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  1. 1. IP Interconnect and Infrastucture ENUM and the relevance on NGNs AK-TK ENUM Wien, 16. Feber 2006 Richard Stastny, ÖFEG* * The opinions expressed here may or may not be that of my company
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>NGN/IP Interconnect – VoIP Peering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is ENUM? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of ENUM? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recent IETF developments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENUM WG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEERMINT WG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits in a nutshell </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>What are NGNs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP-based “networks” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Service provider” “networks” offering real-time or near realtime IP communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Enterprise networks” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Administrative Domains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Interconnection between NGNs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a user registered in one administrative domain is able to contact (establish a session to) an user registered in a different administrative domain by using a Public User Identity (Address-of-Record, E.164 Number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preferably via IP </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. NGN/IP Interconnect (VoIP Peering) <ul><li>If we take the All-IP paradigm seriously, we have two basic requirements : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any real-time communication originating on IP and terminating on IP MUST stay on IP end-to-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This implies, it MUST NOT use the PSTN/ISDN to interconnect. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improved end-to-end functionality (BB codecs, IM, video, conferencing, presence, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved end-to-end QoS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No additional cost beside of IP-access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>convergence possible at the end-user’s device </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Example IMS (TS 23.228) <ul><li>Public User Identities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>something one may put on a business card  a SIP URI or a TEL URI (in E.164 format) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routing* within IMS shall use SIP URIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(converted via DNS to IP addresses – RFC3263) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TEL URIs will require conversion to SIP URIs (via ENUM)  Interconnection between IMS must be possible by using SIP URIs only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Routing = finding the next hop </li></ul>
  6. 6. Possible Public User Identities <ul><li>E.164 numbers </li></ul><ul><li>SIP URIs defined by provider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sip:4319793321@telekom.at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sip:richard.stastny@aon.at </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SIP URIs with self-provided domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sip:8431@kapsch.net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sip:richard.stastny@oefeg.at </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Electronic or E.164 NUMber mapping is defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFC3761 as: </li></ul><ul><li>the mapping of „Telephone Numbers“ to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) using the Domain Name System (DNS) in the domain e164.arpa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>URIs are used to identify resources on the Internet (e.g. http:// enum.nic.at ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The purpose of ENUM is to enable the convergence between the PSTN and the Internet </li></ul>ENUM is defined by the IETF
  8. 8. ENUM in a nutshell <ul><li>take an E.164 phone number </li></ul>+43 720 203 211 <ul><li>turn it into a FQDN </li></ul> <ul><li>returns list of URIs </li></ul>sip:richard.stastny@iphone.at <ul><li>query the DNS (for NAPTR) </li></ul>mailto:richard.stastny@oefeg.at sms tel:+436644204100 IN NAPTR 100 100 &quot;u&quot; “E2U+sip“ !^.*$!SIP:richard@iphone.at! .
  9. 9. ENUM Implementations <ul><li>30 Greece </li></ul><ul><li>31 Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>33 France Trial </li></ul><ul><li>350 Gibraltar </li></ul><ul><li>353 Ireland Trial </li></ul><ul><li>354 Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>358 Finland Trial </li></ul><ul><li>36 Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>374 Armenia </li></ul><ul><li>386 Slovenia requested </li></ul><ul><li>39 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>40 Romania </li></ul><ul><li>41 Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>420 Czech Republic Trial? </li></ul><ul><li>421 Slovakia Trial? </li></ul><ul><li>423 Liechtenstein Trial </li></ul><ul><li>43 Austria </li></ul><ul><li>44 UK Trial </li></ul><ul><li>46 Sweden Trial </li></ul><ul><li>47 Norway </li></ul><ul><li>48 Poland </li></ul><ul><li>49 Germany </li></ul><ul><li>246 Diego Garcia </li></ul><ul><li>247 Ascension </li></ul><ul><li>290 Saint Helena </li></ul><ul><li>55 Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>61 Australia Trial </li></ul><ul><li>63 Philippines ? </li></ul><ul><li>66 Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>65 Singapore Trial </li></ul><ul><li>81 Japan Trial </li></ul><ul><li>82 Korea Trial </li></ul><ul><li>86 China Trial </li></ul><ul><li>88234 Global Networks ? </li></ul><ul><li>87810 VISIONng UPT </li></ul><ul><li>971 UAE </li></ul>http://www.ripe.net/enum/request-archives/ http://www.centr.org/kim/enum/index.html Delegations in e164.arpa as of February 15th, 2006 <ul><li>1 North America (US, CA, Jamaika) </li></ul><ul><li>additional Asian countries (Taiwan…) have trials, but not in .arpa </li></ul>
