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  1. 1.  Postwar Brought:  Economic Conflicts  Powerful Dictators  Nationalism  Dreams of territorial Expansion
  2. 2.  Treaty ofVersailles caused ANGER and RESENTMENT  Germans…  saw nothing “fair” about being blamed for the war  Lost territories  Russians…  Mad that they lost territories  New democratic governments set up in Europe did not last and it was easy for dictators to take over
  3. 3.  Russia Soviet Union, 1922, communist state  Lenin dies in 1924 Stalin takes power
  4. 4.  Stalin means “man of steel”  Goal: Create a model communist state  Goal: Move Russia from a rural  industrial state  All economic activity was placed under the government’s control  By 1937, the Soviet Union became the world’s second- largest industrial power
  5. 5.  Stalin eliminated anyone that stood in his way  Stalin is estimated to be responsible for 8 to 13 million deaths (total is not known)  AND millions more died from a result of famine when reconstructing the Soviet Union
  6. 6.  Totalitarian Government=  government that exerts complete control over its citizens.  Individuals have no rights  Government suppresses all opposition
  7. 7.  Benito Mussolini and totalitarian government in Italy  Mussolini appealed to Italy’s wounded national pride and strikes by workers “Italy wants peace, work, and calm. I will give these things with love I possible, with force if necessary.” Benito Mussolini
  8. 8.  Fascism=  stressed nationalism and places the interests of the state above those of individuals  Power must rest with the strong single leader and a small group of his devoted followers
  9. 9.  Mussolini marches on Rome with his followers (“Black Shirts”) and eventually the Italian King appointed Mussolini head of the government  IL Duce- “the leader”
  10. 10.  Born: April 20, 1889 in Austria- Hungary  Poor student who never completed high school  He applied to the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, but was rejected
  11. 11. He was convinced that it was a Jewish professor that had rejected his art work; he became convinced that a Jewish doctor had been responsible for his mother’s death; he cleared the snow-bound paths of beautiful town houses in Vienna where rich people lived and he became convinced that only Jews lived in these homes. By 1910, his mind had become warped and his hatred of the Jews - known as anti-Semitism - had become set.
  12. 12.  Hitler served in WWI  In 1919 he joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi)  Didn’t believe in Democracy or failed Capitalism of the West  Want to distribute wealth more equally
  13. 13.  AfterWW1, Hitler was a jobless soldier  1919, he joined the Nationalist Socialist GermanWorker’s Party aka Nazi Party (had no ties to Socialism)  He was a powerful speaker and organizer that he became the party’s leader
  14. 14.  In 1923, Hitler led in uprising in Munich against the Weimar Republic  Imprisoned for 8 months (sentenced to 5 years)
  15. 15.  Hitler’s book, “My Stuggle,” set forth his basic beliefs of Nazism that became his plan of action
  16. 16.  1933, The legislature anointed Hitler dictator, der Fuhrer  Soon he declared all labor unions and political parties illegal except his own  Established the Gestapo= powerful police force
  17. 17.  Nazism=  German brand of fascism  Extreme nationalism  United all German-speaking people in a great German empire
  18. 18.  Anti-Semitism  Nationalism  Militarism  Anti-communism
  19. 19.  Enforce racial “purification”  In his view, Germans (especially blue-eyed, blond-haired “Aryans”)- formed a “master race”  “Inferior Races”= Jews, Slavs, and all nonwhites, were only fit to serve Aryans
  20. 20.  Hitler believed that for Germany to thrive  Germans needed more “living space” even if that meant getting that land by force  Because of Germany’s economic depression after WW1, Hitler had an easy time getting men to join the army (Why?- needed jobs)  Hitler’s private army= Storm Troopers or Brown Shirts
  21. 21.  By 1932, Nazis had become the strongest political party in Germany  In 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor (prime minister)  Hitler soon dismantled Germany’s democratic government and established theThird Reich (Third German Empire) and this Reich would last 1,000 years
  22. 22.  Japan wanted to expand  Attack Manchuria and take control of a providence of China  League of Nations condemned Japan for doing this and Japan dropped out of the League
  23. 23.  Everyone noticed that the League of Nations did nothing to Japan (especially in Europe)  Germany dropped out of the League and attacked a land (Rhineland) that was taken from them after WW1 and the League did nothing to stop him  Italy attacked Ethiopia and the League barely did anything
  24. 24.  Francisco Franco and Spanish army officers revolted against Spanish government and the Spanish Civil War broke out  Americans were worried about fascism spreading through Spain  Hitler and Mussolini helped Franco and later formed an alliance Rome-Berlin Axis  Franco became Spain’s fascist dictator
  25. 25.  Americans were shocked but believed the U.S. would not get involved  Antiwar feelings (so strong that the Girl Scouts of America changed the color of its uniforms from khaki to green to appear less militaristic)
  26. 26.  Congress passed a series of laws  Outlawed arms sales or loads to nations at war or engaged in civil war
  27. 27.  Roosevelt helped by sending arms and supplies to China after being attacked by Japan again  He said this wasn’t against the Neutrality Acts because Japan hadn’t officially declared war against China  Roosevelt spoke against isolationism but many accused Roosevelt of bringing the US into another war
  28. 28.  Hitler wants Austria and Czechoslovakia as part of hisThird Reich  Many advise Hitler that this will lead to war, and he said, “’The German Question’ can be solved only by means of force, and this is never without risk!”
