Ap middle eastreviewnotes


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Ap middle eastreviewnotes

  1. 1. AP Middle East Review 1. Early Middle East I. Mesopotamia ● Means the land between two rivers ● Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Fertile Crescent) ● Many important civilizations formed in this area II. Sumerian Civilization ● 3000 BC city-states developed ● They all shared common characteristics ● Constant fighting led to political instability ● Extensive trade with Egypt and the Indus Valley III. Sumerian Government, Religion & Society 1. Government was a theocracy when priests or religious rulers govern society. 2. Were polytheistic and had 3000 gods 3. Woman were inferior to men, wore veils 4. Priests had political power 5. Social Structure: 1. Ruler 2. Nobles 3. Priests 4. Commoners 5. Farmers 6. Slaves IV. Sumerian Jobs & Achievements ● Job specialization: merchants, artisans, and scribes ● Created a number system based on 60. ● Developed astronomy, algebra & geometry ● Created the wheel and schools ● Early use of bronze tools, chariots ● Created cuneiform is the earliest form of writing ● The Epic of Gilgamesh V. Art & Architecture ● Created Ziggurats: temples built for the gods to bring the people closer to the gods VI. The Fall of Sumer ● The Sumerian civilization was weakened severely by Saragon of Akkad. ● Saragon created the world’s first major empire (The Akkadians) VII. Babylonian Empire ● Around 1792 BCE Hammurabi created the Babylonian Empire. ● Hammurabi created the first law code based on an “eye for an eye” ● The punishment fit the crime and was based on social rank and gender ● Ex. If a nobleman puts out another nobleman’s eye, his eye shall be put out. ● Ex. If a slave put out a nobleman’s eye, the slave shall be put to death. ● slaves were considered property ● innocent until proven guilty VIII. Nebuchadnezzar II ● From 1500 BCE until 610 BCE Mesopotamia was divided. ● The Chaldeans reunited Mesopotamia
  2. 2. ● Nebuchadnezzar II became the new king of the Neo-Babylonians in 610 BCE ● He destroyed Jerusalem and exiled the most prominent Jews ● He also built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife ● After Nebuchadnezzar’s death Babylon was ruled by weak rulers. ● Babylon fell to Cyrus the Great of Persia. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Middle East Civilizations I. The Hittites Years: 1700 – 1200 BCE ● Assimilated Sumerian culture ● Warriors that used iron weapons ● polytheistic and adopted gods from Sumer and Babylon II. The Assyrians Years: 911-612 BCE a. Created a world empire b. iron weapons c. used cavalry d. Created longitude & latitude e. Helped spread cultural diffusion f. Polytheistic: Adapted religion from Sumerians III. The Chaldeans Years: 626 – 539 BCE a. Ruled by Nebuchadnezzar b. Known as the Neo-Babylonians c. Built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon d. Polytheistic IV The Persians Years: 530 – 331 BCE ● Empire stretched from Libya to Turkey in the east and to India in the west ● postal system and a network of roads ● Ruled with satraps: governors of areas that ruled in the emperor's name ● The empire fell to Alexander the Great a. Zoroastrianism: preached monotheism b. Religion is tolerant of other faiths c. Zoroaster convinced king to convert d. Was not a widespread religion V. The Hebrews Years: ca. 2000 BCE a. known as Israelites or Jews b. Practiced monotheism c. Enslaved by Egypt 1400- 1200 BCE d. Moses led the Exodus of the Jews out of Egypt e. Received the 10 Commandments 1. Judaism and Monotheistic 2. Judaism is the basis for Christianity & Islam
