French revolution & napoleon


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French revolution & napoleon

  1. 1. The French Revolution & Napoleon 1789-1815 (Chapter 23)
  2. 2. Section 1: French Revolution Begins
  3. 3. Lady Gaga’s French Revolution Intro
  4. 4. What was France like in the 1770’s?  OLD REGIME= the social and political system of France  Under this system, the people of France were divided into social classes, or ESTATES
  5. 5. Social Class: The Privileged Estates  First 2 estates  privileged  Privileges:  High offices  Exempt from paying taxes  Didn’t like Enlightenment ideas- threatened their power  First Estate= Roman Catholic Church  Owned 10% of land in France  Second Estate= Rich nobles  2% of the population  Owned 20% of the land
  6. 6. The Third Estate
  7. 7. Wife Swap: French Estates
  8. 8. Enlightenment Ideas:  New ideas of power and authority  Third Estate was inspired by American Revolution  Questioned the structure of society and what government should be
  9. 9. Economic Troubles  By 1780s, France’s economy was declining…  Burden of taxes  Cost of living was rising  Bad weather  crop failure (shortage of grain)  price of bread doubled starvation
  10. 10. Bread Riots
  11. 11. Weak Leaders Louis 16th (XVI) Marie Antoinette •Inherited debt from previous kings •Borrowed $ in order to help Americans in revolutionaries in the war against Britain (France’s chief rival) •Lacked ability to make decisions •Cared little about government affairs •Interfered often in politics and would give bad advice •Member of the royal family of Austria (enemy of France) and wasn’t popular •Spent larges amounts of $ (nicknamed, “Madame Deficit”)
  12. 12. Cribs: Louis XVI
  13. 13. Estates-General  When Louis tried to raise taxes on the nobility, the Second Estate formed him to call a meeting of the ESTATES-GENERAL to approve the tax  =an assembly of representatives from all 3 estates  First meeting in 175 years  Met at Versailles, May 5, 1789
  14. 14. The National Assembly  Medieval Estates-General  everyone gets one vote from each estate  Problem: 3rd Estate felt that they were not represented  Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes= clergymen who suggested the 3rd estate should assembly their own NATIONAL ASSEMBLY and pass laws for France
  15. 15. Tennis Court Oath  Arrived at the Estates- General and they were locked out- broke down a door to an INDOOR TENNIS COURT  Stayed till they drew up a new constitution  TENNIS COURT OATH= pledge of the National Assembly
  16. 16. Storming the Bastille  Rumors started that Louis was going to use military force to dismiss the National Assembly AND that foreigners were coming to attack Paris  July 14 (Bastille Day)- mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed the BASTILLE (Paris prison)  Hacked the prison commander and several guards- putting their heads on pikes and taking them around town  SYMBOLIC- revolution of France
  17. 17. Bastille
  18. 18. Bastille Day
  19. 19. Great Fear  Great Fear= wave of panic  Armed with pitchforks & farming tools  Broke into nobles’ manors and houses and destroyed documents that bound the to pay feudal dues  Women rioted over rising prices of BREAD and marched on Versailles  Next, they went after the King and Queen- broke into palace, killing guards, demanded they leave Versailles and return to Paris- they did
  20. 20. Section 2: Revolution, Reform & Terror Main Idea: The revolutionary government of France made reforms but also used terror and violence to retain power Why it matters? Some governments that lack support of a majority of their people still use fear to control their citizens
  21. 21. The Assembly Reforms France  1789  Most likely motivated by fear, some nobles joined the National Assembly  What they did? Got rid of the First & Second Estates the Old Regime was dead
  22. 22. The Rights of Man  National Assembly adopted the Rights of Man and of the Citizen= a statement of revolutionary ideas, that reflected the Declaration of Independence  “life, liberty, property, security, resis tance to oppression…”  Slogan- “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”  Women tried to declare the “rights of women,” but they were rejected, saw as enemies of the Revolution and some were even executed.
  23. 23. A State-Controlled Church
  24. 24. Louis Tries to Escape
  25. 25. Divisions Develop  Limited Monarchy was created by the new constitution  Stripped the king of his authority, but he still held the executive power to enforce laws  Legislative Assembly= created laws and to approve or reject declarations of war
  26. 26. Factions Split France Radicals (Left winged) Moderates (Centrists) Conservatives (Right winged) Extreme change Want some change Few changes Emigres San-Culottes Nobles and others who had fled France who wanted to restore the Old Regime “those without knee breeches” (aka regular trousers)
  27. 27. War & Execution (Page 658-660) France at War •Who attacked France? •Why did they attack France? •What are the September Massacres? •What is the National Convention? Jacobins Take Control •Who are the Jacobins? •Who is Jean Paul Marat? •What power did Louis have under the Jacobins? •How did Louis die? Guillotine= The War Continues What was the extreme step the Jacobins took to increase their army size?