  29. 29.  In the Peace Conference afterWW1 Austria was created out of the Austria- Hungary  Majority of Austrians were Germans who favored unification with Germany  Hitler came in unopposed and the Austria was united with Germany  The US and the rest of the world did nothing
  30. 30.  Sudetenland= area in Czechoslovakia that had about 3 million German- speaking people  Hitler accused the Czechs of abusing the Sudeten Germans  France and Great Britain promised to protect Czechoslovakia  Hitler invited leaders of France and GB to Germany and he explained that the Sudetenland would be his last conquest  Munich Agreement was signed, turning the Sudetenland over to Germany
  31. 31.  Churchill (political rival of Chamberlain, who signed theTreaty) did not like this and called it appeasement.  Appeasement= giving up principles to pacify an aggressor
  32. 32.  Hitler soon marched on Czechoslovakia and gloated, “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist.”  Next target: Poland (Germany’s eastern neighbor)
  33. 33.  Hitler said that Germans in Poland were being mistreated  Many thought that if Hitler attacked Poland, Russia would enter the war (Poland and Russia and neighbors)  France and Britain had promised military aid to Poland  Many thought Hitler would not be foolish to fight a 2 front war like inWW1  Nonaggression Pact= Hitler and Stalin commit to never attack each other, and secretly plan to split Poland
  34. 34.  Germany storms Poland  Germany’s newest military strategy, blitzkrieg, or lightning war (fast tanks, powerful aircraft, take enemy by surprise and then quickly crush the opposition)  2 days after the attack on Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany
  35. 35.  =France built a system of fortifications along France’s eastern border (Maginot Line) and waited for Germany to attack…they never did  Meanwhile, Russia attacked Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and later Finland  Hitler attacked Finland and Norway in hopes of building bases to attack GB later on
  36. 36.  Hitler went around the Maginot Line to attack France
  37. 37.  Germany’s surprise attack on northern Italy  Italy enters war on side of the Germans and attacks France from the south  Germans occupied northern Italy and Hitler set up a Nazi-controlled government in the south
  38. 38.  Germans attacked Britain by air (Germany knew they couldn’t compete with their navy)  For 2 months, Germans bombed Britain everyday  RAF (Britain’s Royal Air Force) fought back and with the help of the radar, Germany eventually called off their invasion Churchill said in praise of the RAF pilots, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.”