  3. 3. VI The Phoenicians Years 1200 – 800 BCE a. skilled traders & sailors that migrated throughout the Mediterranean b. Known as the “carriers of civilization” because they spread people, goods and ideas to their numerous colonies c. Their economy prospered due to extensive trade d. Created the world's first alphabet VII The Lydians Years: 600- 500 BCE 1. First metal coinage & portable currency _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. UMYYADS & ABBASIDS VI. Umayyads i. 656-661 Ali had become the fourth caliph ii. He was assassinated iii. 661 Mu'awiyah becomes new caliph iv. Umayyads rule all of Arabia v. Move capital from Mecca to Damascus vi. This caused a permanent shift is Islam a. Shi’a: only follow Ali and his descendants b. Sunni: Follow all caliphates i. Umayyads: tax the mawali ii. They could not serve in army or in government iii. Dome of the Rock is built iv. Allow for religious toleration with Jews and Christians VII. Decline i. Luxurious living for the caliphates ii. Revolts began iii. Civil wars between Shi’a and Sunni iv. Abbasids take over in 750 VIII. Differences between Sunnis and Shia’s SUNNI MUSLIMS SHIA MUSLIMS 90 % of all Muslims 10 % of Muslims Sunni comes from “Sunnah” means the custom or “way of the prophet Shi’a comes from shi’at’ ali Which means partisans of Ali Will recognize all caliphates Will not recognize all caliphates, only followers of Ali Less emphasis on imams Imam means spiritual “leader” For the shia, only imams can interpret the Qur’an
  4. 4. Both interpret the Qur'an differently Shi’a idealize suffering and martyrdom Ashura is a Shi’a tradition and it marks the anniversary of the martyrdom of Husayn Further Division ● split between Sunni, Shia has remained bitter ● Third group developed within Islam—the Sufis ● Sufis seek mystical, personal connection with God, using range of practices including breath control and meditation in rituals IX. Abbasids 1. Take over in 750 CE led by Abu Abbas and the Shi’a 2. Good administrators, efficient bureaucracy 3. 762 CE move the capital to Baghdad 4. Large and growing population 5. Cities were urban centers 6. Merchants traded with Africa, Russia and India 7. Supported the integration of the mawali 8. Actively supported conquered areas to convert to Islam 9. Abbasids invited all to join in, turned Islam into universal religion, attracted people of many cultures X. Women in the Abbasid Dynasty a. Beginning of Islam women had rights b. They could inherit property, own business, divorce men, get an education c. By the late 7th century male dominance was enforced by the Qur’an d. Abbasids create the use of the veil and the harem e. Wives of caliphs were concubines kept in secluded quarters f. Women were always chaperoned XI. Achievementsof the Abbasid i. Golden Age of Islam began in 750 and lasted until ca. 1400 ii. Mawali became integrated into the empire, no special taxes, worked in gov’t iii. Creation of universities of Cordoba and Baghdad iv. Literature: 1001 Arabian Nights v. Traded with numerous countries vi. Used Steel swords and a credit based economy vii. Advances in arts, sciences, medicine and math viii. Al-Razi treated diseases: small pox and measles ix. Influenced by Western culture XII. Decline 1. Mid 9th century 2. Empire became too big to control 3. Many civil wars 4. Peasants rebellions 5. Empire became divided into separate states 6. Mongols invaded from Asia 7. The empire fell in 1258
