Classroom research error correction (2)
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Classroom research error correction (2)

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here is the ppt for chapter 4 - Part 1.

here is the ppt for chapter 4 - Part 1.

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  • Differences in auditory processing by Lesley Lahir (MET 2005)


  • 1. Group 7
    • Chapter 4
    • Classroom Research – Interaction Analysis
    • Group Members…
    • ~ Anita PGP110010
    • ~Cassandra PGP110022
    • ~Safiyah PGP110009
  • 2.  
  • 3. Doing Second language research: Chapter 4 Classroom Research Interaction Analysis
  • 4.
    • Wilson Mizner, 1876-1933 ( an American dramatist and wit)
    • . ……If you steal from another author it’s plagiarism: if you steal from many, it’s researc h
    Marson Bates, 1906-1974 ( an American writer) … .. is what I’m doing when I don’t know what I’m doing
  • 5. Research
  • 6.
    • Classroom refers to a wide range of learning contexts where learners and teachers meet in the context of second language acquisition
    • ex: classes in school, one-to-one tutoring, distance learning, multi media labs and so on
    Classroom Research
  • 7.
    • Is a study/research on the interaction between teachers and learners or learners and learners in classroom.
    • The term interaction is used with a variety of senses and has been used with respect to
    • - theories of linguistics, models of second language acquisition, instructional exchanges between T&L, task completion conversation between L&L and the internal conversations between authors & readers.
    Classroom interaction research
  • 8.
    • 1. Go to schools
    • 2. Collecting data from your own classes
    • 3. Doing a recording or videos featuring a lot of schools
    • 4. Generating classroom interaction data in the roles of teachers and learners
    Ways to carry out classroom research
  • 9. Teacher interactions with learners
    • Teacher questions
    • Teacher error corrections
    • Quantity of teacher speech
    • Teacher explanations
    • Teacher ‘wait-time’ for student response.
  • 10. Type of errors
    • Phonological
    • Lexical
    • Morph/Syntatic
    • Discourse
    • Dialect
    • Content
  • 11. The cause for errors in SLA ( Differences in auditory processing by Lesley Lahir)
    • 1. Auditory (verbal) / semantic memory
    • memorizing words, recalling
    • sentences and passages, word
    • retrieval, remembering verbal
    • sequences
    • 2 . The phonological system
    • language sounds ( phoneme )
    • discrimination, phonological
    • awareness ( identifying rhymes,
    • syllables, beginnings and endings
    • sounds of words), grapheme and
    • phoneme associations ( linking letters
    • to their sounds)
    • 3. Morphology and semantics
    • vocabulary acquisition,
    • understanding word meanings
    • 4 . Syntax
    • sentence comprehension, interpreting word order and grammar, recollection or recognition of grammar rules
    • 5. Discourse
    • producing extended language orally and in writing, starting, ordering and developing concluding thoughts, overall language comprehension
  • 12. Teacher corrections to errors
    • Models correct form
    • Drills correct form
    • Repeats faulty form
    • Prompts correct form
    • Explains correct form
    • (Re)states question/prompt
    • Tells students what to say
    • Reduces directions
    • Expands directions
  • 13. Error Correction (Corrective Feedback Types) A classroom research study on Oral Error Correction (Coskun, 2010)
    • 1. Explicit correction : Clearly indicating that the student's utterance was incorrect, the teacher provides the correct form.
    • S: there is a little milk in fridge.
    • T: + in the fridge
    • 2. Recast : The teacher implicitly reformulates the student's error, or provides the correction without directly pointing out that the student's utterance was incorrect.
    • S: he like pop-music. T: yes, he likes pop-music
    • 3. Clarification request : The teacher indicates that the message has not been understood or that the student's utterance included some kind of mistake and that a repetition or a reformulation is needed by using phrases like "Excuse me?".
    • S: there aren’t many / hotıls / in this town. T: again? ♪
  • 14. Corrective Feedback Types (Part 2)
    • 4. Metalinguistic clues : The teacher poses questions like “Do we say it like that?” or provides comments or information related to the formation of the student's utterance without providing the correct form.
    • S: there isn’t any books. T: + there isn’t görünce uncountable, yani sayılamayan bir şey kullanmamız gerekiyormuş. Ds: there isn’t any money
    • 5. Elicitation : The teacher directly elicits the correct form from the student by asking questions (e.g., "How do I ask somebody to clean the board?"), by pausing to allow the student to complete the teacher's utterance (e.g., "He is a good…") or by asking students to reformulate the utterance (e.g., "Can you say that again?").
    • S: there are a few books in my /lıbrari/
    • ♪  T: in my…?
    • 6. Repetition : The teacher repeats the student's error and changes intonation to draw student's attention to it.
    • S: How much money do you have in your / pakıt /? T: /pakıt/? ♪ DS: /pokıt/ T: yes
  • 15. Learner to learner interactions - Another major type of classroom interaction
  • 16. Leaner to learner interactions…
    • Pair and group work involvement where cooperative learning happens.
    • “ Cooperative learning is group-learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in group and in which each learner is held accountable for his/her own learning of others.” (Olsen & Kagan 1992:8)
  • 17.
    • What happen during a pair work/group work discussion?
    • - learners communicating in a cooperative way.
    • - they learn from each other in groups.
    • - students learn collaborative and social skills.
    • “ Indeed, cooperation is not only a way of learning, but also a theme to be communicated about and studied.” – Jacobs 1998
  • 18. Compiling Classroom Research Data
    • Data are recorded during classroom observation through:
    • Recording - observation
    • Take down notes - coding system
    • These data will be compile for analysis by transcribing:
    • data from the recoding
    • Notes
    • and through visual observation.
  • 19. Analyzing classroom interaction data
    • What do we look for in the data?
    • (Nunan 1989:26)
    • ...teacher talk took up 89% of classroom verbal interaction time.
    • … 91% of the time, teachers already knew the answers to the questions they were asking.
  • 20.
    • From the data we have gathered, few questions could be observed:
    • How is talk time divided between teachers and learners?
    • How self-aware are teachers of how they use language in their interactions with their students?
  • 21. Reference
    • Videos:
    • Books and articles:
    • Lahir, L. (2011,January). Differences in auditory processing.  Modern English Teachers, 20 (1), 73-78.
  • 22.
    • Deterding, D. (2005, September). Listening to Estuary English in Singapore.  TESOL Quarterly, 3 (3), 425-439.
    • Coskum, A. ( 2010, June). A classroom research study on Oral Error Correction. Retrieved from
    • Brown, J.D. (2009). Doing second language research. Oxford University Press.(pp. 79-91).