  39. 39.  Persecution Begins  Hitler’s first move: ordered all “non-Aryans” to be removed from government jobs  Holocaust= the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than ½ of whom were Jews
  40. 40.  Anti-Semitism= hatred of Jews, had a long history in many European countries  For many decades, Germans blamed Jews for everything  Nuremberg Laws= stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs and property
  41. 41.  To make them easier to identify, Jews had to wear a bright yellow Star of David attached to their clothing
  42. 42.  =“Night of Broken Glass”  Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany  Many were killed or arrested  Later, the Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction
  43. 43.  Many Jews fled and became refugees but they had no place to go  France would only accept 40,000, Britain, 80,000 refugees  Many countries feared what would happened if they let Jewish refugees in.  The US let in 100,000 refugees, but many Americans were fearful that the immigrants would hurt the economy more during the Great Depression (ie: Albert Einstein led it)
  44. 44.  Coast guard refused to let this German ocean liner (filled with Jewish refugees) stop in America and forced them to return to Europe.  Later, ½ of these passengers were killed in the Holocaust  Significance: Indifference (not caring) about the plight of the Jews
  45. 45.  “Final Solution”= a policy of genocide, the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population
  46. 46.  “Master Race”= Aryans  “Inferior Race”=  Communists  Socialists  Liberals  Homosexuals  Gypsies  Jews  Anyone who spoke out against the Nazi government  Mentally deficient and ill, physically disabled, incurably ill  Freemasons (supporters of the “Jewish conspiracy” to rule the world)  Jehovah’s Witnesses (who refused to join the army or salute Hitler)
  47. 47.  Nazi death squads “secret squadrons”  Rounded up Jewish men, woman and children and shot them on the spot
  48. 48.  Forced in crowded ghettos (segregated Jewish areas in certain Polish cities)  Nazis sealed off ghettos with barbed wire and stone walls  Conditions were hard inside  Bodies of victims pilled in the streets  Forced to work in factories
  49. 49.  =labor camps  Originally used for political opponents and protesters, but later turned over to the SS  Crowded in barracks, meager meals, rats and flees, worked from dawn to dusk  If you were too weak, you were killed “The brute Schmidt was our guard; he beat and kicked us if he thought we were not working fast enough. He ordered his victims to lie down and gave them 25 lashes with a whip, ordering them to count outloud. If the victim made a mistake he was given 50 lashes…30 or 40 of us were shot every day. A doctor usually prepared a daily list o the weakest men. During the lunch break they were taken to a nearby grave and shot.They were replaced the following morning by new arrivals from the transport of the day…It was a miracle if anyone survived for 5 or 6 months in Belzec.” –Rudolf Reder
  50. 50.  Mass murder: slaughter, starvation and now murder by poison gas  Gas Chambers: could kill 12,000 a day  Overwork, starvation, beating and bullets did not kill fast enough
  51. 51.  When prisoners arrived, doctors determined whether they were strong enough to work or not  Personal belongings were collected, promised that they would be returned later
  52. 52.  Weak were told to undress and go to the “showers” (gas chambers)  Prisoners were even given a bar of soap as part of the deception  Poisoned with cyanide gas that came from the vents in the walls  Orchestras of fellow camp inmates were usually played during exterminations
  53. 53.  Graves were being filled too fast  Smell of murder  Huge crematoriums, or ovens, to hide the evidence
  54. 54.  Shot  Hung  Injected with Poison  Starved  Gassed  Became medical experiments. Experiments carried by camp doctors in order to study diseases  Medical experiments of sterilization (to study how to improve the “master race”)
  55. 55.  6 Million died  Some able to live through the concentration camps  Survivors were forever changed by what they witnessed  “Survival is both an exalted privilege an a painful burden.” Gerda Klein
  56. 56.  Moving Away from Neutrality (Roosevelt)  “cash and carry” provision= allowed nations in war to pay cash for war items and transport them in their own ships  Many isolationist criticized Roosevelt
  57. 57.  Axis Powers: Germany, Italy and Japan  Signed a mutual defense treaty  This treaty was aimed to keep the US out of the war, because the US would not want to fight a 2- ocean war (Atlantic & Pacific)
  58. 58.  Roosevelt asked Congress to increase spending for national defense  SelectiveTraining and Service Act= nation’s first peacetime military draft  Under this law 16 million men b/t the ages of 21 and 35 were registered
  59. 59.  FDR decided to break tradition of a 2-term presidency (started with Washington) and run for reelection  Little difference between him and his running mate (WendelWillkie) that people voted for the candidate they knew
  60. 60.  FDR at Fireside Chat: “No man can tame a tiger into a kitten by stroking it.”  It Britain was defeated, FDR warned that all of the world would be under the power of the Axis Powers  We need to help and become “the great arsenal of democracy”
  61. 61.  President would lend or lease arms and other supplies to “any country who defense was vital to the United States.”  FDR compared it to lending a garden hose to a neighbor whose house is on fire.The only thing you can do to save your house, is to help your neighbor so the fire doesn’t spread
  62. 62.  Hitler broke promises he made with Stalin to not invade Russia  US decides to help Russia under the idea that “the enemy of my enemy is my friend”  Churchill said that “if Hitler invaded Hell,” the British would be prepared to work with the devil himself
  63. 63.  With supplies going to his enemies, Hitler, again unleashed German submarines (U-boats)  U-boats were successful  FDR gave permission to sink German ships in self- defense  Radar helped  Airborne antisubmarine patrols
  64. 64.  Churchill and FDR meet on a battleship USS Augusta  Atlantic Charter= promises to each other (collective security, disarmament, economic cooperation and freedom of seas)  FDR said he couldn’t ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany, but that he would do everything to “force an incident”
  65. 65.  U-boats attacked,Americans were killed  Undeclared naval war with Hitler  This did not bring us into the war….yet!
