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0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt
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0075-2006-11_IIR_ENUM_RStastny_v2.ppt

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  • 1. ENUM Advantages and Disadvantages VoIP World Congress 2006 Vienna, November 14th, 2006 Richard Stastny, ÖFEG* * The opinions expressed here may or may not be that of my company
  • 2. Is ENUM Going a Full Circle? User ENUM Private ENUM Infrastructure ENUM Infrastructure ENUM User ENUM Private ENUM Private ENUM Private ENUM Private ENUM
  • 3.
    • Electronic or E.164 NUMber mapping is defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFC3761 as:
    • the mapping of „Telephone Numbers“ to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) using the Domain Name System (DNS) in the domain e164.arpa
      • URIs are used to identify resources on the Internet (e.g. http:// enum.nic.at )
    • The purpose of ENUM is to enable the convergence between the PSTN and the Internet
    ENUM is defined by the IETF
  • 4. ENUM in a nutshell
    • take an E.164 phone number
    +43 720 203 211
    • turn it into a FQDN
    1.1.2.3.0.2.0.2.7.3.4.e164.arpa.
    • returns list of URIs
    sip:richard@iphone.at
    • query the DNS (for NAPTR)
    mailto:richard.stastny@oefeg.at sms tel:+436644204100 IN NAPTR 100 100 "u" “E2U+sip“ !^.*$!SIP:richard@iphone.at! .
  • 5. The basic idea of ENUM (RFC3671)
    • The basic idea of ENUM was
      • to allow end-users
      • to opt-in with their EXISTING phone-numbers on the PSTN
      • into e164.arpa
      • to provide OTHER end-users with the capability
      • to look up contact URIs on the Internet the above end-user wants to link to this number
    • This kind of ENUM is called User ENUM
  • 6. ENUM Implementations
    • 30 Greece
    • 31 Netherlands
    • 33 France Trial closed
    • 350 Gibraltar
    • 353 Ireland Trial
    • 354 Iceland
    • 358 Finland
    • 359 Bulgaria
    • 36 Hungary
    • 374 Armenia
    • 386 Slovenia requested
    • 39 Italy
    • 40 Romania
    • 41 Switzerland Trial
    • 420 Czech Republic Trial
    • 421 Slovakia Trial
    • 423 Liechtenstein Trial
    • 43 Austria
    • 44 UK Trial
    • 46 Sweden Trial
    • 47 Norway
    • 48 Poland
    • 49 Germany
    • 246 Diego Garcia
    • 247 Ascension
    • 262 Reunion (fr)
    • 290 Saint Helena
    • 508 St. Pierre and Miquelon (fr)
    • 52 Mexico requested
    • 55 Brazil
    • 590 Guadeloupe (fr)
    • 594 French Guiana
    • 596 Martinique
    • 61 Australia Trial
    • 62 Indonesia requested
    • 63 Philippines Trial
    • 66 Thailand
    • 65 Singapore Trial
    • 81 Japan Trial
    • 82 Korea Trial
    • 84 Vietnam
    • 86 China Trial
    • 88234 Global Networks ?
    • 87810 VISIONng UPT
    • 971 UAE
    http:// www.ripe.net/enum/request -archives/ Delegations in e164.arpa as of Oct 24th, 2006
    • 1 North America (US, CA, Jamaika)
    • additional Asian countries (Taiwan…) have trials, but not in .arpa
  • 7. The draw-backs of the original approach
    • Privacy concerns reduced the usability of ENUM basically to VoIP
    • Most VoIP providers do not provide end-users with SIP URIs to be reached on the Internet without termination fees
    • Why should an end-user pay for the benefit of other users?
    • How to overcome Metcalfe’s Law?
    • Nobody understands ENUM
  • 8. But the real problem is:
    • User ENUM requires
      • country opt-in
      • end-user opt-in
    • “ Service providers” have no say in User ENUM
    • So Service Providers using IP-based technology need other solutions to be able to Interconnect
      • via IP-based technology and
      • using E.164 Numbers
  • 9. NGN/IP Interconnect (VoIP Peering)
    • If we take the All-IP paradigm seriously, we have two basic requirements :
      • Any real-time communication originating on IP and terminating on IP MUST stay on IP end-to-end
      • This implies, it MUST NOT use the PSTN/ISDN to interconnect.
