Middle East AP Review Terms
Mesopotamia ● Tigris & Euphrates (Iraq)
● Irrigation → food supply → population increased → Su...
Zorastrianism = religion based on the beliefs of Zarathustra who was called by a vision to be a prophet
BELIEFS: material ...
Succeeded in converting people in India, sub-Saharan Africa, and SE Asia
Sufis believed that a tolerant approach to Islam ...
=extreme movement to replace secular states with Islamic ones
increased in popularity because of op...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

Middle east cheat sheet


Published on

Published in: Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Middle east cheat sheet

  1. 1. Middle East AP Review Terms Mesopotamia ● Tigris & Euphrates (Iraq) ● Irrigation → food supply → population increased → Sumer ● 1st cities= Ur, Babylon ● 1st form of writing- Cuneiform ● Polytheistic, Ziggurats, City-states Hammurabi’s Code =1st set of written laws (Babylon) ● Rules for: punishment, murder, theft; Laws favored upper classes Assyrian Empire ● Height of empire: 8th & 7th centuries BCE ● Covered: Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, Egypt ● Govt: laws of Hammurabi, military power, officers were ranked on skill not family connections Iron Metallurgy =4,000 BCE- experimentation, 1,000 BCE- Iron & Bronze (Mesopotamia) ● Carbon + Iron= harder, sharper ● Spread: Mesopotamia → Anatolia, Egypt, North Africa... (cultural diffusion) ● Assyrians used iron tools to conquer Mesopotamia Hebrews =Nomads who settled b/t Mesopotamia & Egypt, 1st MONOTHEISTIC religion- Yahweh (God) ● Hebrew Bible, 10 Commandments, PROPHETS: Moses, KINGS: David, Solomon Achaemenid Empire = includes the Medes & Persians (had military power & equestrian skills) Cyrus= founded Persian empire, spread borders Darius= extended empire, managed a huge empire, new capital Achaemenid Administration Govt. relied on a balance b/t central administration & local governors Darius divided into SATRAPS (with taxes and laws) Extensive ROADS Courier service, postal stations Persian Wars =Greeks vs. Persians, led to the fall of the empire Greeks thought the Persians were uncivilized Herodotus= father of history Persians- great military DELIAN LEAGUE- led by Athens, alliance between Greek city-states Lost at Battle of Marathon Society of Classical Perisa CITIES- priests, priestesses, artisans, craftsmen, merchants, low-ranking civil servants WOMEN- worked in textiles, received food and alcohol sometimes for their labor SLAVES acquired slaves through prisoners of war or rebellious civilians, deprived of freedom Govt. of Classical Persia Sophisticated govt.  development of a new class of educated bureaucrats State-owned slaves  labor for large-scale construction projects: roads, irrigation systems, city walls and places Economics of Classical Persia AGRICULTURE was the foundation of the economy SURPLUSES  military forces, govt. administrators, residents Empire controlled fertile land ROYAL ROAD help trade MARKETS in large cities (Babylon)- banks, companies that invested in commercial ventures
  2. 2. Zorastrianism = religion based on the beliefs of Zarathustra who was called by a vision to be a prophet BELIEFS: material possessions is a blessing, monotheistic, concept of good & evil, heaven & hell as a reward or punishment INFLUENCED: Judaism, Christianity Jesus =Jewish prophet and teacher His message challenged Roman civic life because it was monotheistic and did not worship Roman gods After his Crucifixion, followers increased Called the Christ (Greek for Messiah, “the anointed one”), followers were called Christians Early Christianity = time between the Crucifixion of Jesus (30 CE)  the 1 st Council of Nicaea (325 CE) Christians don’t worship Roman gods, one single god, appealed to lower classes and women, encouraged men & women to lead faithful lives to achieve salvation Muhammad =Last prophet of Islam (Moses & Jesus were prophets before), called 610 CE Belief in one God (Allah) Qur’an= words given to Muhammad by Allah Hadith= record of Muhammad, includes 5 pillars of faith Journey to Mecca, religious pilgrimage Expansion of Islam =Caliphs spread Islam after Muhammad’s death 633-637- Muslims took control of Byzantine, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia 651- conquered Egypt, North Africa 718- Controlled Hindu India, NW Africa, Iberian Penisula Muslims ALLOWED conquered people to keep their religion, but they had to pay a tax (JIZYA) Only Muslims could have positions of power Abbasid Dynasty =After Umayyad Dynasty, led by Abu al-Abbas Main source of power: DAR AL-ISLAM (“house of Islam”) Headquarters: Baghdad Grew by: military forces not conquest, led by caliphs Focuses on: ruling their empire (which was multi-cultural) & trade ULAMA= religious experts QADIS= judges The Qur’an & Women =Helped AND hurt women HELPED: security in society, couldn’t murder baby girls, dowries go to brides, described them as honorable & equal to men, not property HURT: male dominance, descent through male line, polygamy, veils Influences on Dar-al Islam = “house of Islam” & lands under Islamic rule Persian Influence: administrative techniques; ideas of kingship; Persian language, and political thought Indian Influence: mathematics, Arabic/Hindi numbers, symbol for zero, algebra, trigonometry, geometry. Greek influences: philosophy, science, medical writings (especially Plato and Aristotle). Trade within Eastern Hemisphere =Helped by the Silk Road & other classical roads (revived by Muslims) Camel caravan (overland trade) TECH ADVS: compass, lateen sail, astrolabe Credit (sakk=checks) could be used Ottoman Empire =Founder- Osman, sultan, followers known as Ottomans When? 11 th Century Where? Arrived on horseback in the Middle East - By 1480, controlled Byzantine Empire, Greece, Balkan region Sultan Mehmed II (the Conqueror) captured Constantinople, named it Istanbul Sufis = focused on personal relationship with Allah rather than a strict interpretation of Islam. Allowed worship of traditional gods