  66. 66.  HidekiTojo- chief of Japan’s army, launched invasion of China  British were too busy with Hitler to block Japanese expansion  Only the US and its Pacific islands remained in the way  Japan took over bases in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos  US protested by cutting off trade with Japan  Japan couldn’t survive without the oil from the US….this meant war
  67. 67.  Tojo met with emperor Hirohito and promised that their government would attempt to preserve peace withAmericans  But,Tojo ordered the navy to prepare for an attack on the US
  68. 68.  US military broke Japan’s secret communication codes and learned Japan was preparing for an attack.  US didn’t know where attack would be  FDR sent “war warnings” to Hawaii, Guam and Philippines  US didn’t want to attack and thus waited for an overt act  Japan denied any talks of peace treaties
  69. 69.  6 Japanese aircraft carriers, 180 air bombers  Radio operator flashed this message, “Air raid on Pearl Harbor. This is not a drill.”  For an hour and a half, the Japanese planes attacked without disturbance of US  Americans killed: 2,403  Wounded: 1,178  Ships Sunk/Damaged: 21, 8 Battleships  Pearl Harbor had more losses than in all ofWW1
  70. 70.  “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date with will live in infamy, theJapanese launched an unprovoked and dastardly attack.”- FDR  US declared war on Japan  Germany and Italy declared war on US
  71. 71.  War efforts did more to help the US economy than all the New Deal programs  Companies had army materials to make  Factories needed workers
  72. 72.  Selective Service System= added 10 million soldiers (5 million had already volunteered)  GI= American soldiers  Trained for 8 weeks
  73. 73.  WAAC=Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps, women volunteers who could serve in noncombat positions  Nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, electricians and pilots  Later they received the same benefits as male soldiers
  74. 74.  Some believed this wasn’t their war to fight, especially when they “didn’t have democracy themselves”  Mexican-Americans= 300,000  African-Americans= 1,000,000  Chinese-Americans= 13,000  Japanese-Americans= 33,000  Some worked as spies and interpreters  Native-Americans= 25,000
  75. 75.  Factories were converted to war production  Car Makers tanks, planes, boats, and command car  Mechanical Pencils bomb parts  Bedspread manufacturer mosquito netting  Soft drink company filled shells with explosives
  76. 76.  18 million workers in factories  6/18 million were women  Many would not hire minorities
  77. 77.  Nation’s most respected African-American labor leader  Organized a march on Washington  Roosevelt back down and issued an executive order calling all employers to hire “without discrimination because of race, creed, color or national origin.”
  78. 78.  OSRD= Office of Scientific Research and Development  Radar  Sonar  Pesticides to fight off insects  Penicilin  ATOMIC BOMB
  79. 79.  Germans had already succeeded in splitting uranium atoms  Albert Einstein (German refugee) warned Roosevelt of Germany’s growing abilities  Manhattan Project= research work of the atomic bomb (performed at Columbia University in Manhattan, hence name)
  80. 80.  OPA= Office of Price Administration, prices were rising, Roosevelt fixed/froze prices  WPB=War Production Board, decided which companies were work on wartime production  Nationwide drives to collect scraps  Kids searched attics, cellars, garages for useful junk
  81. 81.  OPA set up a system of rationing  = fixed allotments of goods  Gas rationing  Carpools
  82. 82.  2 days after Pearl Harbor Churchill wired Roosevelt, “…would it be wise for us to have another conference…and the sooner the better.”