    • Benefits are:
      • improved end-to-end functionality (BB codecs, IM, video, conferencing, presence, …)
      • Improved end-to-end QoS
      • No additional cost beside of IP-access
      • convergence possible at the end-user’s device
  • 10. Infrastructure ENUM – first try
    • A tree for service providers is needed
    • ETSI created TR 102 055 „ENUM Scenarios for User and Infrastructure ENUM“ discussing the options and the problems:
      • It should be a single global tree
      • Service provider opt-in
      • No regulatory involvement required
    • But:
      • Who is in charge?
      • Where to place the tree (public, private)
      • How to get ALL service providers to agree on this
      • etc., etc.
  • 11. Nevertheless, a solution was needed
    • IP-based service providers wanted to peer (interconnect) their SIP traffic
      • based on E.164 numbers
    • So a number of VoIP peering federations including some kind of E.164 resolution where established:
    • XConnect, VPF, e164.info, SPIDER, …
    • Most of them based on ENUM technology
  • 12. The ENUM Matrjoschkas
  • 13. Private ENUMs
    • Also called:
      • Operator ENUM
      • Enterprise ENUM
      • Carrier ENUM
    • This is currently how “service providers” interconnect:
    • Variants:
      • Private ENUM in a “walled garden” extranet (GSMA)
      • SIP Exchange with restricted access on the Internet (Cable providers, XConnect, SIP-IX, …)
      • public tree not in „e164.arpa“ (e164.info)
    • Advantages:
      • No user opt-in, NO REGULATORS INVOLVED , intrinsic peering agreements, savings in CAPEX, OPEX, MM-services
    • Disadvantages:
      • limited reach,
      • no global solution,
      • how to peer with other federations?
  • 14. Infrastructure ENUM – second try
    • All types of private ENUMs have serious d isadvantages:
      • limited reach,
      • no global solution,
      • how to peer with other federations?
    • Only numbers from providers participating in the given federation can be reached
    • To enable global reachability on IP, a single, common and global tree is required.
    • The first goal of Infrastructure ENUM is to create an anchor place where any E.164 number can be found and will:
      • either be mapped directly to an ingress point of the destination network,
      • or at least hints can be found in which private E.164 resolution spaces the number can be resolved.
  • 15. Public Infrastructure ENUM
    • If Infrastructure ENUM is intended to allow the mapping of any E.164 number
      • that can be reached via IP
      • even if it terminates on the PSTN
      • to a SIP URI,
    • Infrastructure ENUM must be in the public DNS.
    • But this is useless, if the resulting SIP URI cannot be reached
    • So for Infrastructure ENUM also a global IP Interconnect (VoIP Peering) regime is required.
    • ENUM is an applet to VoIP Peering
  • 16. Standardisation in IETF
    • Two recent major developments in IETF regarding (VoIP) Interconnect:
      • ENUM WG extended scope to include Infrastructure ENUM
      • Voipeer BoFs to create new SPEERMINT WG:
    • Session PEERing for Multimedia INTerconnect
      • WG established 8. February 2006
  • 17. Separation of Scope
    • The ENUM WG is primarily concerned with the acquisition of Call Routing Data (CRD) e.g. a SIP URI,
    • while the SPEERMINT WG is focused on the use of such CRD.
    • Importantly, the CRD can be derived from ENUM (i.e., an E.164 DNS entry), or via any other mechanism available to the user.