  3. 3. Succeeded in converting people in India, sub-Saharan Africa, and SE Asia Sufis believed that a tolerant approach to Islam would make it easier to spread Ottoman Empire (Rise & Expansion) = Nomads from central Asian Turks who captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul Military success came from their gunpowder technology (from China) Took control of the Middle East, Balkans and Crimean Peninsula (multinational empire) By the mid 1500s, the Ottomans were the largest & most powerful empire in Europe & the Middle East Suleyman the Magnificent =sultan of the Ottoman Empure from 1520 to 1566, he expanded the empire into southern Europe and created an efficient centralized bureaucracy Modernized the Ottoman army Known as the Lawgiver for improving the legal systems- laws were based on sharia (Islamic law) He was a great patron of the arts & was known for his religious tolerance Millet System = legally protected religious communities of non-Muslims Permitted to maintain their own traditional religious beliefs Major millets were composed of Jews, Greeks, and Armenians, who promised not or undermine the sultan’s authority Janissaries =soldiers in the Ottoman Empire that trained to protect and serve the sultan Many were young Christian boys taken from the Balkan regions and forced into the sultan’s service There were forced to convert to Islam and pledge absolute loyalty to the sultan; in return, they gained great privileges and honor Over time, they sought to gain influence and control of the government Safavid Empire =fought against the Ottoman Turks in 1514, the Safavid family consolidated their control over modern-day IRAN and ruled until 1736 Established the SHIITE sect of Islam as the official religion of the empire SHAH ABBAS THE GREAT (1588-1629)- moved the capital to Isfahan, the army was modernized, and long-distance trade flourished DECLINE: Constant conflict with the Ottomans, constant threat of a stronger Russian Empire to the north and the Mughal Empire to the south Zionism =nationalist movement that emerged in the late 1800s with the state goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine (led by Theodore Herzl) AFTER WW1: Jews began to settle in Palestine (mandated by the British through the Balfour Declaration) AFTER WW2: Zionists goals were realized, after fighting between the Arabs of Palestine (and the recently arrived Jews), the UN took control 1948- Israel was proclaimed a Jewish state (by the UN) This proclamation led to the Arab-Israeli conflict (continues today) Creation of Israel =Zionist movement led to the Jews return to Palestine Created by the UN in 1947 Divided Palestine (British mandate) into an Arab & Jewish state Jews accepted the plan: the US & USSR recognized Israel as a nation, but Arabs refused to recognize it Fighting continues today Major wars include: 6 Day War & Yom Kippur War Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan =Muslim controlled Afghanistan maintained a position of nonalignment in the Cold War until 1978, when the pro-Soviet coup dragged the country into civil war Soviets led a coup and installed Babrak Karmal as president (unpopular move) 9 Year Battle: US, Iran, China, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan back the Afghan Islamic warriors UN called for a cease-fire, Soviets withdrew in 1989, though fighting continued until 1992 Because of the political instability in the region, the Taliban gained control in 1994
  4. 4. Islamic Fundamentalism =extreme movement to replace secular states with Islamic ones increased in popularity because of opposition to westernization LIBYA- Muammar al-Qaddafi- gained power by a coup (1969), Islamic gov., led revolutionary groups to spread Islamic beliefs IRAN- (1979) Ayatollah Khomeini led an Islamic fundamentalists in a coup, gained control of the ailing (sick) shah, instituted an Islamic republic TURKEY- Kemal Ataturk, Islamic fundamentalists had influence in political parties Armenian Genocide =the massive and deliberate killing of Armenian civilians by the Ottoman Turks As the Ottomans attempted to reform society in the hope of preventing the empire’s collapse, nationalism increased With an increase in nationalism, the government, which historically had been tolerant of the many religious and ethnic group living in the empire, began to distrust its citizens In the 1890s, the Turks targeted Christian Armenians, believing that they were supportive of Russia and no longer loyal to the empire Genocide ensued, and millions of Armenians were killed over a 25 year period Intifada =”uprising,” part of the Arab-Israeli conflict (struggle for control of Israel) that occurred when the UN created Israel from lands claimed by Palestinians 1 st intifada- launched in 1987 by young Palestinians, included attacking Israeli soldiers and civilizations with homemade bombs and rocks, last 6 years Crackdown on violence by the Israeli government only fueled further conflict, including the use of suicide bombing 2 nd intifada- started in 2000, and lasted about 5 years, a time that saw little movement toward peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab Nationalism =Former Arab colonies easily gained independence from their mother countries post- World War 2 A key goal was the creation/political unification of the Arab world (a geographic region with language, culture, and history in common). These new Arab nations included: Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Jordan PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization)- formed in 1967, extreme nationalists formed the PLO in an effort to combat the Jewish state (Jews coming back to the homeland) Persian Gulf War (1991) = Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and took control of its oil fields US response- response was initially a trade embargo because they saw this as a threat to the flow of oil and to Saudi Arabia Middle Eastern nations pitted themselves against each other Hussein refused to withdraw his troops; the Persian Gulf War began and quickly ended after Kuwait was liberated and Hussein withdrew