African Civilizations & Bantu Migration


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African Civilizations & Bantu Migration

  1. 1. 1500 BC- 500 AD African Civilizations Chapter 8:1-3
  2. 2. In Your Notes: • Check to make sure you have all main ideas that are underlined in your notes. If you do not, add them. If you do, mark/circle them to find them more easily.
  3. 3. Section 1: Diverse Societies in Africa • Main Idea= African peoples developed diverse societies as they adapted to varied environments • Why it matters now? Differences among modern societies are also based on people’s interactions with their environments • THEMES: how geography affects societies
  4. 4. Setting the Stage • “Geography is the mother of history” • First human inhabitants • Early civilizations: Egypt, Carthage and Kush
  5. 5. Geography • Second largest continent in the world • Occupies 1/5 of the earth’s land surfaces • Coastline has few harbors and ports • Africa lies on the equator (tropics) • From plains to snowy mountains • From drought to rainfall • From rocky to rain forests
  6. 6. From Deserts to Rain Forests • Desert makes up 40% of continent • Deserts can reach 136 degrees • Sahara and Kalahari Deserts • Rainforests- ½ of the middle of Africa
  7. 7. From Fertile Farmlands to Grassy Plains • Fertile land on the northern and southern tips • Largest amount of people live on the savannas (grassy plains) • Savannas cover 40% of continent • Desertification= a transformation from fertile land into desert
  8. 8. Early Humans Adapt to Environment • People moved outward from the area’s first migration and adapting to the different geography • Developed technologies to adapt
  9. 9. Nomadic Lifestyles • Roamed for food • Still nomadic hunter-gatherers roaming Africa today • Eventually, domesticated animals • Many modern Africans are pastoral herders
  10. 10. Transition to a Settled Lifestyle • Agriculture probably began in 10,000 BC • To survive many moved to the Nile Valley and into West Africa • Savannas had the best agricultural lands • With an increased amount of food, some could practice other activities (metal, pottery, jewelry)
  11. 11. Crash Course: Agricultural Revolution
  12. 12. Organizing Africa • Different activities led to organizing into communities with simple governments • Village chief • Centralized powers • These communities developed into great kingdoms
  13. 13. *African Common Characteristics • 1. Importance of basic social unit, the family – Extended family – Clan= a group that shared common ancestors • 2. Belief in one creator, or god – Animism= religion in which spirits played an important role in regulating life – Spirits sent to animals, plants and natural forces • 3. Oral stories kept history alive – Griots= storytellers
  14. 14. Early Societies in West Africa • How we know about Africa? – *oral history – Recent archaeology findings
  15. 15. Djenne-Djeno • *Djenne= ancient city in Africa, objects dated from 250 BC, oldest known city in Africa south of the Sahara • Uncovered in 1977 • Excavated a huge mound with hundreds of thousands of artifacts • 50,000 residents • Knew how to smelt iron • Houses of mud bricks • Trading center
  16. 16. The Nok Culture • Nok= earliest known Western African culture • Present day Nigeria • 500- 250 BC Farmers • *First people to know how to smelt iron • Might have taught Djenne people • Might be direct ancestors of some modern Africans
  17. 17. Section 2: The Kingdom of Aksum & East African Trade • Main Idea: The kingdom of Aksum became an international trading power and adopted Christianity • Why it matters now? Ancient Aksum, which is now Ethiopia, is still a center of Eastern Christianity • THEMES: religion spread through trade
  18. 18. Setting the Stage • Before Nok, Kush in the east was powerful enough to conquer Egypt • Assyrians came in and drove Kushites south • Kush remained powerful until it was conquered by another more powerful kingdom
  19. 19. The Rise of the Kingdom of Aksum • Aksum= kingdom located in modern day Ethiopia • Legend traces back to King Solomon of ancient Israel • May have begun when Arab people crossed the Red Sea into Africa • Mingled with Kushites and passed along their written language, skills with stone and building aqueducts
  20. 20. Aksum Controls International Trade • Location made it an important trading center • Red Sea coastline gave it influence over sea trade on the Med. Sea & Indian Ocean • Along caravan route to Egypt and Meroe • Adulis= Aksum’s chief seaport • *International trading power • Traded: salt, rhino horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds, gold
  21. 21. A Strong Ruler Expands the Kingdom • Ezana= great ruler that brought the kingdom of Aksum to its height • Conquered Yemen, then Kush • Burned Meroe to the ground
  22. 22. A Cosmopolitan Culture Develops • Aksumites had a diverse culture • Adulis (port) was cosmopolitan – Included people from: Egypt, Arabia, Greece, Rome, Persia, Indian and Byzantium • Out of all the languages of Aksum, *Greek stood out as the international language of the time
  23. 23. Spread of Christianity • One god= Mahrem • Believed their king was directly descended from him • Animists, honored nature and dead ancestors • Offered sacrifices to those spirits, Mahrem and the Greek god of war, Ares • Christianity spread from trade
  24. 24. Split over Christianity • Dispute: nature of Christ, whether he was divine, human or both • Coptic Church of Egypt and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (22 million members) formed
  25. 25. Aksumite Architecture • Used stone instead of mud bricks • Carved stone to fit perfectly
  26. 26. Language & Agriculture • Askum was the only ancient African kingdom known to have *developed a written language • First south of the Sahara to mint coins • Terrace farming • Dug canals to bring in water, dams, holding tanks to store water
  27. 27. The Fall of Aksum • Lasted 800 years • Declined under invaders who practiced Islam • Muslims conquered and spread religion along as they went • Ports were cut off, and the kingdom declined in international power
  28. 28. Section 3: Bantu Speaking Peoples • Main Idea: Throughout history, people have been driven to uproot themselves and explore their world • Why it matters now? Migration continues to shape the modern world • Theme: Migration
  29. 29. *Causes for Migrations • Environmental changes • Economic pressure • Political and religious persecution • Technological development • Best way to study patterns of movement is to study the movement of languages
  30. 30. Massive Migrations • *900 languages in the Niger-Congo all stemmed from the parent language, Proto-Bantu • Bantu-speaking peoples • Bantu= “people” • Bantu went south spreading their language
  31. 31. Bantu Language
  32. 32. Bantu Culture • Not one people but a group of people • Nomads • Skill of ironworking* • Spread their skills • Within 1500 years they were able to reach the southern tip of Africa
  33. 33. *Why did the Bantu migrate? • 1. Agriculture fed more people and therefore population increased and they had to move (not enough land to go around) • 2. Advancing Sahara Desert (desertification) • 3. War between tribes
  34. 34. *Effects of the Bantu Migration • Spread of culture • Intermingling and intermarrying • Were a unifying influence throughout Africa
  35. 35. “Guns, Germs & Steel: Bantu & Ancient Africa”