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Democracy in latin america
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Democracy in latin america

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  • 1. Ch 35:1 Democracy: Latin American Democracies
  • 2. Democracy  = government by the people  Direct Democracy= all citizens meet to pass laws  Indirect Democracy (republics) = citizens elect representatives to make laws for them
  • 3. Democracy Animation
  • 4. What is Democracy???
  • 5. Democracy As a Goal  To make a democracy work…  People have to participate in the government  People need to tools to make decisions (be able to read and write)  A stable economy  Belief in the rights of the individuals  Laws that prevent others from abusing power  National identity
  • 6. Case Study: Brazil  1822- Brazil becomes a MONARCHY  1889- Brazil becomes a REPUBLIC  GETULIO VARGAS= 1930’s, dictator of Brazil, suppressed political opposition, promoted economic growth  Brazil became a MODERN COUNTRY
  • 7. Kubitcheck’s Ambitious Program:  JUSCELINO KUBITCHECK= 1956-1961, continued to develop economy, encouraged foreign investment to pay for development projects (Brasilia)  2 Reforms:  1. BRASILIA= new capital to be built in the country’ interior  Result Foreign debt soared, inflation  2. LAND REFORM  give large estates of land to peasants  Result 1964, with the help of the wealthy Brazilians, the army seized power in a military coup
  • 8. Brasilia: A Modern Capital
  • 9. Military Dictators  Military dictators ruled for 2o years Positives Negatives •Foreign investment •Development projects in Amazon brought in large amounts of $$$ •Economy boomed •Cut back on social issues •STANDARD of LIVING( (level of material comfort) deceased •Imposed censorship •Jailed, tortured and sometimes killed government critics
  • 10. Road to Democracy (1/3)  1980’s- RECESSION (slow down in the economy)  Result  the generals decided to open up the political system, allowed direct elections of local, state and national officials
  • 11. Road to Democracy (2/3)  1985- JOSE SARNEY- president  Inherited a country full of problems (foreign debt and inflation)  Lost support when he couldn’t solve the nation’s problems
  • 12. Road to Democracy (3/3)  1994-1998- FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO  Advocate of free markets  Concerned with the widening gap between rich and poor  Promoted economic reform
  • 13. 2002 Presidential Election  2002- JOSE SERRA vs LULA DA SILVA (Silva won)  2006- DA SILVA won again
  • 14. Changes of Brazil Under Lula
  • 15. Case Study: Mexico  One-Party Rule  1917- after the Mexican Revolution, government passed the Constitution (democracy and promised reformed)
  • 16. Beginnings of One-Party Domination  1920-1934- Mexico elected several generals as presidents  NATIONAL REVOLUTIONARY PARTY= generals created a ruling party  1934-1940- President LAZARO CARDENAS  Tried to improve life for peasants and workers  Land reforms and labor rights  Nationalized the Mexican oil industry (kicked out foreign oil companies)
  • 17. The Party Becomes the PRI  PRI= Institutional Revolutionary Party, started in 1946,  Controlled the congress and won every political election PROBLEMS Foreign debt Lacking land and jobs Suffered economic problem 1. Protestors gathered at an Aztec market  soldiers opened fire on protestors 2. 1980’s- oil discovered in Mexico 1981- oil prices around the world fell, cutting Mexico’s oil revenue in half
  • 18. Economic & Political Crises  1988- CARLOS SALINAS won the presidency  Salinas signed NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)  What did NAFTA do?  Removed trade barriers between Mexico, the US and Canada
  • 19. The PRI Loses Control  After a presidential candidate was assassinated, many Mexicans thought there was no chance of democracy  1994- ERNESTO ZEDILLO elected  2000- Mexican voters ended 71 years of PRI rule
  • 20. New Policies & Programs  2000-VICENTE FOX  2006- FELIPE CALDERON  Both wanted:  Reformed the police  Rooting out political corruption  Free market  Wanted the US to legalize the status of millions of illegal Mexican immigrant workers
  • 21. Modern Mexico
  • 22. Case Study: Argentina (1/2)  Peron Rules Argentina:  Major Exports: Grain & Beef  Industrial Nation with a large working class  1946- Argentine workers supported an army officer, JUAN PERONestablished a dictatorship
  • 23. Peron Rules Argentina (2/2)  EVA PERON- aka EVITA, supported husband, gave advice  PERONS- offered social programs with popular appeal  After Eva died, Peron’s popularity declined  Peron’s enemies- the military and the Catholic Churchmoved in on him  Military ousted Peron and drove him into exile
  • 24. Evita Trailer
  • 25. Evita Peron (1919-1952)
  • 26. Evita: Behind the Scenes
  • 27. Evita: Funeral
  • 28. Evita: A National Icon
  • 29. Repression in Argentina  For many years, the military controlled Argentine politics  1973- Peron returned and ruled for 1 year before he died  1976- Generals seized power again  1980’s-torture and murder were everyday events
  • 30. Democracy & the Economy  1982- Argentine government     went to war with Britain over the nearby Falkland Islands and suffered a defeat 1983- RAUL ALFONSINpresident in the country’s first free election in 37 years 1989- CARLOS MENEM 2002- Argentina had an employment rate of 24% 2006- Argentina repaid debt (to IMF- International Monetary Fund)