Age of Imperialism (Africa)


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Age of Imperialism (Africa)

  1. 1. AGE OF IMPERIALISM 1850-1914
  2. 2. SECTION 1: IMPERIALIST DIVIDE AFRICA  Main Idea: Ignoring the claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms and city-states, Europeans established colonial claims  Why it Matter Now? African nations continue to feel the effects of the colonial presence of 100 years ago
  3. 3. AFRICA BEFORE IMPERIALISM  Divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups  Some converted to Islam and Christianity  1,000 different languages  African armies were able to keep Europeans out for 400 years  Europeans stayed on the coast  Couldn’t navigate the rapid rivers until the steamboat
  4. 4. NATIONS COMPETE FOR OVERSEAS EMPIRES  Europeans and Americans learned about Africa through travel books and newspapers  Europeans who entered the interior:  explorers, missionaries and humanitarians who opposed the slave trade
  5. 5. THE CONGO SPARKS INTEREST  David Livingstone, traveled with Africans to find the source of the Nile, never heard from until 10 years later  Stanley found Livingstone  Stanley came back later and signed treaties with local chiefs of the Congo and the Congo came under Belgium rule
  6. 6. MOTIVES DRIVING IMPERIALISM  Imperialism= intent of dominating the political, economic and social life of the people of a particular nation  Industrial Revolution led to the need to add land and new markets  Economic competition  Technology  Racism  Social Darwinism= “survival of the fittest”  “Westernize” the foreigners
  7. 7. FORCES ENABLING IMPERIALISM Why were they able to “take over?”:  1. Europeans were technologically advanced  Maxim gun= 1889, world’s first automatic machine gun  2. Europeans could control their empire better  Steam engine, railroads, cables and steamers  3. Medicine invented  Quinine= malaria  4. Africans were not unified  languages
  8. 8. BERLIN CONFERENCE DIVIDES AFRICA  14 European nations met to avoid Europeans countries fighting over Africa= Berlin Conference (1884-1885)  No African ruler attended these meetings  Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free from European control
  9. 9. DEMAND FOR PRODUCT SHAPES COLONIES  Many believed that European goods would be bought in abundance by Africans- they weren’t  Great mineral sources in Africa  Gold and diamonds in South Africa
  10. 10. 3 GROUPS CLASH OVER SOUTH AFRICA  South Africa is a history of Africans (Zulu), Dutch (Boers) and British
  11. 11. ZULU EXPANSION  Local wars  Shaka= Zulu chief  Shaka used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state  Successors were unable to keep the kingdom against the British invaders and the Zulu land became part of British-controlled land
  12. 12. BOERS AND BRITISH SETTLE IN THE CAPE  Dutch came to the Cape of Good Hope to establish a way station for their ships  Boers= Dutch settlers, Dutch for “farmers,” took over native Africans’ land and established large farms  British settlers and Boers clashed over land and slaves  Boers moved north= Great Trek  Boers fought with Zulu and other African tribes whose land they were taking
  13. 13. BOER WAR  When diamonds and gold were discovered many rushed to South Africa  Boer War= British vs. Boers  First modern “total war”- raids, guerilla tactics against the British, British burned Boer farms and imprisoned women and children in disease-ridden concentration camps  Who won? Britain
  14. 14. SECTION 2: IMPERIALISM: CASE STUDY: NIGERIA  Main Idea: Europeans embarked on a new phase of empire-building that affected both Africa and the rest of the world  Why it Matters Now? ****Many former colonies have political problems that are the result of colonial rule***
  15. 15. COLONIAL CONTROL TAKES MANY FORMS  Europeans were determined to shape the economies of the lands to social lives of the people  Wanted the people to adopt European customs
  16. 16. FORMS OF COLONIAL CONTROL  1. Colony= a country or a region governed internally by a foreign power  2. Protectorate= a country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power  3. Sphere of Influence= an area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges  4. Economic Imperialism= independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interest rather than by other governments
  17. 17. PATTERNS OF IMPERIALIST MANAGEMENT  Indirect control- (Britain and US) relied on existing political rulers, goal is to develop future leaders  Direct control- (France) Africans couldn’t govern themselves  Paternalism= governed in a fatherly way, providing for their needs, but not giving them any rights  Assimilation= local populations absorbed into French culture
  18. 18. A BRITISH COLONY: NIGERIA  British swayed the group’s enemies to help fight the Africans  British claimed Nigeria for their palm-oil trade  Because of diversity in Nigeria it was too hard to control directly, so British ruled Nigeria indirectly