  83. 83.  Churchill arrived at theWhite House and worked out war plans with Roosevelt  Churchill convinced FDR that Hitler was a greater threat than Japan
  84. 84.  Germany and U boats  Allies responded by organizing cargo ships into convoys  With radar and sonar, the US could spot the German boats and destroy them  Battle of the Atlantic was going to the Allies
  85. 85.  Germans were attacking Soviet Union  Stalingrad= major industrial center, and a city that Hitler wanted to wipe out  Citizens wanted to abandon the city, but Stalin ordered that they defend his namesake city no matter what  By the next winter, Germans controlled 9/10 of the city  During winter Soviets brought in fresh tanks and trapped the Germans  Starving Germans surrendered  Soviets lost 1,100,000 soldiers (more than the Americans in the entire war) defending Stalingrad  From then on, Soviets took control and moved west
  86. 86.  Dwight D. Eisenhower led an invasion againstAxis controlled North Africa (OperationTorch)
  87. 87.  Churchhill and Roosevelt decided that they would only accept the unconditional surrender of theAxis Powers  America wanted to attack Germany  Britain thought it was safer to attack Italy
  88. 88.  99th Pursuit Squadron-all black pilot squadron  Impressive strikes against Germans, award winning  92nd Infantry Division- all African American unit, nicknamed- “Buffalos”  Mexicans served in segregated units, but were still awarded Medals of Honor  100th Battalion- 1,300 Hawaiian Nisei (Americans whose parents had emigrated from Japan)  Later this Battalion became the most decorated unit in US History
  89. 89.  3 million British,American and Canadian troops  Attack at Normandy in northern France  Code Name: Operation Overlord  June 6, 1944  Shortly after midnight, thousands landed  Largest land-sea-air operation in army history
  90. 90.  German retaliation brutal, especially on Omaha Beach  “People were yelling, screaming, dying, running on the beach, equipment was flying everywhere, men were bleeding to death, crawling, lying everywhere, firing coming from all directions…We dropped down behind anything that was the size of a golf ball.” –soldier Felix Branham
  91. 91.  Allies gained influenced  By 1944, the Allies had freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg  This helped FDR become elected to an unprecedented 4th term
  92. 92.  =Hitler’s last ditch effort on the offensive  SS Germans soldiers pushed forward  Captured 120 GI’s and shot them down in a huge field  Germans lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes-soldiers and weapons they could not replace  From this point on, the Nazis could do little but retreat
  93. 93.  As Soviets and Allied troops pushed into Germany, SS soldiers tried to destroy the Nazi death camps but they ran out of time  When Soviets arrived in Poland, they found 1,000 starving prisoners barely live, the world’s largest crematorium and a storehouse containing 800,000 shoes
  94. 94.  “We started smelling a terrible odor and suddenly we were at the concentration camp at Landsberg. Forced the gate and faced hundreds of starving prisoners…We saw emancipated men whose thighs were smaller than wrists, many had bones sticking out thru their skins…Also we saw hundreds of burned and naked bodies…That evening I wrote my wife that ‘For the first time I truly realized the evil of Hitler and why this war had to be waged.’” ▪ RobertT. Johnson
  95. 95.  Soviets stormed on Berlin, shooting on the spot or hanging from the nearest tree  Hitler was in his underground head- quarters  He married Eva Braun, his longtime companion  Wrote his last letter blaming Jews for starting and losing the war
  96. 96.  Hitler shot himself, while Eva drank poison  In accordance with Hitler’s orders, the bodies were carried outside, soaked with gasoline, and burned  V-E Day-Victory in Europe Day  May 8, 1945
  97. 97.  Roosevelt did not live to seeV-E Day  While posing for a portrait in Georgia, the president had a stroke and died  That night,VP, Harry S. Truman became the nation’s 33rd President
  98. 98.  6 months after Pearl Harbor, the Japanese had conquered an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third Reich  Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma,Thailand, and much of China, Dutch East Indies, Guam, Wake Island, Solomon Islands, and more  Douglas MacArthur= in command of Allied forces on the islands
  99. 99.  Allied turned tide against Japanese  Pearl Harbor style air raid over Japan  Doolittle led 16 bombers in the attack  Headlines in America, “Tokyo Bombed! Doolittle Do’od It!”
  100. 100.  Main allied forces in Pacific= Americans and Australians  Battle of Coral Sea= 5 day battle, Allied forces stopped Japanese from taking Australia  Fighting done by airplanes  First time since Pearl Harbor that a Japanese invasion was stopped
  101. 101.  Midway= island that lies northwest of Hawaii  Americans broke the Japanese code and knew they were attacking Midway  Allied forces attacked Japanese before they could even get planes off their carriers  Seen as revenge of Pearl Harbor  This battle was a turning point  Allies then began “island hopping” and gaining back island after island of lost territory back from the Japanese and moving toward Japan
  102. 102.  Kamikaze= suicide planes (word means “divine winds” and refers to a legendary typhoon that saved Japan in 1281 from a Mongol invasion)
  103. 103.  Iwo Jima= means “sulfur island” in Japanese  Heaviest defended spot (20,700 Japanese soldiers)  6,000 Marines died taking this island; only 200 Japanese remained  Only one island left…
  104. 104.  Japanese unleashed 1,900 kamikaze attacks  American Deaths: 7,600  Japanese Deaths: 110,000  Okinawa was a foretaste of what the Allies imagined it would be like to invade Japan’s homeland
  105. 105.  =Led by scientist, J. Robert Oppenheimner  =development of the atomic bomb  More than 600,000 people were working on it, but many did not know what it was for (“best kept secret of the war”)  Tested in New Mexico in July of 1945  ITWORKED!