  • 18. Scope ENUM and SPEERMINT Infrastructure ENUM Policy Database ENUM Lookup Policy Lookup I-ENUM SPEERMINT Number SIP URI Routing Parameter
  • 19. Current I-Ds in ENUM
    • Infrastructure ENUM Requirements
    • The E.164 to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Application for Infrastructure ENUM
    • Combined User and Carrier ENUM in the e164.arpa tree (interim solution)
    • The ENUM Branch Location Record (interim solution)
    • IANA Registration for an Enumservice to Hint to E.164 Resolution Namespaces (ERN)
  • 20. SPEERMINT Interconnect
    • Interconnection procedures:
      • (Eventually take output of ENUM)
      • Analysis of target URI
      • Check routing and peering policy (e.g. federation and NNI detection)
      • Discovery of next hop
      • Routing of SIP messages
      • Session establishment
      • Media transfer
  • 21. Types of Peering
    • Direct peering
      • the originating provider may identify and interconnect directly with the terminating provider
    • Assisted peering
      • involves the deployment of centralized SIP elements on the Internet or by a federation
    • Indirect peering
      • involves transit SIP elements for the routing of SIP messages and eventually also for media
  • 22. Finding the „Policies“
    • Location
      • of the terminating provider
    • Interoperability
      • compatibility with terminating provider (identifying the NNI/UNI)
    • Security
      • of message transport (TLS, IPSec, VPN, ..)
    • Trust
      • authentication, privacy, identity, SPIT prevention, …
    • Routing
      • of messages to next hop
    • Cost
      • Fees, type of charges, …
  • 23. What are the Benefits of ENUM?
    • ENUM is using the DNS
      • it’s there, it works, it’s global, it scales, it’s reliable, it’s open, anyone can use it…
      • saving CAPEX
    • Enables the originating administrative domain to do an All Call Query (ACQ) to find the destination network
      • Ultimate solution in Number Portability
    • Provisioning is done only by the destination (recipient) administrative domain for the E.164 numbers this domain is hosting
      • saving OPEX
    • Enables all multimedia (MM) services for E.164 numbers for all sessions on IP end-to-end
      • enables convergence (whatever that means)
  • 24. What are the benefits of SPEERMINT?
    • Enable interconnection in public and „private“ environments
    • Use the DNS also for policy functions
      • saving CAPEX
    • Provisioning done mainly by the destination administrative domain
      • saving OPEX
    • Enables multimedia (MM) services for any Public User Identifier for all sessions on IP end-to-end
  • 25. Benefits in a nutshell
    • The major benefits of Infrastructure ENUM and SPEERMINT for (VoIP) carriers and (VoIP) service providers is to save costs:
    • Minimal CAPEX for setting up the required infrastructure to provide the routing data
    • Minimal OPEX for maintaining routing data:
      • Announce the E.164 numbers you host (in ENUM)
      • Announce the domains you host (in DNS)
      • (make bilateral or multilateral peering agreements)
      • Query ENUM and DNS to find any other destination provider
  • 26. What are the Open Issues?
    • The Internet is based on end-to-end communication and best effort, no central intelligence
      • this causes also a lot of problems (SPAM, DoS, spoofing, phishing, …)
    • The PSTN has central control, QoS and a different business model,
      • but it is a one trick pony
    • The dream of the NGN
      • take the benefits of the PSTN (especially the business model) and move it over to IP technology
    The answer is money, what was the question?
  • 27. Currently we have some options
    • NGN, IMS?
      • trying to rebuild the IN-silos on IP
      • keeping the central intelligence by adding service control
      • problems: contrary to the Internet Architecture
        • getting to complex
        • loosing the innovation potential
    • Internet and P2P SIP?
      • Back to: Keep it Simple, no administrative overhead, end-user control
    • or – The Balkanization of the Internet?
  • 28. What about User ENUM?
    • User ENUM may finally co-exist with Infrastructure ENUM
    • Infrastructure ENUM will basically be used as a SS7 replacement for SIP- based services
    • User ENUM is an end-to-end Internet service usable for any kind of end user communication
    • End user will never host all their services with one provider
    • It may be used as an overlay for any type of services communities and enterprises.
  • 29. From the IETF#67 last week in San Diego:
    • Infrastructure ENUM:
      • I-Ds in WGLC
      • No decision on ENUM root domain by IETF
      • RFCs will be forwarded to ITU-T
      • The ITU-T has to decide on the root
    • Void draft revived:
      • name changed to UNUSED for unallocated and unassigned numbers
      • URI changed to data:
  • 30.
    • Thank you
    Richard Stastny ÖFEG +43 664 420 4100 [email_address] http://voipandenum.blogspot.com

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