, etc .
  • Interworking: WiMAX, WiFi, 3G
  • Roaming between Cellular and Wide-area Wireless IP networks
    • Different approaches:
    • Mobile IGNITE cross-industry initiative
      • including Cisco, IBM, and Verisign
      • Pilot trials SIP-based VoIP and initially using HP IPAQ handsets (CDMA versions introduced late 2005)
    • Intel is supporting a different approach: the International Roaming Access Protocol ( IRAP ). It aims to enable seamless connectivity across different types of wireless and wired networks.
      • IRAP is a nonproprietary solution and already has broad industry support and acceptance by major standards bodies such as the GSM Association, IEEE, and the Wi-Fi Alliance
    • The Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) protocol, developed by major carriers and manufacturers, will allow seamless hand off of voice and data communication from a cellular network to an access point - be that Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or some future protocol - and back - once the access point is out of range
  • Cost Performance Comparison
  • Challenges to WMN Deployment
    • Technological Issues:
      • Complex technology landscape , consisting of dozens of established and emerging infrastructure choices such as DSL, Cable, Fiber, Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Mesh, WiMAX and 3G
    • Business Models:
      • A great number of different business model characteristics and choices. Opposition from incumbent technology and telecommunications providers
      • Nonexistent, limited, or complex project funding mechanisms for public/private collaborative projects (state/local bonds, general funds, enterprise funds, reserve funds)
    • A complex legal and regulatory environment that either enables or restricts choices
  • Broadband Services: Voice over IP (VoIP) VoFi – Voice over IP over Wi-Fi
  • Broadband (IP) Telephony
    • Broadband telephony is speech/voice that is packaged and transmitted partly or entirely over IP-based networks
    • Broadband telephony is the sum of:
      • Voice Over IP
      • Internet telephony
      • Related value-added services
    • IP-Telephony requires a broadband connection
  • IP Phone IP Phone Internet CPE Gateway Analog Phone POTS Analog Phone VoIP Gateway VoIP Gateway POTS Analog Phone PSTN Broadband Circuit Switched / TDM Circuit Switched / TDM Packet Switched Data Broadband Analog Phone PSTN POTS Types of VoIP Calls Phone to Phone IP to IP Includes PC-to-PC and Device-to-Device Phone to IP & IP to Phone Includes PC-to-Phone and Device-to-Phone
  • VoIP Changes Telecomm
    • VoIP changes everything !
      • The growing popularity of VoIP triggers the demand for IP based access and changes the landscape of telecomm
      • 3G products are compatible with traditional circuit based PSTN and PSMN, while 4G may only need to support VoIP with gateway and gatekeeper separately purchased
  • VoFi – Everywhere, All the Time Voice over IP over WiFi: Becoming a reality in 2006 - Following more general Cellular and WiFi convergence trends
  • VoFi - Early Commercial Availability
    • There are operators already offering commercial VoWiFi services such as
      • Phone Systems in France
      • TeliPhone in North America,
      • NTT DoCoMo in Japan
  • Equipment Manufacturer Plans
    • Mobile phones
    • Motorola has announced plans to integrate Skype software in WiFi and Cellular capable handsets
    • Skype Technologies and i-mate , a PDA manufacturer announced the first wireless mobile handsets preloaded with Skype software.
    • Other manufacturers including Nokia and Sony Ericsson have made announcements for dual capable mobile phones
    • Residential VoIP
    • Vonage offers WiFi enabled handsets for use with Linksys access point/routers installed in home
    • Smartphones
    • Mobile smartphone’s / PDA’s are making a slow progression towards dual capable mobile access for WiFi and cellular networks access.
    • General availability of multi-network enabled devices e.g. Bluetooth, WiFi, EDGE, + GPS etc. expected in 1Q07
  • Apple to launch iPhone
    • March 29, 2006 : Visiongain believes that the next product to be released by Apple is the much-rumored &quot;iPhone&quot;. The Apple -branded mobile phone is likely to debut this spring with the launch of Helio - a US mobile virtual network operator (MVNO), formed by EarthLink and SK Telecom at an estimated cost of $440 million.
  • Intel’s Mobile VoIP Project
    • 5,000-worker campus that encompasses Wi-Fi within the company and Wi-Fi/3G/WiMAX in the wide area.
    • &quot;Open questions&quot; regarding mobile VoIP include
      • QoS, roaming and security; and,
      • How do you secure something that crosses multiple networks?
    • Intel and ZTE have announced plans to jointly launch WiMAX service in China (1Q06)
  • Strategic Challenges to Mobile
    • The threat for mobile operators is that the cellular traffic generated indoors could be cannibalized by third parties' voice over WLAN applications.
      • A significant and growing percentage of cellular voice calls are generated in environments where there is or soon will be WiFi coverage.
        • This includes Metro, Local Area as well as the Enterprise Campus
      • VoWiFi is probably not going to reshape the mobile market in the short term, but it can pose great challenges to mobile market players in the future.
    • Mobile operators to limit the impact of WiFi phones by:
      • Controlling the specifications of their handsets so that their customers cannot bypass their network
      • Implementing their own WiFi/cellular solutions , and providing seamless mobility to their own customers.
      • This is also an opportunity for mobile operators to reduce network costs , as the use of the WiFi network to carry indoor voice traffic will reduce the load on the cellular infrastructure
      • Adopting voice tariff strategies that reduce customers' interest in adopting VoWiFi services from other providers.
  • In Summary - Disruptive Technologies Targeting the Cellular Market
    • Public-WLANs - Hotspots & Metro-scale WiFi
      • Features: 802.11a/b/g technology, 54 Mbps
      • Value Proposition: True Broadband access, nomadic services
      • Issues: ISP roaming, billing; Limited area, low mobility
    • Mesh Networks - Hot-Zones (WiMAX & WiFi)
      • Features: 802.16a (WiMAX), up to 70 Mbps or, 802.11b/g (neighborhood network) up to 54 Mbps
      • Value Proposition: Broadband Access, Service Continuity
      • Issues: ISP roaming, billing; Low mobility support
    • Voice over IP (Internet Telephony) over WiFi - VoWiFi
      • Features: Data Network, IPv6, SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
      • Value Proposition: Cheap, Global Unique Number/Address
      • Issues: Low Quality (difficult to guarantee QoS - requires a broadband connection)
  • Summary - MBWA
    • Wide-area BWA is here today
      • HSDPA/HSUPA provides best option in the short term
      • WiMAX well suited for FWA (Last-mile solution) - 802.16e will offer true Nomadic Services BWA (when ready)
      • The big challenges may be financial and subscriber-unit related
    • Mobility is the killer-app for Broadband Wireless Access
      • Mobile voice is well-established (rapidly replacing wireline)
      • Mobile multimedia data is becoming more important
        • But, competition is significantly more brutal here … Metro-scale WLANs, Mesh networks, … 4G(?)
        • Multi-technology solutions will predominate - Issues related to the real-time, QoS provisioning can be addressed but never perfectly
        • Business model for competing in this field is currently unclear
    • Disruptive technologies are fighting their way into the market - Innovation continues!!!