  10. 10. The basic idea of ENUM (RFC3671) <ul><li>The basic idea of ENUM was </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to allow end-users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to opt-in with their EXISTING phone-numbers on the PSTN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>into e164.arpa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide OTHER end-users with the capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to look up contact URIs on the Internet the above end-user wants to link to this number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This kind of ENUM is called User ENUM </li></ul>
  11. 11. SIP Session establishment sip:alice@providerA.net SIP server SIP server sip:eve@providerA.net sip:eve@providerB.net sip:bob@providerB.net sip:bob@providerB.net session DNS SRV lookup providerB.net sip:bob@providerB.net IP –based network If this does not work, forget ENUM DNS providerA.net providerB.net
  12. 12. Other IP Networks IP Transport (Access and Core) T - MGF I - BGF UPSF P - CSCF I/S - CSCF BGCF SLF Charging Functions IWF PSTN Emulation (R2) Mw Mw/Mk/Mm Mr Mg Mj Mi Mp Mn Gm Gq ' ISC Cx Dx Dh Sh Ic Rf /Ro Rf /Ro Ib Iw Gq ' PSTN/ISDN SGF MRFC MGCF MRFP e4 Ie Mw IBCF Mk Mk Application Servers Rf /Ro AGCF e2 P1 P2 P3 UE CNG MG IMS / PSTN Simulation Gq ' - SPDF A-RACF Resource & Admission Control Resource & Admission Control SPDF Network Attachment Subsystem Re Ia RCEF BGF Ut Ut Overall ETSI TISPAN IMS Architecture – all subsystems
  13. 13. ITU-T NGN System Architecture
  14. 14. IMS ?
  15. 15. E.164 Session establishment sip:alice@providerA.net SIP server SIP server sip:eve@providerA.net sip:eve@providerB.net sip:bob@providerB.net tel:+43780420410 session DNS SRV lookup providerB.net sip:bob@providerB.net DNS IN NAPTR ? ... NAPTR ... &quot;!^.*$!sip:bob@providerB.net!&quot; What is ENUM adding? providerA.net providerB.net ENUM DNS
  16. 16. What are the Benefits of ENUM? <ul><li>ENUM is using the DNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it’s there, it works, it’s global, it scales, it’s reliable, it’s open, anyone can use it… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>saving CAPEX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enables the originating administrative domain to do an All Call Query (ACQ) to find the destination network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate solution in Number Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provisioning is done only by the destination (recipient) administrative domain for the E.164 numbers this domain is hosting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving OPEX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enables all multimedia (MM) services for E.164 numbers for all sessions on IP end-to-end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables convergence (whatever that means) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. So what ENUM should be used? The ENUM Babuschka‘s
  18. 18. The “ENUMs” <ul><li>User ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>Private ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>Operator ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>Federation ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>EMINEM </li></ul>
  19. 19. User ENUM <ul><li>User ENUM requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>country opt-in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end-user opt-in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Service providers” have no say in User ENUM </li></ul><ul><li>So Service Providers using IP-based technology need other solutions to be able to Interconnect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>via IP-based technology and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using E.164 Numbers </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Private ENUM <ul><li>Also called: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An administrative domain is setting up their own private ENUM DNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be used in addition to other solutions to route within own network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But does not solve the Interconnect problem with other administrative domains AND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires extensive provisioning </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Federation ENUM <ul><li>This is currently how “service providers” interconnect on IP: </li></ul><ul><li>Variants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private ENUM in a “walled garden” extranet (GSMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIP Exchange with restricted access on the Internet (Cable providers, XConnect, SIP-IX, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public tree not in „e164.arpa“ (e164.info) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No user opt-in, NO REGULATORS INVOLVED , intrinsic peering agreements, savings in CAPEX, OPEX, MM-services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limited reach, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no global solution, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to peer with other federations? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Future as seen by GSMA