  28. 28. Guillotine
  29. 29. Terror Grips France  Jacobins had many enemies: peasants, foreigners, church leaders  Maximilien Robespierre= Jacobin leader, governed as a dictator  Set out to build a “ republic of virtue” by wiping out every trace of France’s past  Reign of Terror= period of Robespierre’s rule  “enemies” were tried and guillotined  Enemies went against Robespierre, radicals  Justified that he was returning France to a virtuous state  Famous victims: George Danton (member of National Convention), Marie Antoinette  40,000 killed during the reign of terror
  30. 30. Robespierre
  31. 31. Marie’s Execution
  32. 32. Marat & Marie Antoinette’s Death
  33. 33. End of Terror  Fearing for their own safety, many turned on Robespierre- he was guillotined New Government:  Power went to the upper middle class  2 house legislative and an executive body of 5 men (Directory)
  34. 34. Homework: Chaper 23:3 (Napoleon Forges an Empire
  35. 35. Section 3: REVIEW  Napoleon
  36. 36. Napoleon Music Video
  37. 37. Historical Misconception: Napoleon is short?  After his death, he was measured 5’2 according to French height, which would’ve made him 5’6 according to British standard
  38. 38. Napoleon Bonaparte  Coup d’Etat (“blow to the state”)  Plebiscite  Lycees  Concordat  Napoleonic Code  Crowned as Emperor
  39. 39. Napoleon’s Cout d’Etat (Blow to the State) Speech
  40. 40. Napoleon’s Empire Napoleon’s Empire American Colonies Europe Battle of Trafalgar French Empire
  41. 41. Louisiana Purchase
  42. 42. Section 4: Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Main Idea: Napoleon’s conquests aroused nationalistic feelings across Europe and contributed to his downfall Why it matters? In the 1990s, nationalistic feelings contributed to the breakup of nations such as Yugoslavia
  43. 43. Napoleon’s 3 Mistakes
  44. 44. Mistake #1: The Continental System
  45. 45. Mistake #2: The Peninsular War (1/2)  Why did it start? Napoleon attempted to force Portugal to accept the Continental System, by sending an invasion force through Spain  Result:  Napoleon removed the Spanish king and put his brother in charge  Spanish people felt more nationalism and fought back  Spanish worried that the French would weaken the Catholic Church because of what they saw in the French Revolution
  46. 46. Mistake #2: The Peninsular War (2/2)  Peninsular War= named because Spain lies on the Iberian Peninsula  How long? 6 years  Guerillas= Spanish peasant fighters, worked in small groups and ambushed French troops while hiding  British sent aid to the Spanish  Napoleon lost 300,000 men  Lesson learned  Nationalism can win wars
  47. 47. Mistake #3: The Invasion of Russia-1812 (1/2) Why did it start? The Russian czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain AND both Russia and France had competing claims on Poland  Start of Invasion:  Napoleon invaded with 420,000 troops  Alexander retreated  While the Russian retreated, they used the  SCORCHED-EARTH POLICY, leaving nothing for the French to eat
  48. 48. Israel 2009: Scorched-Earth Policy
  49. 49. Mistake #3: The Invasion of Russia-1812 (2/2)
  50. 50. Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia
  51. 51. Napoleon’s Downfall
  52. 52. Napoleon Suffers Defeat  Napoleon was able to raise another army  Problem: his army was untrained and ill prepared for battle  All the allies against France, team up and easily defeated Napoleon  Russia & Prussia’s leaders led a victory parade through Paris  Napoleon wanted to fight on, but his generals did not  Napoleon was banished to Elba (a tiny island off the coast of Italy)
  53. 53. Count of Monte Cristo: Meet Napoleon
  54. 54. 100 Days (1/2)  Many Frenchmen thought the new king (Louis XVIII) wanted to do some of the French Revolution’s progress  Napoleon escaped from Elba and received by joyous crowds who marched him to Paris  Within days, Napoleon was the emperor of France
  55. 55. Return from Elba
  56. 56. 100 Days (2/2)  In response, European allies gathered an army and prepared for a Battle at Waterloo (village of Belgium)  French vs. British (Duke of Wellington) & Prussia  Result: after a few days, the French had to retreat 100 Days= Napoleon last effort for power, disposing the king and becoming emperor
  57. 57. End of Napoleon
  58. 58. Eiffel Tower
  59. 59. Section 5: Congress of Vienna Main Idea: After exiling Napoleon, European leaders at the Congress of Vienna tried to restore order and reestablish peace Why it matters now? International bodies such as the United Nations plays an active role in trying to maintain world peace and stability today
  60. 60. Congress of Vienna
  61. 61. Prince Klemens von Metternich
  62. 62. Metternich’s Plan for Europe Metternich’s Plan Balance of Power Containment of France Legitimacy •Didn’t want to leave France powerless •Afraid if they split France up than other Powers would do what France did •Made countries around France stronger How? Some united, some Were recognized as Independent countries = those who had lost Power under Napoleon Should be restored to power Was it a success? YES 1. For the first time, the nations of an entire continent had cooperated to control political affairs 2. Did not lead to a future war 3. Balance of Power/allies formed 4. Time of peace in Europe
  63. 63. Political Changes AFTER Vienna Conservative Europe •Many were worried about the French Revolution spreading •HOLY ALLIANCE= signed agreement between Kings of Prussia and Austria, pledging to relations with other Christian nations •CONCERT OF EUROPE= series of alliances formed by Metternich, ensuring that nation’s would protect each other •Despite their best efforts, the French Revolution had made it’s impact and given Europe it’s first dose of democracy
  64. 64. Revolutions in Latin America
  65. 65. Long-Term Legacy of the Congress of Vienna 1. Diminished the power of France, increased the power of Britain and Prussia 2. Nationalism spread (some exploding into revolutions, leading to new nations forming) 3. Many colonies broke off from Europeans 4. More people saw democracy as the best way to ensure equality and justice for all
  66. 66. What are the lessons learned through the French Revolution???
  67. 67. Freedom Peace Courage