China reject european outreach
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  • 1. China Rejects European Outreach Chapter 19: Section 2
  • 2. You Decide How to Take Notes: Suggestions: PERSIA notes Having your paper in 2 columns (one for Ming and one for Qing)
  • 3. China Rejects European Outreach  Main Idea: Advances under the Ming and Qing dynasties left China self-contained and uninterested in European contact  Why it matters now? China’s independence from the West continues today, even as it forges new economic ties with the outside world
  • 4. Setting the Stage  Europeans made profits in the Indian Ocean Trade  Europeans were looking for additional sources of wealth  China  By the times that westerners arrived in the 1500’s, China had driven out the Mongols and were united under the Ming Dynasty
  • 5. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)  1514: Portuguese arrived in China  Tributes paid to China: Korea and Southeast Asia  Chinese expected the Europeans to pay tribute as well  Ming rulers would not allow Europeans to destroy the peace that they fought to get from the Mongols
  • 6. The Rise of the Ming  Hongwu= son of a peasant, commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of China (1368), first emperor of the Ming Dynasty  1. Hongwu tried to restore     China’s land and destroy traces of Mongol past 2. Encouraged: rice production, improved irrigation, fish farming, commercial crops (cotton and sugar cane) 3. respected traditions (Confucian standards) 4. Restored civil service tests 5. Ruthless tyrant (began
  • 7. Yonglo  Power struggle after Hongwu’s death  = son of Hongwu, continued his father’s policies, moved royal court to Beijing  Curiosity of the outside world  He launched the first of seven voyages of exploration  Zheng He= Chinese
  • 8. Voyages of Zheng He  Voyages were remarkable because…  Distance traveled  Size of fleet (40-300 ships)  Size of the ships themselves (440 feet “treasure ships”)  First voyages  Southeast Asia and India  Later voyages  Arabia and eastern Africa  Why? Wanted to impress the world with the power and splendor of Ming China, distributed gifts as he went  Result: 16 countries started to pay tribute to Ming, increase of travel to China
  • 9. Ming Relations with Foreign Countries  Ming’s trade policy in     1500s: ISOLATION Only used 3 seaports Merchants would smuggle things out to Europe (Europeans paid for it with silver discovered in Americas) DEMAND for Chinese goods INCREASED Manufacturing and commerce increased
  • 10. China’s Industry:  China did NOT become industrial for 2 reasons:  1. Idea of commerce offended China’s Confucian beliefs  2. China’s economic policies traditionally favored agriculture
  • 11. Foreign Missionaries:  With European traders came Christian missionaries  Missionaries brought Christianity AND inventions like clock and the prism  Matteo Ricci= Italian Jesuit missionary, gained favor in the Ming court by his intelligence and his ability to speak and write Chinese
  • 12. Qing Dynasty  After 200 years, Ming weakened  Why? Ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, government out of money, peasants were starving, rebellions followed  Manchus (from Manchuria) invaded China, Ming could not repel the invasion  Manchus took a Chinese name for they dynasty (like the Mongols did- Yuan Dyansty)  Qing  Qing Dynasty brought in Taiwan, Central Asia, Mongolia
  • 13. China under the Qing Dynasty  Many Chinese resisted control from a nonChinese dynasty  Manchus forced Chinese to wear hair in pigtails as a form of submission (this is just funny, you can’t make this stuff up)  What did they do?  Upheld Chinese Confucian beliefs  Made frontier and borders safe  Slowly gained respect by
  • 14. Kangxi  = became emperor in 1661, ruled for 60 years  Reduced government (decentralized) expenses and lowered taxes  Liked the Jesuits (informed him on their latest developments in science, medicine and mathematics in Europe)
  • 15. Qian-long  = Kangxi’s grandson, 17361795, China reached its greatest size and prosperity  Problems he faced: nomads at borders, Christian missionaries, European merchants
  • 16. Manchus: Policy of Isolation  If others wanted to trade with China, they had to follow their rules  Dutch, masters of the Indian Ocean Trade, paid tribute to China, performed “kowtow” ritual  “Kowtow”= kneeling in front of emperor and touch their head to the ground 9 times  Dutch returned home with: porcelain, silk, TEA (China’s highly prized new trade item, made up 80% of shipments to Europe)
  • 17. Britain and China  Britain wanted to trade with China, didn’t like Chinese trade restrictions  1793, British invasion led by Lord George Macarney, delivered a letter from King George 3 to Qianlong  What did the letter say? Asked for a better trade arrangement, Chinese needed to accept British goods  Macarney refused to kowtow
  • 18. Letter from Qian-long to King George  “…There is nothing we lack, as your principal envoy and others have themselves observed. We have never set much store on strange or ingenious objects, nor do we need any more of your country’s manufactures.”
  • 19. Korea under the Manchus  Korea had adopted China’s technology, culture, and it’s policy of isolation  Korea had been conquered by Manchus, had to pay tribute  When Qing Dynasty was established, Korea’s relationship with China did not change, if anything, it grew stronger (Korea was China’s “little brother”)  Korea nationalism increased with Manchus invasion
  • 20. Daily Life in Ming and Qing  Devotion to agriculture (rice production)  Population doubled (reached 300 million in 1800)
  • 21. Family and the Role of Women  Most farmed the land (just like their ancestors did for centuries)  AdvancementsIrrigation, fertilizer, food production, nutrition and diet, families and populations exploded  New Crops- corn, sweet potatoes (brought by
  • 22. Son vs. Daughters  Favored sons over daughters  Only son could carry on vital religious rituals  Son raised his own families under his parent’s roof  Many female infants were killed  Women: worked in fields, raised children, managed finances  Most women were secluded in the homes, few found jobs outside like midwives or textile workers
  • 23. Cultural Developments  Conservative China was effected by: Manchu invasion, Europeans, population growth  Art- traditional style (valued technique over creativity)  Pottery- technical styles, porcelain  Drama- popular in rural areas where literacy rates were low, were plays that presented Chinese history and cultural heroes  Purpose of plays: 1. entertain 2. created