  23. 23. Carrier DNS Architectures IPX B Slave Root Server (Tier 0) Country Y Country Z Fixed Operator Central Authority Mobile Operator Fixed Operator Central Authority Country X Mobile Operator Shows possible examples of the DNS hierarchy which will vary by country Master Root Server (Tier 0) The carrier data is normally stored in a database and the DNS datafill generated when the DNS is updated IPX A Slave Root Server (Tier 0) Master Root Database IPX C Slave Root Server (Tier 0) Mobile Operator Mobile Operator DNS Server (Tier 1 and Tier 2) DNS (Tier 2) DNS (Tier 2) DNS Server (Tier 1) Master DNS Database Master DNS Database DNS Server (Tier 1 and Tier 2) Master DNS DB (Tier 2) Master DNS DB (Tier 2) Master DNS Database
  24. 24. IPI (IP Inter-working) g oal s <ul><li>Create environment to grow IP services </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure customer centric sustainable model </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a fair distribution of value </li></ul><ul><li>Foster continuous market growth </li></ul><ul><li>Establish alternatives to access- only based inter-working </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure several models available in the market </li></ul>
  25. 25. Some Companies I nvolved SIP trial project Total approx 50 companies actively involved in trials Additional IPI project supporters
  26. 27. SIP Forum - IP PBX/SP Interop
  27. 28. Public Infrastructure ENUM <ul><li>If Infrastructure ENUM is intended to allow the mapping of any E.164 number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that can be reached via IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even if it terminates on the PSTN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to a SIP URI, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure ENUM must be in the public DNS. </li></ul><ul><li>But this is useless, if the resulting SIP URI cannot be reached </li></ul><ul><li>So for Infrastructure ENUM also a global IP Interconnect (VoIP Peering) regime is required. </li></ul><ul><li>ENUM is an applet to VoIP Peering </li></ul>
  28. 29. Standardisation in IETF <ul><li>Two recent major developments in IETF regarding (VoIP) Interconnect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENUM WG extended scope to include Infrastructure ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voipeer BoFs to create new SPEERMINT WG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Session PEERing for Multimedia INTerconnect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WG established 8. Feber 2006 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Separation of Scope <ul><li>The ENUM WG is primarily concerned with the acquisition of Call Routing Data (CRD) e.g. a SIP URI, </li></ul><ul><li>while the SPEERMINT WG is focused on the use of such CRD. </li></ul><ul><li>Importantly, the CRD can be derived from ENUM (i.e., an E.164 DNS entry), or via any other mechanism available to the user. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Scope ENUM and SPEERMINT Infrastructure ENUM Policy Database ENUM Lookup Policy Lookup I-ENUM SPEERMINT Number SIP URI Routing Parameter
  31. 32. Current I-Ds in ENUM WG <ul><li>Carrier/Infrastrucure ENUM Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>draft-lind-infrastructure-enum-reqs-01 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combined User and Carrier ENUM in the e164.arpa tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>draft-haberler-carrier-enum-01 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IANA Registration for an Enumservice Containing PSTN Signaling Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>draft-ietf-enum-pstn-02 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Current I-Ds in SPEERMINT <ul><li>Terminology for Describing VoIP Peering and Interconnect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>draft-meyer-voipeer-terminology-01 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publishing SIP Peering Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>draft-lendl-sip-peering-policy-00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This documents proposes the use of DNS entries to publish a SIP proxy's policy for accepting incoming calls. Such published policies can be used to selectively establish peering relationships between VoIP service providers. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Benefits in a nutshell <ul><li>The major benefits of Infrastructure ENUM and SPEERMINT for (VoIP) carriers and (VoIP) service providers is to save costs: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal CAPEX for setting up the required infrastructure to provide the routing data </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal OPEX for maintaining routing data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Announce the E.164 numbers you host (in ENUM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Announce the domains you host (in DNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(make bilateral or multilateral peering agreements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query ENUM and DNS to find any other destination provider </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Next Activities <ul><li>ETSI TISPAN WG4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WI 4006 on Interconnect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WI 4009 to update TS 102 172 for Infrastructure ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Meeting with GSMA (March 1st, London) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IETF#65 in Dallas, March 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENUM, SPEERMINT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NP Conference, London, March 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>ENUM Summit, IQPC, Boston, April 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>ITU-T SG2, Geneva, May 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure ENUM and IP Interconnect, Marcus Evans, London, June 2006, </li></ul>
  35. 36. The End <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>Richard Stastny ÖFEG +43 664 420 4100 [email_address] http://voipandenum.blogspot.com