  19. 19. AFRICAN RESISTANCE  Some Africans tried to resist Europeans, but all but Ethiopia were unsuccessful
  20. 20. UNSUCCESSFUL MOVEMENTS  Maji Maji Rebellion: Germans vs. Africans  Africans believed in a “magic water” that would turn the German’s bullets into water  Germans mowed down Africans by the thousands
  21. 21. ETHIOPIA: A SUCCESSFUL RESISTANCE  Menelik 2: emperor of Ethiopia  Played the Europeans off each other  About to sign a treaty with Italy but he found a mistranslation in the treaty (giving Italy all of Ethiopia, not just a part) and declared war  Battle of Adowa: one of the greatest battles in the history of Africa, the Ethiopian forces defeated the Italians and maintained their nation’s independence
  22. 22. IMPACT OF COLONIAL RULE  Positive Impact: reduced local warfare, humanitarian efforts increased, life span increased, technology increased  Negative Impact: Africans lost land and independence, death from disease, traditional African cultures, politically divided
  23. 23. SECTION 3: MUSLIM LANDS FALL TO IMPERIALIST DEMANDS  Main Idea: European nations expanded their empires by seizing territories from Muslim states  Why it Matters Now? Political events in this vital resource area are still influenced by actions from the imperialistic period
  24. 24. OTTOMAN EMPIRE LOSES POWER  Ottomans have expanded but they weren’t able to hold back the European imperialist powers
  25. 25. REFORMS FAIL  Suleiman 1: last great Ottoman sultan died  Succession of weak sultans  Corruption financial losses  Ottomans fell further behind Europe  Selim 3: tried to modernize, but was overthrown  Lands Ottomans had conquered became very nationalist and fought for freedom
  26. 26. EUROPEANS GRAB TERRITORY  Geopolitics= interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products  World powers wanted certain locations  Ex: Russia wants access to Med. Sea through the Black Sea
  27. 27. RUSSIA AND THE CRIMEAN WAR  Crimean War: Russia vs. Ottoman Empire  Britain and France enter on side of Russia and defeat Ottomans  First War:  Women like Florence Nightingale, established positions as army nurses  To be covered by newspaper correspondents  Crimean War revealed weakness of Ottomans
  28. 28. EGYPT TRIES REFORM  Egypt and Rea Sea- strategic location  New leader: Muhammad Ali  Ottomans sent him to govern Egypt, but he broke away from control  He and his heirs became rulers of Egypt  Plantation cash crop= cotton  Isma’il- Muhammad’s grandson  Suez Canal= connected Red Sea and Med.  Egypt couldn’t pay debt, lost Canal to British  British occupied Egypt
  29. 29. PERSIA PRESSURED TO CHANGE  Russia and Britain compete to commercially exploit Persia  Persia, to gain economic prestige, granted concessions to western business to operate certain areas or products  (ie: oil in 1900’s)  Persian people did not like their leaders who tried to “westernize”  ie: riots over selling tobacco to the westerners
  30. 30. SECTION 4: BRITISH IMPERIALISM IN INDIA  Main Idea: As the Mughal Empire declined, Britain seized Indian territory until it controlled almost the whole subcontinent  Why it Matters Now? India, the second most populated nation in the world, has its political roots in this colony
  31. 31. SETTING THE STAGE  British had trading posts at Bombay, Madras and Calcutta (British East India Company)  Mughal Empire kept trading under control, but the Empire was now declining
  32. 32. BRITISH EXPAND CONTROL OVER INDIA  British took advantage of weak Mughals  Battle of Plassey victory over Indians, from that time on, East India Company was the leading power in India
  33. 33. EAST INDIA COMPANY DOMINATES  Easy India Company ruled India with little interference from British govt.  Company even had its own army  Led by British officers and staffed by sepoys, or Indian soldiers
  34. 34. “JEWEL IN THE CROWN”  Britain was going through Industrial Revolution and India supplied materials  “Jewel in the Crown”= the most valuable of all Britain’s colonies  Britain restricted India’s economy from operating on its own  India became valuable after railroad was established  Crops: tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, opium
  35. 35. IMPACT OF COLONIALISM  Positives:  Technology like, railroads, telephone, dams, bridges and irrigation canals allowed India to modernize  Sanitation and public health improved  Schools and colleges were founded, literacy increased  British troops ended local warfare  Negative:  British held most of the power, racism, restricted Indian industries
