Nubia, Kush, Meroe


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Nubia, Kush, Meroe

  1. 1. Empires of Egypt & Nubia Collide
  2. 2. What do you think?  Add to your notes: Egypt both invaded other lands and was invaded. What conditions, if any, might justify an invasion on another country? (3-4 sentences)
  3. 3. Main Idea:  2 Empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections  THEMES: Invaders, cultures collide, what a leader focuses on  Why it matters now?  Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict
  4. 4. Setting the Stage  Egypt grew (during Middle Kingdom) by trade with Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley  600 miles south a new civilization was emerging-region of Nubia
  5. 5. New Kingdom of Egypt  After Middle Kingdom success, succession of weak pharaohs weaken Egypt  Invaders, Hyksos invaded and ruled Egypt  Loss in confidence of geographical protection  Finally a series of warlike pharaohs and queens strengthened Egypt and kicked the Hyksos out= NEW KINGDOM BEGUN
  6. 6. Empire Builders  New weapons: bronze weapons, 2-wheeled chariots  Red & White Crown= symbols of royalty  Blue Crown= war crown, battle helmet
  7. 7. Hatshepsut  Declared herself pharaoh  Took over because her stepson was too young to take the throne  She encouraged trade rather than war
  8. 8. What do you think?  Add to your notes: Why would a ruler encourage trade rather than making war?
  9. 9. Thutmose III  Hatshepsut’s stepson  More warlike, may have even killed his stepmom in eagerness to get the throne  Conquered areas of Nubia, returning with gold, cattle, ivory, and many enslaved captives Egypt has never been as strong as it was during the New Kingdom
  10. 10. Hittites  When Egyptians conquered parts of Syria and Palestine they ran into conflict with the Hittites who had also expanded into that area  Many battles  Battle of Kadesh: major battle between Hittites and Egyptians (Ramses II), ended with a treaty that formed an alliance that lasted for the rest of the century
  11. 11. Age of Builders  Huge builders in order to secure their state in the afterlife  Valley of Kings  Pharaoh means “great house”  Ramses II: one of the greatest builders, lived to age 99 and had 150 children  After Ramses death, a series of invasions
  12. 12. Invasions by Land & Sea  Both the Egyptians and Hittites were attacked by “the people of the sea”  May have been the Philistines from the Bible  From the east came the Palestinians  From the west came the Libyans
  13. 13. Kushites  Egypt dominated Nubia and the Nubian kingdom of Kush  As Egypt fell in power, Kush emerged and established its own Kushite dynasty
  14. 14. People of Nubia  The Nile River provided the best north-south trade route  Kush linked Egypt and the Mediterranean world and southern Africa  Kerma= first Nubian kingdom  Kerma’s kings were buried in chambers larger than those in any Egyptian pyramid  Kerma prospered during Egypt’s Hyksos period
  15. 15. Interaction of Egypt & Nubia  For a long period, Egypt ruled Kush  Kush capital became the center for the spread of Egyptian culture to Kush’s other African trading partners  Kush leaders adopted Egyptian languages, gods, customs, clothing, rituals, writing, architecture…  When Egypt decline, Kushites saw themselves as the guardians of
  16. 16. Piankhi Captures Egyptian Throne  Piankhi= Kushite king, overthrew the Libyan dynasty that ruled Egypt and united the entire Nile Valley, set up new dynasty and “restored” Egypt’s glory  Assyrians came and conquered Kushites and they were forced south up the Nile  Despite their loss of Egypt they experienced a golden age
  17. 17. Meroe  Kushite royal family moved south to Meroe  Meroe enjoyed rainfall, iron ore, and manufactured iron weapons and tools  Trade along the Red Sea to Arabia and India  Declined to the rise of the Aksum Kingdom, while Egypt was ruled by the Assyrians