  5. 5. XIII. al-Andalus ● 711 CE: Berbers (peoples from North Africa) conquer Iberian Peninsula ● Al-Andalus refers to the areas on the Iberian Peninsula (Spain & Portugal) governed by the Muslims (known as Moors) ● Failed expansion into Europe 732 CE ● capital at Cordoba ● preserved Greco-Roman traditions + blended them with new advances from the Muslim world XIV. Mamluk Dynasty ● 13th century: Mamluks (slaves turned soldiers) establish control over Egypt after fall of Abbasids ● Mamluks: converts to Islam, strict observance of Islam ● Maintained trade routes through Egypt 4 Origins of Islam I. Arabian Peninsula a. Harsh desert b. Bedouins: nomads that herded camels and goats c. Clans were the basis of society d. Led by Sheikh: the patriarch of a tribe or family e. Strife and rivalry between clans II. Muhammad a. Born 570 CE in Mecca a leading commercial center b. Founder of Islam c. 610 has his first revelation, met an angel Gabriel d. considered a prophet of God III. Mecca to Medina a. In Mecca he was seen as a threat b. Muhammad’s flight from Mecca and to Medina in 622 called the Hijra c. Organizes the umma: Islamic communities that accept him as a messenger d. 629 mawali: non-Arab converts to Islam e. 630 makes trip back to Mecca f. 632 dies without a successor...But all of Arabia is under Muslim control IV. Beliefs of Islam a. Monotheistic b. Allah the one true god c. Koran or Quran the Islamic holy book d. Shariah: The code of law based on the Koran. e. Five Pillars of Islam: Faith in Allah, Prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca, Fasting: daylight hours of Ramadan, Give Alms: charity and the Hajj: one pilgrimage to Mecca during lifetime V. After Muhammad’s Death i. 632: Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or successor of Muhammad ii. 634 Arabia under the caliph’s control
  6. 6. iii. Caliph was a spiritual leader of Islam iv. Issue of succession caused division 1. Ottoman Empire I. Rise of the Ottoman Empire ○ Migrated to Asia Minor (Turkey) late 1200s. ○ Ottomans were vassals of the Seljuk Turks, ○ Ottoman state created by Osman I in 1280 ○ GOVERNMENT: run by the sultan. ○ ministers were viziers, or high ranking officials ○ Ulema are Muslim scholars of Islamic studies. II Ottoman Military ○ Gunpowder Empire, artillery, or cannons into their armies + ships. ○ Janissaries were recruited at childhood from conquered Christian communities. ○ Converted to Islam and loyal to the sultan. ○ Received training as modern infantry and gunpowder III Ottoman Military Conquests ○ Conquered Balkans late 1300s ○ Navies gained hegemony over the eastern Mediterranean. ○ Destruction of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. ○ New capital, Istanbul. ○ Selim I: 1. North Africa +conquered Egypt. 2. Controlled of important coastal ports in Tripoli, Tunis and Algiers. ○ Suleiman I: 1. Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566). 2. Attacked territories of Romania, Hungary, and Austria’s Holy Roman Empire. 3. Known as the Lawgiver 4. He also supported religious tolerance 5. Was responsible for a Golden Age IV. Women in the Ottoman Empire ○ Queen mother ran the household and had diplomatic relations with foreign officials. ○ Right to own property and retain property after marriage. ○ Women also bought and sold real estate V Religion and Politics 1. Ottomans ruled Sunni + Shiite Muslims 2. Governed Jews, Orthodox Christians, Catholic and Protestants. 3. No equal rights 4. Pay a special head tax. 5. Millet administrative unit for each religious group 6. Sultan position was hereditary 7. Concubines lived in a sacred place known as a harem.