  36. 36. INDIANS REBEL  British tried to convert to Christianity  Indians resented racism by British  Sepoy Rebellion  Sepoys learned that the cartridges to their rifles were sealed with beef and pork fat (against religion)  Sepoys refused to use rifles and the British jailed all who wouldn’t obey  Sepoys rebelled and marched to Delhi (Sepoy Mutiny)  Both armies tried to slaughter each other  Took the East Company 1 year to control region again  Muslims and Hindus couldn’t unite to beat British
  37. 37. TURNING POINT  Result of Rebellion: British govt. took direct control of India, fueled racist attitude of British towards the Indians, increased distrust b/t British and Indians  Raj= referred to British rule over India from 1757-1947, divided India into 11 provinces
  38. 38. INDIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENTS BEGINS  Ram Mohun Roy= well educated Indian, “Father of Modern India,” wanted to modernize India and get them out of foreign rule  Nationalism- Indians didn’t like that they were second class citizens in their own country  Founded: Indian National Congress and Muslim League that called for self-government
  39. 39. SECTION 5: WESTERN POWERS RULE SOUTHEAST ASIA  Main Idea: Demand for Asian products drove Western imperialists to seek for possession of Southeast Asian lands  Why it Matters Now? Southeast Asian independence struggles in the 20th century have their roots in this period of imperialism
  40. 40. SETTING THE STAGE  Europeans also went to Southeast Asia, part of the Pacific Rim, the countries that border the Pacific Ocean  Strategic location to get to China
  41. 41. WESTERN RIVALRIES FOR PACIFIC RIM LANDS  European powers now noticed the importance of the Pacific Rim  British- Singapore  French- Indochina  Germans- New Guinea, Marshall and Solomon islands
  42. 42. PLANTATION PRODUCTS SPUR COMPETITION  Land of Southeast Asia was perfect for planting agriculture  Sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, rubber, coconuts, bananas and pineapples
  43. 43. DUTCH EXPAND CONTROL  Dutch East India Company- expanded rule  Indonesia= then called the Dutch East Indies  Many Dutch settlers came to live in Indonesia  Forced locals to plant 1/5 of their land to export crops
  44. 44. BRITISH TAKE THE MALAYAN PENINSULA  Singapore served as a stopping point to China  Singapore became one of the busiest ports  British gained control of Malaysia and Burma (modern-day Myanmar)  British encouraged Chinese to move to Malay and work, many did, and Malaysians became a minority  Still today conflict exist between the Chinese and Malay
  45. 45. FRENCH CONTROL INDOCHINA  French entered Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia= French Indochina  French imposed culture on the Indochinese  Used direct colonial management  Did not encourage local production  Rice was main export crop  Peasants became angry because all rice was exported and not used to feed native population
  46. 46. COLONIAL IMPACT  Positives:  Economies grew in world market scene  Roads, harbors and rail systems  Education, health and sanitation improved Most of the improvements benefitted the Europeans more than the natives  Negative: Migration of different cultures and racial make-ups resulted in what racial and religious clashes that are still seen today
  47. 47. SIAM MAINTAINS INDEPENDENCE  Siam (Thailand) maintained independence during colonial imperialism  Siam became a neutral zone between British and French, who both held this territory  King Mongkut- king of Siam, started schools, reformed legal system, reorganized government  Local Govt. built their own railroad system and ended slavery  Because modernization came from their own government, they did not experience the negatives of colonial rule
  48. 48. US ACQUIRED PACIFIC ISLANDS  Many Americans did not like the idea of colonial rule, because they were a colony  Others believed it was the destiny of the US to become a world power
  49. 49. THE PHILIPPINES CHANGE HANDS  Spanish American War gave the US: Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico  Philippines did not like trading one imperialistic leader for another  Pilipino leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, said that the US promised the Philippines freedom after war  Pilipino nationalists declared independence and established the Philippine Republic, but the US put down independence and said they would help prepare them for self-rule  Americans exploited the Philippines for crops they wanted
  50. 50. HAWAII BECOMES A REPUBLIC  US had interest in Hawaii for location and sugar  American sugar plantations accounted for 75% of Hawaii’s wealth  Many US business leaders wanted to annex Hawaii to not have to pay heavier import taxes added by the McKinley Tariff Act  Queen Liliuokalani- Hawaiian Queen, she called for more political power but US businessmen plotted and had her removed from office  Sanford Dole, a wealthy plantation owner was named President and he asked for the US to annex Hawaii  At first, President Cleveland refused, but 5 years lasted Hawaii was annexed