  106. 106.  Truman now faced the decision…to use the atomic bomb or not  US warned Japanese that it faced “prompt and utter destruction” unless it surrendered…it did not.  PresidentTruman choose the location of the bomb droppings
  107. 107.  Bomber, Enola Gay, released an atomic bomb, coded Little Boy, over Hiroshima (Japanese military center)  45 seconds later, nearly every building in Hiroshima ceased to exist  Japan did not surrender  3 days later, a second bomb, code-named, Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki  By the end of the year, 200,000 Japanese had died as a result of injuries and radiation
  108. 108.  “They say temperature of 7,000 degrees centigrade hit me…Nobody there looked like human beings…Humans had lost the ability to speak. People couldn’t scream, ‘it hurts!’ even when they were on fire…People with their legs wrenched off. Without heads. Or with faces burned or swollen out of shape. The scene I saw was a living hell.”
  109. 109.  September 2, 1945  Surrender ceremonies took place on the US battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay
  110. 110.  Roosevelt met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the Soviet Union (5 months before dropping of bombs)  Nicknamed “the big 3”  Stalin wanted…Germany to be divided up in zones  Churchill…did not want German zones  Roosevelt…wanted Stalin to help with war in the Pacific, and support for a United Nations he was planning  Result: Compromise…Germany divided into 4 zones, agreement on meeting later for a conference about the UN
  111. 111.  With the discovery of the death camps, many Nazi leaders were put on trial (called NurembergTrials)  Following Crimes ▪ Crimes against the peace- planning and waging an aggressive war ▪ War Crimes- acts against the customs of warfare, such as killing of hostages and prisoners, plundering private property and the destruction of towns and cities ▪ Crimes Against Humanity- the murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement of civilians RESULT: the excuse “I was just following orders” did not matter, and that people are responsible for their actions, even during war
  112. 112.  US forces occupied Japan under General Douglas MacArthur (for 7 years)  Many Japanese military leaders were tried, some, includingTojo, were sentenced to death  MacArthur instituted a free- market economy and transformed the Japanese government, including the Japanese Constitution (which is still known as the MacArthur Constitution)
  113. 113.  Unemployed fell to lower than 1.2%  Workers and farmers prospered during the war  6 million women had entered the work force during the war (although many lost their jobs when the war ended)
  114. 114.  The war triggered one of the greatest mass migrations in American history  One million moved to California  Many moved to cities where factories were found
  115. 115.  With father gone, mother had all responsibilities to herself, and often she had to work  Children got used to being left in childcare or with neighbors  Period of adjustment when fathers returned  Many married quickly before soldiers went off to war  GI Bill of Rights= provided education and training for vets, paid for by the Federal Government
  116. 116.  Many African Americans moved away from the South  More jobs were being offered to African Americans  But, as African Americans moved to the cities, much prejudice and racism was seen  Interracial organizations, like CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) began organizing sit- ins
  117. 117.  Prejudice against Mexican-Americans in LA  1943, anti-Mexican “zoot-suit” riots  Named this because it was reported that some riots in LA were begun by MexicanAmericans wearing “zoot-suits”
  118. 118.  After Pearl Harbor, prejudice increased against Japanese Americans  War Department called for a mass evacuation of Japanese from Hawaii  Internment= confinement  Any of Japanese ancestry from California, Washington, Oregon and Arizona were sent to relocation camps
  119. 119.  Many had to sell their homes for less than they were worth  Jobs lost  Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) pushed the government to compensate those sent to the camps (only 1/1o of $ lost was given)  JACL kept pushing and in 1978, Reagan signed a bill giving $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to relocation camp  With the check came a letter from President Bush (1990) that said, “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past. But we can take a clear stand for justice and recognize that serious injustices were done to Japanese Americans during WW2.”