  7. 7. VI Fall of the Empire ○ The sultans since Suleiman were men of little ability, and poorly trained. ○ Trade routes no longer as important for Europe ○ Big population, less controllable ○ The sick man of Europe. ○ WWI Marked the end of the Ottoman Empire 6. The Safavid Empire VII. The Beginning of the Safavid ○ Safi al-Din Sufi mystic from Iran ○ followed the Shi’a branch of Islam ○ Always in conflict with the Ottomans (Sunni Muslims) ○ Redhead army for wearing red headgear VIII. The Safavid Dynasty ● Shah Isma’il I became ruler at 14 years old ● founded the Safavid Dynasty in 1502 ● Killed thousands of Sunni Muslims for not converting ● Constantly at war with the Ottomans ● Shah Abbas the Great ○ Golden Age in 1587 ○ Reformed government, military and civilian life. ○ Armies had modern artillery. ○ Religious toleration ○ Established relations with Europe. ○ Opened empire to other cultures IX. Decline of the Safavids ■ Abbas killed and blinded his sons ■ weak leaders allowed attacks from outsiders ■ Grandson Safi was incompetent ■ Nadir Shah Afshar a Sunni came to rule ■ Assassinated by his own men in 1747 ■ Created a legacy based on Persian culture ■ Left Shi’ism as the staple religion in the region 7. The Mughal X. India after the Gupta ○ Gupta Empire fell in 550
  8. 8. ○ India then made up of local kingdoms ○ Trade linked India to China and Middle East ○ Delhi Sultanate ruled from 1206-1526 ○ Delhi were Muslims who ruled in north India ○ Sultan was the ruler, and was religiously tolerant XI. Mughal ■ 1526 Babur conquers Delhi ■ Set up the Mughal Empire 1526- 1857 ■ Babur: ■ Great military leader ■ Weak administrator ■ Expanded to the Indus and Ganges plains ■ Akbar a.k.a Akbar the Great ■ Babur’s grandson ■ 1556-1605 ■ Military leader and great administrator ■ Blended Hindu and Islamic religions called Divine Faith ■ religious toleration ■ Opened up all jobs to Hindus ■ Ended tax on non-Muslims ■ Modernized the army and reforms ■ Gave women more rights XII. Successors of Akbar ○ Jahangir weak ruler but loved art and music ○ Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal ○ He too was weak, hated military. Loved arts and architecture XIII. Internal revolt ○ 1600s Aurangzeb rules ○ Persecutes Hindus ○ Heavy taxes on non-Muslims ○ peasants revolt ○ Rulers not focused on internal affairs ○ Conquering weakened the treasury ○ Refused to compete with European technology This ended the Mughal in 1857 8. Mustafa Kemal I. The Rise of Mustafa Kemal ● The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in WWI. ● After the loss, the empire fell apart ● The Greeks attempted to overtake Turkey ● Mustafa Kemal was nationalist leader of the Young Turks ● The Young Turks rose up to defeat the sultan and the Greeks in 1919 ● Kemal took the name Atatürk or “Father of the Turks” ● Became President of Turkey in 1923 II. Atatürk’s Reforms ● Turkey was predominantly Muslim ● Wanted to reform Turkey using Western ideas
  9. 9. ● He introduced western customs and clothes ● Western ideas in gov’t by creating a parliament ● Changed legal code from Islamic to Western ● Educational system became coeducational ● He gave women full social and political rights. ● He used ruthless actions to institute change in Turkey 9. OPEC & Terrorism III. Pan-Arabism ● Pan-Arabism is a nationalist movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ● Pan-Arabism is a form of cultural nationalism. I. OPEC 1. The Middle East controls two-thirds of the world’s oil reserves 2. In 1960, the Middle East united with a few other oil-exporting countries, like Venezuela, to form OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). 3. OPEC members countries have controlled the price of oil since 1960 II. The Persian Gulf War 1. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990 under Saddam Hussein 2. Iraq wanted to gain control of a greater percentage of the world’s oil reserves 3. The UN and U.S sent forces to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait 4. Kuwait was liberated and Iraq was humiliated 5. Iraq was then subjected to UN monitoring, severe limitations on its military activities and economic sanctions. 6. Hussein still remained in power 7. Hussein held on to his brutal dictatorship for another 10 years 8. 2005 Hussein was captured 9. Hussein was executed in December 2006 III. Taliban and Al Queda ● The Taliban formed in Afghanistan following the fall of the U.S.S.S ● They are a Islamic fundamentalist group ● The gov’t imposed strict Islamic law ● It was also a safe haven for Osama Bin Laden and his terrorist group Al Queda ● Al Queda despises the United States, Saudi Arabia and Israel ● Al Queda wants these countries removed to stop infecting Islamic culture ● On Sept. 11 2001, Al Queda operatives attacked the World Trade Center in NYC ● Al Queda also organized other attacks ● The U.S and UN targeted and removed the Taliban from power ● Al Queda in still a major terrorist threat